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§ 3332. This title applies to civil cases oniy.- Ex. cept as otherwise expressly prescribed therein, this title does not apply to a service rendered in a criminal action or special proceeding, in a court or before an officer.

How.

CHAPTER XXII.

DEFINITIONS AND REGULATIONS CONCERNING

THE CONSTRUCTION, EFFECT, AND APFLICA. TION OF THIS ACT.

TITLE I - GENERAL DEFINITIONS, AND RULES OF

CONSTRUCTION, TITLE II. - PROVISIONS REGULATING THE EFFECT

AND APPLICATION OF THIS ACT.

TITLE I.

General definitions, and rules of construction.

SEC. 3333. Definition of "action".

3334. Id. ; special proceeding.".
3335, Division of actions into civil and criminal
3336. Detinition of criminal action".
3337. Il.; "civil action".
3338. Parties to a civil action.
3339. Only one form of civil action,
3340. Rule of construction as to publication, etc., in certain casog
3311. Id.; as to certain special provisions relating to New York

city.
3342. Id.; as to county court.
3343. Miscellaneous general definitions and rules of construction.

3333. Definition of "action". The word "action", as used in the New Revision of the Statutes, when ap plied to judicial proceedings, signifies an ordinary prosecution, in a court of justice, by a party against another party, for the enforcement or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offence.

Code of Proc., 82. People v. Judge of Rens. Co., 13 How. 398: People v. Chadborne, 20 How. Pr. 378.

§ 3334. Id.; "special proceeding.". - Every other prosecution by a party, for either of the purposes sport fied in the last section, is a special proceeding. Id., 3. Belknap v. Waters, 11 N. Y. 477.

$ 3335. Division of actions into civil and criminal. - Actions are of two kinds : 1. Civil. 2. Criminal. Id., & 4.

3336. Definition of " criminal action ".- A crim. inal action is prosecuted by the people of the State, as a party, against a person charged with a public offence, for the punishment thereof. Id., 85.

3337. Id.; "civil action". -Every other action is a civil action. Id., 86.

§ 3338. Parties to a civil action. - The party prosecuting, a civil action is styled the plaintiff ; the adverse party is styled the defendant. Id., 870

§ 3339. Only one form of civil action. - There is only one form of civil action. The distinction between actions at law and suits in equity, aud the forms of those actions and suits, have been abolished, Id., & 69.

§ 3340. Rule of construction as to publication, etc. in certain cases.- Each provision of this act, requiring the publication of a summons, notice, or other paper, in one or more newspapers, or authorizing or requiring a court, or a judge, to designate one or more news. papers, in which such a publication must be made, or requiring the posting of a notice or other paper, is to be construed as not affecting any special provision of the statutes, remaining unrepealed after the former provision takes effect, prescribing one or more particular newspapers, in which such a publication must or may be made, or one or more particular places in which notices or other legal papers must or may be posted, in a particular locality, or in a particular case. New.

3341. Id.; as to certain special provisions relato Ing to New-York city.- Each provision of this act is to be construed as not affecting any special provision of the statates, remaining unrepealed after the former

provision takes effect, which is applicable exclusively to an action against the mayor, aldermen, and common alty of the city of New-York, including the recovery, entry, and collection of a judgment in such an action.

New.

$ 3342. Id.; as to county court.- Each provision of this act conferring power upon, or authorizing a pro ceeding to be taken at, a general, special, or trial term, which is applicable to a county court, is to be construed as applying to any term of the county court, held pur. suant to an appointment made as prescribed by law. New.

$ 3343. Miscellaneous general definitions and rules of construction.— In construing this act, the following rules must be observed, except where a contrary intent is expressly declared in the provision to be construed, or plainly apparent from the context thereof:

1. [Subdiv, 1 repealed Jan. 1, 1896; L. 1895, ch. 946.)

2. The word, “mandate,” includes a writ, process, or other written direction, issued pursuant to law, out of a court, or made pursuant to law, by a court, or a judge, or a person acting as a judicial officer, and command. ing a court, board, or other body, or an officer, or other person, named or otherwise designated therein, to do, or to refrain from doing, an act therein specified.

3. The word, “judge”, includes a justice, surrogate, recorder, justice of the peace, or other judicial officer, authorized or required to act, or prohibited from acting, in or with respect to the matter or thing, referred to in the provision wherein that word is used.

4. The word, “clerk”, signifies the clerk of the court, wherein the action or special proceeding is brought, or wherein, or by whose authority, the act is to be done, which is referred to in the provision in which it is used. If the action or special proceeding is brought, or the act is to be done, in or by the authority of the supreme court, it signifies the clerk of the county wherein the action or special proceeding is triable, or the act is to be done,

5. The word, “report”, when used in connection with a trial, or other inquiry, or a judgment, means a referee's report; and the word “decision", when used in the same connection, means the decision of the court upon a hearing, or the trial of an issue, before the court, without a jury.

6, 7, 8. Repealed, 1892, Ch. 677; ante, li.

9. A “personal injury” includes libel, slander, crim. iral conversation, seduction, and malicious prosecution; also an assault, battery, false imprisonment, or other actionable injury to the person either of the plaintiff, or of another.

10. An“ injury to property” is an actionable act, whereby the estate of another is lessened, other than a personal injury, or the breach of a contract.

11. The word, “affidavit”, includes a verified pleading in an action, or a verified petition or answer in a special proceeding.

12. A warrant of attachment against property is said to be “annulled”, when the action, in which it was granted, abates or is discontinued ; or a final judgment, rendered therein in favor of the plaintiff, is fully paid; or a final judgment is rendered therein in favor of the defendant. But, in the case last specified, a stay of proceedings suspends the effect of the annulment, and the reversal or vacating of the judgment revives the warrant.

13. The term, “judgment creditor", signifies the person who is entitled to collect, or otherwise enforce, in his own right, a judgment for a sum of money, or die recting the payment of a sum of money.

14. A “judgment creditor's action is an action brought as prescribed in article first of title fourth or chapter fifteenth of this act, or any other action, brought by a judgment creditor to aid the collection of a judgment for a sum of money, or directing the pay ment of a sum of money.

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