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authority by force of arms. Volunteers enrolled themselves in every province; and throughout the whole Union the king's stores were seized for the use of the insurgents. The surprisal of Ticonderoga and Crown Point by a party from Connecticut, under the command of Colonel Allen, furnished them with upwards of 100 pieces of cannon, and a proportionable quantity of ammunition. Troops were gradually assembled in the towns and villages in the vicinity of Boston, so as to hold that town in a state of blockade. About the latter end of May, General Gage was reinforced by the troops which had been sent from Great Britain, and which were accompanied by Generals Howe, Burgoyne, and Clinton. Finding himself thus strengthened, he prepared for active operations; but wishing to temper justice with mercy, on the 12th of June he issued a proclamation, offering pardon to all who would lay down their arms, with the exception of Samuel Adams and John Hancock, whose offences,' he declared, were of too flagitious a nature to admit of any other consideration than that of condign punishment. This proclamation produced no effect on the Americans, save that of rousing them to more vigorous exertions. On Charlestown Neck, a peninsula situated to the north of Boston, with which it now communicates by a bridge, is a considerable eminence, called Bunker's Hill. As this was deemed a post of great importance, the Americans resolved to occupy it, and orders were given by the pro
What measures did the Colonies take after the battle at Lexington ?
vincial authorities that a detachment of 1000 men should entrench themselves on the height in question. The party was accordingly moved forwards from Cambridge on the night of the 16th of June, but, by mistake, commenced their operations on Breed's Hill, an eminence nearer to the town of Boston than the place of their destination. Here they labored with such activity, and at the same time with such silence, that the appearance of their works, at daybreak the next morning, was the first indication of their presence. The firing of guns from the Lively, man-ofwar, whence they were first seen, gave the alarm to the British, whose commanders, on reconnoitering the position of the enemy from the steeples and heights of the city, perceived that they had thrown up a redoubt about eight rods square, from which lines extended to the eastward nearly to the bottom of the hill. To the westward the works were less perfect; but the provincials were busily employed in carrying them on, notwithstanding they were exposed to showers of shot and shells, discharged from the vessels in the harbor. The necessity of driving the enemy from their position was evident; and for this purpose Gage put 3000 men under the command of General Howe. On this occasion the British were not very alert in their preparations, as it was noon before their troops were embarked in the boats which were to convey them to Moreton's Point, at the southern extremity of Charlestown Neck. At this awful crisis every elevated spot in the town of Boston was covered with spectators, who anxiously awaited the event of the expected contest. Their attention was first arrested
How many did this party consist of ?
by a dense smoke, which announced that the British, fear. ing lest the houses of Charlestown might afford shelter to the provincials, had set that place on fire. Proceeding to Moreton's Point, the king's troops formed in two lines, and marched slowly up the hill, whilst their artillery played on the American works. The provincials stood firm and steady; they reserved their fire till the British had advanced to within sixty or seventy yards of their lines; they then made a simultaneous discharge with so cool an aim, and supported their fire with so much steadiness, that the British gave way, and fled to the water's edge. Here they were rallied by their officers, and a second time led to the charge. A second time they retreated, and all seemed to be lost, when General Howe, aided by General Clinton, who, seeing his distress, had crossed over from Boston to join him, with difficulty persuaded them to make another onset, which was successful. The Americans had ex- . pended their ammunition, and were unable to procure a fresh supply. Their redoubt being forced, they were compelled to retreat; but though the road over Charlestown Neck, by which they retired, was enfiladed by the Glasgow, man-of-war, they withdrew with much less loss than might have been expected; they left dead on the field 139 of their comrades, and their wounded and missing amounted to 314. Amongst the valuable lives which were sacrificed in this battle, the Americans were sensibly affected by the loss of Dr. Warren, who was slain whilst standing on the redoubt, animating his fellow-soldiers to the most valorous exertions. Warren was a man of eminent talents, and of most amiable manners in private and domestic life. He
What was doing at Charlestown
excelled as an orator, and he was wise and prudent in council, and the circumstances of his death evinced that he could act as well as speak, and that the mildness of his character was united with firm determination and undaunted courage. The British purchased their victory dearly, their loss amounting to 226 killed and 828 wounded, including 79 officers; at this cost General Gage obtained little more than the field of battle. At the conclusion of the engagement he advanced to Bunker's Hill, which he fortified; whilst the Americans entrenched themselves on Prospect Hill, distant about a mile and a half from his lines.
UNION OF THE THIRTEEN PROVINCES.-HANCOCK APPOINTED
PRESIDENT, AND WASHINGTON COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.
When Colonel Allen appeared at the gates of Ticonderoga, on the 10th of May, he summoned that fortress 'in the name of the Great Jehovah and the continental Congress.' On the very day on which this summons was given, that body assembled, and had the satisfaction to find itself joined by delegates from Georgia, so that the union of the thirteen provinces was now completed. Peyton Randolph, Esq., was appointed president; but urgent business soon after requiring his presence at home, he was succeeded by Mr. Hancock. After mature deliberation, the Congress agreed
When did this battle take place?
Who succeeded him?
on addresses to the British nation, to the Canadians, to Ireland and the island of Jamaica, in which they insisted upon the topics upon which they had antecedently dwelt in similar compositions. Fearful also lest, in case of the continuance of hostilities with the mother country, their frontier should be devastated by the Indians, a talk was prepared in which the controversy between Great Britain and her colonies was explained in a familar Indian style. They were told that 'they had no concern in the family quarrel, and were urged by the ties of ancient friendship and a common birth-place, to remain at home, to keep their hatchet buried deep, and to join neither side. Such is the statement of Mr. Ramsay; and so far as Congress is concerned, no doubt that respectable historian is correct. But had he carefully examined the official correspondence of General Washington, he would have found, from a letter of his dated August 4, 1775, that the American commander-in-chief did not limit his views to neutrality on the part of the Indians, but that he took measures to secure the co-operation of the Caghnewaga tribe, in the event of any expedition being meditated against Canada. Still aiming, with however faint hopes, at conciliation, the Congress drew up another humble and pathetic petition to the King, which was delivered on the ensuing September by their agents to Lord Dartmouth, the colonial secretary of state, who informed them, that no answer would be returned to it. They did not however, confine themselves to literary controversy, but took measures for depriving the British troops of supplies. They also resolved to raise an army sufficient to enable them to cope with the enemy, and issued, for its equipment and pay,
bills of credit to the value of two millions of
To what did the Continental Congress” agree?