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employs some machinery of government also used in national organizations is no more reason for calling it a 'nation' than there would be for calling a gasoline engine a steam engine because of certain features they possess in common.

The assertion that secession is treason is not borne out by the nature of the Union, by the Constitutional definition of treason or the nature of treason itself, or by the principles of democracy. Treason is a crime against the 'sovereign.' The Union is an association of co-equal states and the federal government is simply the common agent of those states. The Constitution says that "Treason against the United States shall consist in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies," etc. It uses the plural 'them' and 'their' denoting an association of sovereigns rather than a unitary sovereign. It was Lincoln who committed treason and not the States. Lincoln overthrew eleven sovereign States and State governments, which even according to Webster were the equal of the Federal Government. The idea of the sovereignty of the whole people of the United States is purely an imperialistic dogma. Analyzed, it means that the people of Oregon are sovereign over the people of South Carolina and that the people of South Carolina are sovereign over the people of Oregon. The people of Oregon possess no more sovereign rights in the government of the people of South Carolina than they do in the government of the people of Canada or Mexico. The doctrine is indefensible by the principles of democracy.

Lincoln has been put forward as the great exemplar of Christianity, but the Civil War was fought in diametrical opposition not only to every principle of democracy, but of Christianity. What he said of John Brown may also be said of Lincoln that "It could avail himself nothing that he might think himself right." That cannot excuse violence, bloodshed and treason.

Like the enthusiast, of whom Lincoln said that he "broods over the oppression of a people till he fancies himself commissioned by Heaven to liberate them," so Lincoln brooded until he fancied himself commissioned by Heaven as a modern Moses raised up to lead the 'oppressed' slaves to freedom, and when the war had brought such misery and destruction that it could no longer be justified upon the original object of saving the Union

he then attributed to it the added character of a Divinely appointed means of punishing the North and the South for "the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil."

But, regardless of the fact that slavery was in no sense a unique crime, Christ said that he "came, not to judge the world, but that the world through him might be saved.". The Civil War was a greater crime than slavery. Both were a denial of the right of self-government, but where slavery simply took away the unrestrained barbaric freedom of the negro and put him to con structive employment, the war destroyed the very lives of those who had been previously denied the right of self-government. Lord Morley has said that it is not enough that we should do good. We must do it in the right way. War was no more a righteous method of perpetuating the Union than it would have been a righteous method of originally forming the Union. It was no more a righteous method of keeping the Southern States inside. the Union than it would be a righteous method for bringing Canada into the Union or the United States into the League of Nations. The end does not justify the means.

Lincoln would have been a true democrat if he had perpetuated the Union by the method by which Washington formed it. He would have been a true Christian if he had followed the example of that other Abraham who said to his kinsman, "Let there be no strife I pray thee between me and thee-for we be brethren. Is not the whole land before thee? Separate thyself, I pray thee, from me; if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right, or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left."

THE WILL OF AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON SR (FATHER OF GEORGE WASHINGTON).

Contributed by C. A. Hoppin.

Early in the year 1889 there was exhibited at the National Museum, Washington, D. C., a collection of manuscripts etc., that had been long kept at Mount Vernon and owned by members of the Washington family. In 1891 these manuscripts were sold at auction in Philadelphia by Thomas Birch's Sons. Approximately, at the time of the exhibition the late Joseph M. Toner, M. D., of Washington, D. C., was allowed to transcribe some of these family records. Other copies were made for the late Laurence Washington, librarian of the House of Representatives. This Mr. Washington was one of the owners of the collection so exhibited and sold, and in supplying the writer hereof with copies of some of the original Washington papers in 1918, stated to the writer the foregoing facts.

Among the papers so copied was an old certified copy of the will of Augustine Washington Sr. The exhibited copy had been made years previously, from the original recording of the will in Will Book No. 1, of the county of King George, Virginia, by Harry Turner clerk of the Court of that county, from 1742 to 1752, and was certified and signed by him as a true copy of the will as then appearing on record in that old will book then in his official custody. This will book was taken from the office of the clerk of the Circuit Court of the County of King George during the period of the Civil War, and has not been returned. It was known to be in existence a few years ago in a northern state. Certainly the present holder of the book would be rewarded for its return, for the volume contained all of the probate records of the county of King George for the twenty-three consecutive years before the will of Augustine Washington Sr., was recorded in it in 1743. The old copy of that will, made by Clerk Turner, passed into a private collection, and is not now available. The copy of the will here presented was made from one of the copies

made at the time of the said exhibition of that certified copy, and is a true copy.

The will bequeaths the plantation mansion, with the land of that homestead, in which George Washington was born to the latter's half-brother, Augustine Washington Jr.

THE WILL OF AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON, SR.

IN THE NAME OF GOD. AMEN.

I Augustine Washington of the County of King George-Gentleman, being sick and weak but of perfect and disposing sence and memory, Do make my last will and Testament in manner following hereby revoking all former will or wills whatsoever by me heretofore made.

Imprimis;-I give unto my Son Lawrence Washington and his heirs forever all that plantation and tract of Land at Hunting Creek in the County of Prince William containing by estimate, two thousand and five hundred acres with the Water Mill adjoining thereto or lying near the same and all the Slaves, Cattle and Stocks of all Kinds whatsoever and all the Household Furnature whatsoever now in and upon or which have been commonly possessed by my said son, together with the said plantation tract of Land and Mill.

Item.-I give unto my son Augustine Washington and his heirs forever all my lands in the County of Westmoreland except such only as are hereinafter otherwise disposed of together with twenty five head of neat Cattle forty hogs and twenty sheep and a negro man named Frank besides those negroes formerly given him by his mother.

Item.-I give unto my said son Augustine three young working Slaves to be purchased for him out of the first profits of the Iron Works after my decease.

Item.-I give to my son George Washington and his heirs the land I now live on which I purchased of the Executors of Mr Wm Strother deceased. And one moiety of my land lying on Deep Run and ten negro Slaves.

Item.-I give unto my son Samuel Washington and his heirs my land at Chotank in the County of Stafford containing about six hundred acres and also the other moiety of my land lying on Deep Run. Item. I give unto my son John Washington and his heirs my Land at the head of Maddox in the County of Westmoreland containing about seven hundred acres.

Item.-I give unto my son Charles Washington and his heirs the land I purchased of my son Lawrence Washington whereon Thomas Lewis now lives, adjoining to my said son Lawrence's land above devised. I also give unto my said son Charles and his heirs the Land

I purchased of Gabriel Adams in the County of Prince William containing about seven hundred acres.

Item.-It is my will and desire that all the rest of my negroes not herein particularly devised may be equally divided between my wife and my three sons Samuel, John and Charles, and that Ned, Jack, Bob, Sue, and Lucy may be included in my wife's part, which part of my said wife's, after her decease I desire may be equally divided between my sons George, Samuel, John and Charles, and the part of my said negroes so devised to my wife I mean and intend to be in full satisfaction and in lieu of her dower in my negroes. But if she should insist notwithstanding on her right of Dower in my negroes I will and desire that so many as may be wanting to make up her share may be taken out of the negroes given hereby to my sons George, Samuel, John and Charles.

Item.-I give and bequeath unto my said wife and my four sons George, Samuel, John and Charles, all the rest of my Personal Estate to be equally divided between them which is not particularly bequeathed by this will to my wife and it is my will and desire that my said four sons Estates may be kept in my wife's hands until they respectively attain the age of twenty one years, in case my said wife continues so long unmarried but in case she should happen to marry before that time I desire it may be in the power of my Executors to oblige her husband from time to time as they shall think proper to give security for the performance of this my last will in paying and delivering my said four sons their Estates respectively as they come of age, or on failure to give such security to take my said sons and their estates out of the custody and tuition of my said wife and her husband.

Item.-I give and bequeath unto my said wife the crops made at Bridge Creek, Chotank, and Rappahanock quarters at the time of my decease for the support of herself and her children and I desire my wife may have the liberty of working my land at Bridge Creek Quarter for the time of Five years next after my decease, during which time she may fix a quarter on Deep Run.

Item.-I give to my son Lawrence Washington and the heirs of his body lawfully begotten forever that tract of Land I purchased of Mr. James Hooe adjoining to the said Lawrence Washington's land on Maddox in the County of Westmoreland which I gave him in lieu of the land my said son bought for me in Prince William County of Spencer and Harrison and for want of such heirs then I give and devise the same to my son Augustine and his heirs forever.

Item.-I give to my said son Lawrence all the right title and interest I have to in or out of the Iron Works in which I am concerned in Virginia and Maryland provided that he do and shall, out of the profits raised thereby purchase for my said son Augustine three young

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