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well say, that unsanctified men may not attend any other duty of worship;" and particularly, “ you may as well forbid them to pray.As for Mr. Stoddard's objection, in these words, “ If unsanctified men may attend all other ordinances or duties of worship, then they may lawfully attend the Lord's supper ;" it was an argument I was not obliged to attend to in the words in which he delivered it, because it was not an argument brought against my scheme of things, but one very diverse : Since it is not my opinion, that unsanctified men may attend “ all other ordinances or duties of worship, besides the Lord's supper ;" for I do not suppose, such may offer them. selves to baptism ; which Mr. Stoddard takes for granted, in his argument. And therefore, what Mr. Williams says in support of it, is quite beside the business. As to the argument I was concerned with, taken especially from the lawfulness of unsanctified men's praying, to prove, that therefore it must be lawful for them to come to the Lord's supper, cer. tainly if there be any consequence in it, the consequence dcpends on the truth of this supposition, That the same thing which makes it lawful for a man to pray, also makes it lawful for him to come to the Lord's supper. And seeing this position is proved to be not true, the argument falls to the ground. And Mr. Williams's nice observations and distinctions, of a non obstante, and a simply and per se, are nothing to the purpose.

This good reason (with several others) may be given why the same that makes it lawful for a man to pray and hear the word, will not make it lawful for him to partake of sacraments, viz. That the sacraments are not only duties, but cov. enant privileges, and are never lawfully given or received but under that notion. Whereas it is not so with prayer and hearing the word : And therefore they who have no interest in the covenant of grace, and are in no respect God's cove. nant people may lawfully hear the word and pray. But it is agreed on all hands, that they who are not in some respectsGod's covenant people, may not come to sacraments : And the reason is this, because sacraments are covenant privileges. And this same reason will prove that none but true believers, or those that have saving faith, the only condition of the cove:

nant of grace, have a right to sacraments. For, as was observed before, the condition of any covenant is the condition of all the benefits or privileges of that covenant. See Part II. Sec. 8.


The fourth thing observed in Mr. Williams's meth

od of managing the Controversy, particularly con. sidered, viz. His advancing new and extraordinary notions, not only manifestly contrary to Truth, but also to the common and received principles of the Christian Church.

THUS it is with regard to many things which have ale ready been taken notice of. As, that men may be ungodly men, and yet truly profess to love God more than the world : That men may be professors of religion and have no true grace, and yet not be lukewarm, but serve God as their only master : That such may profess to be subject to Christ with all their hearts, and to give up all their hearts and lives to Christ, and speak true, &c. &c.

I shall now take notice of another remarkable instance of this, viz. That Mr. Williams, in his reply to my argument, from the epithets and characters given by the apostles to the members of the visible Christian churches, in their epistles, represents, p. 56, That there « is no difference in all the epithets and characters, which I had heaped up from the New Testament," from those that are given in the Old Testament, to the whole body of the Jewish church ; which he elsewhere abundantly supposes to be the whole body of the Jewish nation ; yea, even in their worst times, until the nation was re

jected and cast off by God from being any longer his people ; as I shall have occasion particularly to observe afterwards.

That it may be the easier judged, how manifestly this is contrary to truth, I shall here repeat some of those epithets and characters I before mentioned, which Mr. Williams has reference to. This is very manifest concerning most of them. But that I may not be tedious, I will now rehearse but a few instances, viz. being “ made free from sin, and becoming the servants of righteousness;" having “ the spirit of adoption;" being the children of God, heirs of God, joint heirs with Christ;" being “ vessels of mercy prepared unto glory;" being such “ as do not live to themselves, nor die to themselves ; but live unto the Lord and die unto the Lord;" and who, “living and dying are the Lorel's ;" being those that have “ all things for theirs, whether Paul or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come ; because they are Christ's ;" being “ begotten through the gospel ;" being such as “shall judge the world ;" being " washed, sanctified, justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God ;” being “ manifesto ly declared to be the epistle of Christ, written, not with ink, but by the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart ;" being such as “ behold as in a glass the glory of the Lord, and are changed into the same image from glory to glory ;" being “ chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world, that they should be holy and without blame before him in love ; and predestinated unto the adoption of children ;" being “ sealed by that holy Spirit of promise ;" being “ quickened, though once dead in trespases and sins ;" being made meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light ;" being “ dead, and having their life hid with Christ in God;" and being those that 6 when Christ, who is our life, shall appear, shall also appear with him in glory ; having put off the old man with his deeds, and having put on the new man, which is renewed in knowl. edge, after the image of him that created him ;" being “ begotten again to a living an inheritance incorrupti. ble, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in hear

en for them ; who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ; who love Christ though they have not seen him ; in whom, though now they see him not, yet believing they rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory; having purified their souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit ; knowing him that is from the beginning; having their sins forgiven ; having overcome the wicked one ; have ing an unction from the holy one, by which they know all things ; , who are now the sons of God; and who, when Christ shall appear, shall be like him, because they shall see him as he is.”

Now let the Christian reader judge, with what face of reason our author could represent, as though there were nothing in all these epithets and characters, more than used of old to be given to the whole nation of the Jews, and that, even in times of their greatest corruption and apostasy, till the nation was rejected of God! One would think, there is no need of arguing the matter with any that have read the Bible.

This representation of Mr. Wiiliams's is not only very contrary to truth, but also to the common sentiments of the Christian church. Though I pretend not to be a person of great reading, yet I have read enough to warrant this asser. tion. I never yet (as I remember) met with any author that went the same length in this matter with Mr. Williains, but only Mr. Taylor of Norwich, in England, the author that lately has been so famous for his corrupt doctrine. In his piece which he calls A Key to the Aposlolic Writings, where he delivers his scheme of religion (which seems scarcely so agreeable to the Christian scheme, as the doctrine of many of the wiser Heathen) he delivers the same opinion, and insists largely upon it ; it being a main thing he makes use of to es. tablish his whole scheme. And it evidently appears in the manner of his delivering it, that he is sensible it is exceeding far from what has hitherto been the commonly received sentiment in the Christian world. He supposes that as all those epithets and characters belong to the whole nation of the Jews, oven in their most corrupt times, so they belong to all Christondom, even the most vicious parts of it; that the most vicious men who are baptized, and profess to believe Jesus to be the Messiah, are « chosen before the foundation of the world, predestinated according to the foreknowledge of God, regenerated, justified, sanctified children of God, heirs of God, joint heirs with Christ, the spouse of Christ, the temple of God, made to sit together in heavenly places in Christ, being the family of heaven, &c. &c. And certainly he may with as good reason, and with the same reason, suppose this of all Christendom, even the most vicious parts of it, as of the whole nation of the Jews, however corrupt, till there was a national rejection of them.

Indeed it is manifest there is no other way of evading the force of the argument from the epistles, but by falling into Taylor's scheme. If his scheme of religion be not true, then it is plain as any fact in the New Testament, that all the Christian churches, through the whole earth, in the apostles' days, were constituted in the manner that I insist on. The scripture says ten times as much to demonstrate this matter, as it does about the manner of discipline, officers, and government of the church, or as it does about the several parts of the public worship, or about the sanctification of the Christian sabbath.


Instances of the fifth and sixth particulars, in Mr.

Williams's method of disputing, viz. his using confident and peremptory Assertions, and great Ex. clamations, instead of Arguments.

WE have an instance of the former, in his reply to my answer to the 14th objection, viz. That it is not unlawsul for unsanctified men to carry themselves like saints. I objected against this, if thereby be meant, that they may lawfully car

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