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The second volume of the EPOCHS OF AMERICAN HISTORY aims to follow out the principles laid down for “ THE COLONIES,” – the study of causes rather than of events, the development of the American nation out of scattered and inharmonious colonies. The throwing off of English control, the growth out of narrow political conditions, the struggle against foreign domination, and the extension of popular government, are all parts of the uninterrupted process of the Formation of the Union.

So mighty a development can be treated only in its elements in this small volume. Much matter is thrown into graphic form in the maps; the Suggestions for Readers and Teachers, and the bibliographies at the heads of the chapters are meant to lead to more detailed accounts, both of events and of social and economic conditions. Although the book includes three serious wars, there is no military history in it. To the soldier, the movement of troops is a professional question of great significance; the layman needs to know, rather, what were the means,

the character, and the spirit of the two combatants in each case, and why one succeeded where the other was defeated.

To my colleague, Professor Edward Channing, I am indebted for many suggestions on the first four chapters.


CAMBRIDGE, July 1, 1892.


DURING the five years since this volume of the Epochs of American History was first issued, the literature of the subject has made constant advances ; and hence the Suggestions for Readers and Teachers and the bibliographies at the head of each chapter have been pruned, enlarged, and rewritten. The text has undergone fewer changes. The good-will of users of the book has pointed out some errors and inaccuracies, which have been corrected from time to time; and new light has in some cases dawned upon the author. I shall always be grateful for corrections of fact or of conclusions.


CAMBRIDGE, July 1, 1897.



Each of the volumes in the series is intended to be complete in itself, and to furnish an account of the period it covers sufficient for the general reader or student. Those who wish to supplement this book by additional reading or study will find useful the bibliographies at the heads of the chapters.

For the use of teachers the following method is recommended. A chapter at a time may be given out to the class for their preliminary reading, or the paragraph numbers may be used in assigning lessons. From the references at the head of the chapter a report may then be prepared by one or more members of the class on each of the numbered sections included in that chapter; these reports may be filed, or may be read in class when the topic is reached in the more detailed exercises. Pupils take a singular interest in such work, and the details thus obtained will add a local color to the necessarily brief statements of the text.

Students' Reference Library.

The following brief works will be found useful for reference and comparison, or for the preparation of topics. The set should cost not more than twelve dollars. Of these books, Lodge's Washington, Morse's offerson, and Schurz's Clay, read in succession, make up a brief narrative history of the whole period.


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EDWARD CHANNING: The United States of America, 1765-1865. New York: Macmillan Co., 1896. - Excellent survey of conditions and causes.

ALEXANDER JOHNSTON: History of American Politics. 2d ed. New York: Holt, 1890. — Lucid account of political events in brief space.

3, 4. HENRY Cabot LODGE: George Washington (American Statesmen Series). 2 vols. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1889. — Covers the period 1732–1799.

5. JOHN T. Morse, JR.: Thomas Jefferson (American Statesmen Series). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1883. — Covers the period 1750–1809.

6. CARL SCHURZ: Henry Clay, I. (American Statesmen Series). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1887. - Covers the period 1777–1833.

7. EDWARD STANWOOD: A History of Presidential Elections. 3d ed. revised. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1892. An account of the political events of each presidential campaign, with the platforms and a statement of the votes.

8. SIMON STERNE: Constitutional History and Political Development of the United States. 4th ed. revised. New York: Putnam's, 1888. — An excellent brief summary of the development of the Constitution.

9. HERMANN Von Holst: The Constitutional and Political History of the United States. Vol. I. 1750-1833. State Sovereignty and Slavery. Chicago : Callaghan & Co., 1877. – Not a consecutive history, but a philosophical analysis and discussion of the principal constitutional events.

School Reference Library.

The following works make up a convenient reference library of secondary works for study on the period of this volume. The books should cost not more than thirty-five dollars.

List of Reference Books.


1-9. The brief works enumerated in the previous list.

10. EDWARD CHANNING and ALBERT BUSHNELL Hart. Guide to the Study of American History. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1896. <A classified bibliography, with suggestions as to methods. II, 12.

GEORGE TICKNOR CURTIS: Constitutional History of the United States from their Declaration of Independence to the Close of their Civil War. 2 vols. New York: Harpers, 18891896. — Volume I. is a reprint of Curtis's earlier History of the Constitution, in two volumes, and covers the period 1774-1790. Chapters i.-vii. of Volume II. come down to about 1830.

13. RICHARD FROTHINGHAM: The Rise of the Republic of the United States. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1872. – A careful study of the progress of independence, from 1750 to 1783. Indispensable.

14. SYDNEY HOWARD GAY: James Madison (American Statesmen Series). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1884.

15. Judson S LANDON: The Constitutional History and Government of the United States. A Series of Lectures. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1889. — The only recent brief constitutional history, except Sterne.

16. Henry CABOT LODGE: Alexander Hamilton (American Statesmen Series). Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1882.

17. JOHN T. MORSE, JR.: John Adams (American Statesmen Series). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1885.

18. JOHN T. MORSE, JR.: John Adams (American Statesmen Series). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1882.

19-21. JAMES SCHOULER : History of the United States of America under the Constitution. New ed. 5 vols. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1895. — This is the only recent and complete history which systematically covers the whole period from 1783 to 1861. The style is very inelegant, but it is an excellent repository of facts. Vols. I.-III. (sold separately) cover the period 1783-1830.

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