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not confidently expected relief from the militia, who had been called out by Governor Rutledge, and by whose assistance he imagined that he could, if reduced to extremity, have effected a retreat, by crossing Cooper's river.

enforcement of 3000 men from New York. The garrison having no reasonable hope of effecting a retreat, by advice of a council of war, called on the 21st of April, an offer was made for surrendering the town on certain conditions; but those conditions were instantly rejected by the British commanders. The besiegers in the mean time were daily advancing their works, and their third parallel was completed on the 6th of May. On the same day, the garrison of Fort Moultrie surrended to Captain Hudson of the royal navy; Colonel Pinckney with 150 of the men under his command having been withdrawn from that post to Charleston. On the same day also, the broken remains of the American cavalry under Colonel White were again surprised by Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton on the banks of the Santee; and the whole either killed, taken or dispersed. Sir Henry Clinton, while thus successful in every operation, began a correspondence with General Lincoln, and renewed his former offers to the garrison, in case of their surrender; but the terms, so far as they respected the citizens, being not satisfactory, the garrison recommended hostilities. The Brit ish batteries of the third parallel now opened on the town, and did great execution. Shells and carcasses were thrown into almost all parts of the town; and several houses were burned. The Hessian yagers, posted advantageously, fired their rifles with such effect, that numbers of the besieged were killed at their guns; and scarcely any escaped, who showed themselves over the lines. During this fire, which continued two days without intermission, the besiegers gained the counterscarp of the work that flanked the canal; passed the canal itself; and, advancing within 25 yards of the American works, prepared to make a general assault by land and water, The siege having been protracted until the 11th, a great number of citizens of Charleston on that day addressed General Lincoln in a petition; requesting his acceptance of the terms which had been offered. The general wrote to Sir Henry Clinton, offering to accept those terms, and received a favorable answer. A capitulation was signed on the 12th of May; and the next day Major General Leslie took possession of the town.The loss of the king's troops, during the siege, was 76 killed, and 140 wounded. The loss of the Americans was 89 killed, and 140 wounded. Upwards of 400 pieces of artillery were surrendered. By the articles of capitulation the garrison were to march out of town and to deposit their arms in front of the works: bus the drums were not to beat a British march, nor the colors to be uncased.

The continental troops and seamen were to keep their baggage, and remain prisoners

Why did Linco!n shut himself up

in Charleston?

But the few, who, in this hour of difficulty, advanced to his aid, were cut off or kept in check; and the river was possessed by the enemy. In these distressful circumstances, after sustaining a bombardment which set the town on fire in different places, on the 12th of May, he surrendered on a capitulation, the principal terms of which were, that the militia were to be permitted to return to their respective homes, as prisoners on parole, and while they adhered to their parole, were not to be molested in person or property. The same conditions were also imposed on all the inhabitants of the town, civil as well as military.

Sir Henry Clinton now addressed himself to the important work of re-establishing the royal authority in the province; as a preliminary step to which, on the 1st of June, he issued a proclamation, offering to the inhabitants at large, on condition of their submission, pardon for their past offences, a re-instatement in their rights, and, what was of the most weighty importance, exemption from taxation, except from their own legislature. This proclamation was followed up by the posting of garrisons in different parts of the country, to protect the loyal and to awe the disaffected, and by the march of 2000 men towards

of war until exchanged. The militia were to be permitted to return home as prisoners on parole; and, while they should adhere to their parole, were not to be molested by the British troops, in person or property.

The inhabitants of all conditions were to be considered as prisoners on parole, and to hold their property on the same terms with the militia. The officers of the army and navy were to retain their servants, swords, pistols, and baggage unsearched. The number of persons who surrendered prisoners of war, inclusive of the militia and every adult male inhabitant, was above 5000; but the proper garrison did not exceed 2500. The number of privates in the continental army was 1977, of whom 500 were in the hospitals.”

On what conditions was the town, &c. surrendered?
What was done on the 1st of June?
With what was this proclamation followed up?

North Carolina, on whose advance the American forces, who hąd tardily marched from that province to the relief of Charleston, retreated with loss. Thus crowned with success, Clinton, early in June, embarked, with the principal part of his forces, for New York, having delegated the completion of the subjugation of South Carolina to Lord Cornwallis, to whom he apportioned, for that purpose, an army of 4000 men.

SECTION XXX.

DEFEAT OF GATES'S ARMY, BY LORD CORNWALLIS, 15TH OF

AUGUST, 1780.

When Lord Cornwallis took the command in South Carolina, the insurgents had no army in the field within 400 miles of that province, and the great body of the inhabitants had submitted either as prisoners or as subjects; and had they been suffered to remain in this state of quiet neutrality, they would have been happy to abide in peace the issue of the contest in the northern States. But his Lordship's instructions did not permit him to be contented with this passive obedience, and he proceeded to take measures to compel the South Carolinians to take up arms against their countrymen. With this view, he issued a proclamation, absolving from their parole all the inhabitants who had bound themselves by that obligation, and restoring them “to all the rights and duties belonging to citizens. What

Where did Clinton go in June?
Under whose command did he leave the remaining forces ?
At this time what was the situation of the American army in the southern

States?
What did Lord Cornwallis proceed to compel the South Carolinians to do?
With this view what did he do?

day of trial.

was meant by the ominous word duties' was explained by another part of the proclamation, whereby it was declared, “that it was proper for all persons to take an active part in settling and securing his majesty's government, and that whoever should neglect so to do should be treated as rebels. The Carolinians were indignant at this violation of the terms of their submission. Many of them resumed their arms; and though more, under the impression of fear, enrolled themselves as subjects, they brought to the royal cause a hollow allegiance, which could not be trusted in the

A considerable number quitted the province, and hastened to join the army

which

congress was raising for the purpose of wresting it out of the hands of the enemy

In organizing this force, congress had to struggle with the greatest difficulties. Their treasury was exhausted, and they were at this time occupied in making an equitable adjustment as to their paper money, on the strength of which they had undertaken the war, and which was now depreciated to the amount of forty for one—that is, one silver dollar was worth forty American paper dollars. Whilst their currency was in this state they were perpetually embarrassed in their purchases of arms, clothing, and stores; and when they had raised the men for the southern army, some time elapsed before they could procure the necessary funds to put them in motion. These difficulties being at length overcome, the Maryland and Delaware troops were sent forward, and began their march in high spirits on learning that the expedition, of which they formed a part, was to be commanded by General Gates. The hero of

What was meant by the word " duties"?
What effect had this proceeding on the Carolinians?
What were the difficulties with which congress had to struggle?
What troops were sent forward? Under whose command?

Saratoga, on joining the army in North Carolina, was advised to proceed to the southward by a circuitous rout, where he would find plenty of provisions; but, conceiving it to be his duty to hasten with all speed to the scene of action, he preferred the straight forward road to Camden, which led through a desert pine barren. In traversing this dreary tract of country, his forces were worn out with fatigue and extenuated with hunger. The few cattle which his commissariat had provided having been consumed, his only resource for meat was the lean beasts which were accidentally picked up in the woods. Meal and grain were also very scarce; and as substitutes for bread, the soldiers were obliged to have recourse to the green corn and to the fruits which they met with on their line of march. The consequence of this unwonted diet was, that the army was thinned by dysentery and other diseases usually caused by the heat of the weather and by unwholesome food. The soldiers at first bore these hardships with impatience, and symptoms of dissatisfaction and even of mutiny began to appear amongst them. But by the conciliatory exertions of the officers, who shared in all the privations of the common men, the spirit of murmuring was repressed, and the troops pursued their weary way with patience and even with cheerfulness. On their arrival at a place called Deep Creek, their distresses were alleviated by a supply of good beef accompanied by the distribution of half a pound of Indian corn meal to each man. Invigorated by this welcome refreshment, they proceeded to the cross-roads, where they were joined by a respectable body of militia under the command of General Caswell. Though Gates was aware that

What hardships bad they to encounter?
How was the spirit of mutiny suppressed?
How were they relieved at Deep creek?
By whom were they joined at Cross-roads?

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