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plausible – the marksman in the riflepit with a long range and disastrous aim. It is the difference between a Caliban and an Abdiel. The dangerous classes become dangerous chiefly as they are handled by men of intellect, destitute of principle. Socialism, communism, nihilism, pessimism are truly terrible only as they are led and marshaled by men of trained abilities. It is not the peasant but the student who not only endangers the throne but undermines the foundations of all things in Russia. Out of such material, unprincipled training and acuteness, are formed the demagogues and agitators that threaten the stability of all our institutions. Spies, the leader of the Chicago anarchists and dynamiters, was the editor of The Arbeiter Zeitung, and his associate, Parsons, of The Alarm. Our whole social and civil fabric stands on the divine law of equity. And if, years ago, a British statesman in Parliament could solemnly warn his countrymen of the danger of educating the intellect without the conscience, much more must the citizens of a republic whose whole hope rests upon the character of its citizens take the solemn warning. A democracy without righteousness is as much more formidable than a royal despotism as a million tyrants are more terrible than one.
When virtue vanishes from our voters then let us find refuge, if not elsewhere, under the sultan or the czar. How much did the Reign of Reason and of Terror in France fall short of pandemonium ? No doubt we want education much, but we want character more.
It is the grand mistake of a distinguished southern novelist and philanthropist to think that illiteracy is the one thing to overcome among the poor whites and freed. men; and he strangely signalizes his fatal error when, in his plea for the South, he inserts in a picture of a spelling-book In hoc signo vinces — the famous motto which Constantine saw around the cross. No, no! Loud as is the call for the teacher there, still louder is the call for the preacher. Beneficent as is the working of the Peabody Fund, the work of the American Missionary Association is beyond comparison more deep and effective. For it is not to be forgotten that the southern rebellion itself, with its breach of faith and with all its horrors, was officered and led by a company of brilliant men, -- Lee, the Johnstons, the Hills, Jackson, Beauregard, Early, Ewell, — every one of whom had been educated by the charity of the nation in her military school at West Point. There is a lesson for the world in that fact.
Is it said, this calls for morals in education and not for religion? Yes; but have we not been warned by our wisest men, from Washington to Webster, to beware of the thought that morality will long exist without religion? Was not President Eliot constrained to agree with Dr. McCosh that ethics cannot be taught without religion? And is not the true religion, the Christian religion, the only sure standard and the mother and nurse of a high and pure morality ? Huxley even, while declaring himself strongly in favor of “secular education," that is, education “ without
theology,” was obliged also to declare himself seriously perplexed to know “by what practical measures the. religious feeling which is the essential basis of conduct is to be kept up without the use of the Bible.” So obvious are these truths that the collective wisdom which framed our own Commonwealth has placed them on permanent record. It is written in the Constitution of New Hampshire that “morality and piety grounded on evangelical principles will give the best and greatest security to government and will lay in the hearts of men the strongest obligations to due subjection," and that “a knowledge of them is most likely to be propagated through society by the institution of the public worship of the Deity, and of public instruction in morality and religion."
Not alone the public safety and the common weal demand that a moral training shall accompany the mental training of its citizens, but the completeness and welfare of the individual equally require it. A merely intellectual culture is a radically defective culture. The man has a moral nature too, and the moral nature is the mark and glory of his humanity. This makes the impassable gulf between the man and the animal. The latter approaches him more or less in mental traits; but the will, the reason proper, the conscience, are forever wanting. Now the aim of education is to evolve a complete manhood. This can never be done by any process that refuses to train the characteristic humanity. It makes a monstrosity. And when the intellectual power rises transcendently and
the moral qualities sink in proportion, you have no man but a devil. How men shrink away from the keen but heartless intellect in common life! How they absolutely dread great acuteness without conscience! How in their admiration of the living, or their eulogies of the dead, they emphasize the virtues of the man! In the character of a Washington or a Lincoln how conspicuously does the moral nature form the crowning glory! And if the great Napoleon were indeed the corrupt and ruthless being of Lanfrey's delineation, how is all our admiration for his matchless ability changed to loathing for his petrified heart and conscience!
It is the privilege, as it is the duty, of the college to draw out the faculties in their due proportions, to form the complete and rounded man. And whatever may be the difficulties which hinder other institutions from so high an ideal, it is fortunate for a college like this that our very charter has made salient that aim which God puts foremost, by founding the institution for the purpose of “spreading Christian knowledge"; that such has been the aim of its guardians and leading spirits from the beginning of its history, and such has been the mind of its chief donors who are numbered among the dead.
It is a special felicity in the religious influence of the college that it comes when the mind is ripening to comprehend its bearings and its arguments and when the character is taking permanent shape. A still greater felicity it is that Christianity is thus brought to bear, not upon the men of one restricted calling, but
upon men who will enter every calling of life, - those who, as lawyers, physicians, teachers, journalists, and what not, are destined to leaven society in all its relations and movements, many of whom would never otherwise be brought into such contact with the great facts and truths which lie at the foundation of all things good. How else shall society be permeated with Christianity except through men of Christian education in all the walks of life? Wisely and rightly presented, these influences will never be wholly lost. It is, indeed, a fact of the greatest encouragement as well as of the deepest import that during the last eight years in the religious colleges of the country nearly ten thousand young men have entered upon Christian lives, go
forth into all the forms of Christian activity. For when we ask the direct question, Is it better for a young man to go out into the world as a scholar and a Christian, or as a scholar and not a Christian? how can the answer of any candid mind be for one moment doubtful? What rivers, what ocean-streams of blessing and beneficence, laving all the lands of the earth, have had their rise in the religious influences and revivals of our Christian colleges during the past century!
Equally important is the influence of religion on the individual and collective activity of the college itself. What other regulative principle can be found which shall powerfully guide and control the exuberant activity, the excitable emotions, and often insurgent passions of a mercurial age; hold up before the plastic