Fractography: Observing, Measuring and Interpreting Fracture Surface Topography

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, 1999 M09 23 - 366 pages
Fracture surfaces are produced by breaking a solid. The appearance of the surface, particularly the topography, depends on the type of material - metal, polymer, ceramic, biomaterial, composite, rock - and on the conditions under which it was broken - stress (tensile, shear, creep, fatigue, impact), temperature, environment (air, water, oil, acid), etc. This 1999 book describes ways of studying the surface topography, and the interpretation of the topographical features in terms of the microstructure and the way it was tested. Fractography has numerous applications in a range of materials, and is particularly relevant in materials science and to inter-disciplinary subjects involving materials science, including physics, chemistry, engineering, biomimetics, earth sciences, biology and archaeology. This book provides the basis for an understanding of deformation and fracture in all solids, for interpreting fracture surface topography, and for the design of clear and unambiguous experiments involving many aspects of fracture in a wide range of solids.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

User Review - Flag as inappropriate

FRACTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Contents

Introduction to the concepts used in the observation measurement and interpretation of fracture surface topography
1
12 Some scaling issues
6
122 Fractal geometry
10
123 Microstructural dimensions and stress fields
12
13 What is a crack?
14
14 The origin of cracks
17
142 Nucleation of cracks by deformation
18
143 Other aspects of crack nucleation
21
65 River lines on calcite
171
66 Interpretation of interference patterns on fracture surfaces
175
661 Interference at blisters and wedges
176
662 Interference at fracture surfaces of polymers that have crazed
178
663 Transient fracture surface features
180
672 Determining the orientation of cleavage facets
181
673 Rough surfaces
182
68 Cleavage of bcc metals including steel and the stress intensity effect
183

15 Mechanics and micromechanics of cracks
23
152 Stress fields around an elliptical hole and a crack
25
Griffith and Irwin
28
154 Other topics
32
Observing describing and measuring fracture surface topography some basics using Ketton stone as an example
35
22 A brief look at the past
37
24 Hookes observations
44
25 Light microscopy
45
252 General
46
253 Resolution and depth of field
47
254 Geometrical considerations
50
255 Illumination
51
26 Optical sections and quantitative descriptions of topographical detail
52
27 Confocal scanning light microscopy
56
283 Resolution magnification and depth of field
62
29 SEM and Ketton stone
64
210 Other experimental procedures for investigating fracture surfaces
68
Tilting cracks
69
32 Modes of loading
74
33 The geometrical constraint
76
332 Growth of cracks to form smooth surfaces
79
333 Experimental observation of crack expansion
80
34 Growth or evolution of a crack under mixed III conditions
81
35 Cracks round bends
87
River line patterns
91
42 Development of river line patterns on crystalline cleavage facets
94
422 Increasing step height in crystalline solids
102
Sommers experiment
103
431 Sommers experiment
104
44 Measurement of surface topography using interference light microscopy
109
45 Examples of river lines in a variety of solids
113
46 Nucleation of river line steps
117
47 Separation at the steps
118
Mirror mist and hackle surface roughness crack velocity and dynamic stress intensity
121
52 Surface topography from the measurement of roughness profiles
129
522 Roughness measurements
131
523 Roughness parameters
134
53 Some examples of changes in roughness with Kd and r
136
54 Origins of roughness
139
541 Nucleation and growth of microcracks ahead of the growing crack
140
542 Plastic deformation ahead of the growing crack
142
543 Progressive and increasing microbranching leading to macrobranching and bifurcation
144
55 Correlation of AFM images and topographical detail
147
56 Direct observation of progressive roughening
150
Cleavage of crystalline solids
157
62 Some crystallographic aspects
160
63 Cleavage of mica
163
64 Fracture of zinc
166
681 Cleavage along twinmatrix interfaces
184
682 Progressive roughening
186
69 Quantitative stereomicroscopy and the determination of the orientation of planar facets
187
610 Cleavage fracture of polycrystalline materials
191
Chapter 7 Fracture at interfaces
195
72 Interface and interphase fracture
198
73 Replica techniques in fractography
204
interfaces and interphases
207
intergranular fracture
211
motherofpearl
213
77 Interface fracture and microstructural detail
214
Aspects of ductile fracture
219
82 Necking and drawing of metals and polymers
223
822 Plane stress and plane strain
225
823 Cold drawing of polymers
228
83 Cupandcone fractures
230
84 Nucleation of holes
235
842 Fibrillation in polymers
241
843 Crazing and fracture
242
844 Shear bands in amorphous metals metallic glasses
243
85 Ductile fracture at the tip of a growing crack
244
852 Separation processes at the crack tip
247
87 Topographical characterisation of conjugate fracture surfaces
253
Crack dynamic effects
259
92 Wallner lines and stress wave fractography
263
922 Stress wave fractography
267
923 Other methods of measuring the speed of cracks
270
924 Other Wallnerline effects
272
stopgo
273
94 Crack front striations generated by a crack growing under cyclic loading
279
942 Shrinkagedriven cracking
283
95 Transient topographical detail and environmental effects
287
952 Effect of environment on the mechanisms of crack nucleation and growth
289
953 Chemical changes
291
Applications of fractography
293
102 Microstructural analysis
296
1021 Materials that are relatively brittle at ambient temperatures
297
1022 Microstructure of soft materials
301
103 Development of new materials and improvement of existing materials
309
1032 The toughness of composite materials
312
104 Diagnostic tool in failure analysis
327
1042 Some examples
332
1043 Case study of the failure of a storage tank
335
Interpretation of Fig 11 the fracture surface of a general purpose grade polystyrene
339
References
345
Index
359
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 349 - Griggs, D., and J. Handin, Observations on fracture and a hypothesis of earthquakes, in Rock Deformation, Geol.
Page 345 - MF Ashby, FJ Blunt, and M. Bannister, "Flow Characteristics of Highly Constrained Metal Wires," Acta Metall., 37 [7] (1989), 1847-1857.

Bibliographic information