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SECTION 25. Year.

26. Month.
27. Day; mode of computing days; night-time.
28. Standard time.
29. Civil and criminal codes.
30. Laws of England and of the colony of New York.
31. Limiting the effect of repealing statutes.
32. Effect of repeal and re-enactment.
33. Effect of revision upon laws passed at same ees.

sion or before revision takes effect.
34. Alterations of titles and head notes.
35. Laws repealed.
36. Time of taking effect.

SECTION 1. Short title; extent of application.—This chapter shall be known as the statutory construction law, and is applicable to every statute unless its general object, or the context of the language construed, or other provisions of law indicate that a different meaning or application was intended from that required to be given by this chapter.

§ 2. Property.—The term property includes real and personal property.

§ 3. Real property.--The term real property includes real estate, lands, tenements and hereditaments, corporeal and incorporeal.

§ 4. Personal property.–The term personal property includes chattels, money, things in action, and all written instruments themselves, as distinguished from the rights or interests to which they relate, by which any right, interest, lien or incumbrance in, to or upon property, or any debt or financial obligation is created, acknowledged, evidenced, transferred, discharged or defeated, wholly or in part, and everything, except real property, which may be the subject of ownership. The term chattels includes goods and chattels.

$ 5. Person.--The term person includes a corporation and a joint stock association. When used to designate a party whose property may be the subject of any offense, the term person also includes the state, or any other state, government or country which may lawfully own property in the state

$ 6. Judge.—The term judge includes every judicial officer authorized, alone or with others, to hold or pre. side over a court of record.

$ 7. Lunacy; idiocy.-The terms lunatic and lunacy include every kind of unsoundness of mind except idiocy.

$ 8. Gender; number; tense.-Words of the mascu. line gender include the feminine and the neuter, and may refer to a corporation, or to a board or other body or assemblage of persons; and, when the sense so in. dicates, words of the neuter gender may refer to any gender. The term men includes boys and the term women includes girls.

Words in the singular number include the plural, and in the plural number include the singular.

Words in the present tense include the future.

§ 9. Heretofore; hereafter; now. - Each of the terms, heretofore, and hereafter, in any provision of a statute, relates to the time such provision takes effect. The term now in any provision of a statute referring to other laws in force, or to persons in office, or to any facts or circumstances as existing, relates to the laws in force, or the person in office, or to the facts or circum. stances existing, respectively, immediately before the taking effect of such provision.

$ 10. Last; preceding; next; following.--A reference to the last or preceding section, or other provision of a statute, means the section or other division im. mediately preceding, and a reference to the next or following section or other division of a statute means the section or other division immediately following.

$ 11. Folio.-A folio is one hundred words, counting as a word each figure necessarily used.

$ 12. Writing; signature. The terms writing and written include every legible representation of letters upon a material substance, except when applied to the signature of an instrument. The term signature includes any memorandum, mark or sign, written placed upon any instrument or writing with intent to execute or authenticate such instrument or writing.

$ 13. Seal.— The private seal of a person, other than a corporation, to any instrument or writing shall consist of a wafer, wax or other similar adhesive substance affixed thereto, or of paper or other similar substance


affixed thereto, by mucilage or other adhesive sube stance, or of the word " seal,” or the letters "L. S., opposite the signature.

À seal of a court, public officer or corporation may be impressed directly upon the instrument or writing to be sealed, or upon wafer, wax or other adhesive sub. stance affixed thereto, or upon paper or other similar substance affixed thereto by mucilage or other adhe. sive substance. An instrument or writing duly exe. cuted, in the corporate name of a corporation, which shall not have adopted a corporate seal, by the proper officers of the corporation under their private seals, shall be deemed to have been executed under the cor. porate seal.

$ 14. Oath; affidavit; swear.—The term oath and affidavit include every mode authorized by law of attest. ing the truth of that which is stated.

The term swear includes every mode authorized by law for adininistering an oath. When an affidavit is authorized or required it may be sworn to before any officer authorized by law to take the acknowledgment of deeds in this staie, unless a particular officer is speci. fied before whom it is to be taken.

$ 15. Acknowledge; acknowledgment. When the execution of any instrument or writing is authorized or required by law to be acknowledged, or to be proven so as to entitle it to be filed or recorded in a public office, the acknowledgment may be taken or the proof made before any officer then and there authorized to take the ackvowledgment or proof of the execution of a deed of real property to entitle it to be recorded in a county clerk's office, and shall be made and certified in the same manner as such acknowledgment or proof of such deed.

The term acknowledge and acknowledgment, when used with reference to the execution of an instrument or writing other than a deed of real property, includes a compliance with the provisions of this section by either such proof or acknowledgment.

$ 16. Bonds; undertaking.-A provision of law authorizing or requiring a bond to be given shall be deemed to have been complied with by the execution of an undertaking to the same effect.

§ 17. Choose: elect; appoint.-The term choose in. cludes elect and appoint.

& 18. Board composed of one person.--A reference to several officers of a municipal corporation holding the same office, or to a board of such officers, shall be deemed to refer to the single officer bolding such office, when but one person is chosen to fill such office in pursuance of law.

8 19. Meeting; quorum; powers of majority.Whenever three or more public officers are given any power or authority, or three or more persons are charged with any public duty to be performed or exercised by them jointly or as a board or similar body, a majority of all such persons or officers at a meeting duly held at a time fixed by law, or by any bg-law duly adopted by such board or body, or at any duly adjourned meeting of such meeting, or at any meeting duly held upon reasonable notice to all of them, may perform and exercise such power, authority or duty, and if one or more of such persons or officers shall have died or have become mentally incapable of acting, or shall refuse or neglect to attend any such meeting, a majority or the whole number of such persons or officers shail be a quorum of such board or body, and a majority of a quorum, if not less than a majority of the whole number of such per sons or officers may perform and exercise any such power authority or duty. Any such meeting may be adjourned by a less number than a quorum. A recital in any order, resolution or other record of any proceed. ing of such a meeting that such meeting had been so held or adjourned, or that it had been held upon such notice to the members, shall be presumptive evidencs thereof.

& 20. Service of notice upon body or board. When a notice is required to be given to a board or body, ser. vice of such notice upon the clerk or chairman thereof shall be sufficient.

8 21. County clerk; register.— Any act done in par. suance of law by the register of a county shall be deemed to be a compliance with any provision of law authoriz. ing or requiring such act to be done by the county clerk of such county, and any instrument or writing filed. entered or recorded in pursuance of law in the office of a register of a county, shall be deemed to be a compli

ance with any provision of law authorizing or requiring such paper to be filed, entered or recorded, as the case may be, in the office of the clerk of such county.

$ 22. Village.—The term village means an incorpo. rated village.

$ 23. State; territory.–The term state, when used generally to include every state of the United States, includes also every territory of the United States and the District of Columbia. The term territory when used generally to include every territory of the United States, includes also the District of Columbia.

S 24. Public holiday; half-holiday.-The term holi. day jucludes the following days in each year: The first day of January, known as New Year's day: the twentysecond day of February, known as Washington's birthday; the thirtieth day of May, known as memorial day; the fourth day of July, known as independence day; the first Monday of September, known as labor day, and the twenty-fifth day of December, known as Christmas day, and if either of such days is Sunday, the next day there. after; each general election day and each day appointed by the president of the United States or by the governor of this state as a day of thanksgiving, general fasting and prayer, or other general religious observance.

The term half-holiday includes the period from noon to midnight of each Saturday which is not a holiday.

§ 25. Year.-Time shall continue to be computed in this state according to the Gregorian or new style. The first day of each year after the year 1752 is the first day of January, according to such style. For the purpose of computing and reckoning the days of the year in the same regular course in the future, every year, the num. ber of which in the Christian era is a multiple of four, is a bisextile or leap year consisting of three hundred and sixty-six days, unless such number of the year is a multiple of one hundred and the first two figures thereof treated as a separate number is not a multiple of four, and every year which is not a leap year is a common year consisting of three hundred and sixty-five days.

The term year in a statute, contract, or any public or private instrument, means three hundred and sixty-five days, but the added day of a leap year and the day im. mediately preceding shall for the purpose of such com. putation be counted as one day.

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