Page images

those made for land and sea are now needed wise, will serve above all other things to for the air,22 Wireless telegraphy and hasten the happy era of better ideals, when telephony have advanced by leaps and the joys and burdens of the world will be bounds, and simple inductive telephony more equally shared by its men and its has reached a high degree of development women. Hence, the instruction of the girl in the very front lines of the opposing as well as of the boy makes new demands armies.23 Electrical schools have opened on the teacher, and affords him widening up for the training of war-made cripples.24 opportunities for developing his subject as The radiodynamics of torpedo and boat an integral part of the school curriculum, control offers a field for study almost new. and thereby better himself by bettering The use of the X-rays requires constructors,

every one else. operators and doctors who have acquired To enumerate additional problems brought the requisite fundamental principles in to the physicist as a result of the war would good courses in physics. Electrochemical be useless, but with the necessary increase processes in general are becoming American in vocational education25 will come the necfor the first time, and every citizen is con essity for a more practical type of physics tinually being reminded in one way or as presented to the elementary class. This another of the fact that the war is one of suggestion is not meant in any way to disscience, and that the reconstruction must parage the more advanced type of research likewise be one based on a knowledge of nat work, for it will be in greater demand than ural laws.

ever before, but, as always, the teacher There is still another phase of our new must be the interpreter who shall spread development which makes a definite de abroad truths and thus justify the effort mand on the physics teacher. It is the part made in their discovery. that women are to take in the life of the na You well know that to include in such an tion in the years to come. Whatever may attempt as the present one a comprehensive be one's idea of equal suffrage, he must statement of such advances in physics as recognize the fact that a large portion of the those which we are hoping may aid in winburden of the world war is being borne ning the war, is futile. We do know, howby women. They are entering the indus ever, that advances are being made. We tries; they are becoming electricians, ma know something of the results. Those of us chinists, chemists, in fact everything that who are fortunate enough to have some man has wished to be solely. And with knowledge of the details must remain silent this awakening will undoubtedly come wide because of military necessity. As recently interest in the sciences fundamental to in- expressed, dustrial activity. New economies have re

Whatever startling developments have taken quired more detailed explanations of the

place during the year of 1917 are hidden behind scientific methods of

methods of obtaining them. the veil of the censor, and it remains for us to Household physics, though a comparatively

wait for the end of the war before a complete re

view can be undertaken.26 recent term, has now for the first time come to have a real meaning. Surely the present That the effect on physical research rewar, however unpleasant it may be other sulting from the present governmental co

22 Scientific American, April 20, 1918, p. 355. 25 Scientific American Supp., No. 2201, March 9, 23 Scientific American, April 6, 1918, p. 305. 1918, p. 149. 24 Elec. World, November 17, 1917, p. 955.

26 Scientific American, January 5, 1918, p. 7.

operation will be inestimable, can not be Still another probable development, that questioned. The great British National can not but bring joy to the heart of every Physical Laboratory, which is the equiv- physicist, is the more or less universal alent of our own Bureau of Standards, has adoption of the metric system with the rebeen taken over from the Royal Society adjustment succeeding the war. England for government work alone.27 In our own has already admitted that Germany has country among numerous organizations gained in industrial efficiency by the use of may be mentioned the expanding Engineer- this system.31 ing Council, which now proposes an affilia

So many hundreds of young Englishmen have tion with all of the national engineering gone to somewhere in France that Englishmen have bodies and technical societies in the United seen a great light in the simple workings of the States, thus bringing to physics and allied

decimal and metric systems. They are urging the

abolition of the needless, brain-wasting multiplibranches applications of unprecedented

cation of units at home.32 scope.28 Our Council of National Defense, together with the Bureau of Education and

To date twenty-eight of the greatest the States Relations Service of the Depart- public bodies in the United Kingdom have ment of Agriculture have considered the

advocated the adoption of decimal systems mistakes of the Allies and have empha

of coinage, weights and measures. It can sized the fact that the people now receiving

be no different in this country. We are

now manufacturing some of our munitions any scientific training will have special ad

of war to metric measurements, and surely vantages after the war. As Dr. Claxton,

this is a movement in which physics teachCommissioner of Education, has said,

ers should be the leaders. Knowing its When the war is over, whether within a few months or after many years, there will be demands

value, they have advocated it in a halfupon this country for men and women of scientific

hearted sort of a way for many years, but knowledge, technical skill and general culture as now, unbidden, comes a demand and an ophave never before come to any country.29

portunity. No single development could We must supply men and women famil- go further to establish in the mind of the iar with fundamental science not only for public the idea that physics is a science of our own development but to replace the practical value that its ways are the ways hordes from European countries now going of efficiency. And hand in hand with this down on the fields of battle.

movement comes the proposal from Dr. Again, President Wilson has asked that Klotz for universal scientific symbols. the National Research Council be perpetu- We have already gone further than was ated to stimulate research in the mathe

necessary to draw the conclusion of the matical, physical and biological sciences.' whole argument. What has been said of An Inventions Section as an agency within physics is applicable in many ways to other the General Staff of the War Department branches of science. But the tacit assumphas been organized, and it is not without tion throughout has been that physics is great import to the whole field of physics one of the most if not the most basic of teaching that the Science and Research sciences. This may be a doctrine not unidivision is headed by Professor Millikan. versally accepted, but we who advocate it

27 Scientific American, October 20, 1917, p. 283. 31 Scientific American Supp., No. 2175, Septem28 Scientific American, April 20, 1918, p. 355. ber 8, 1917, p. 149. 29 Scientific American, September 1, 1917, p. 153. 32 Elec. World, July 7, 1917, p. 3. 30 SCIENCE, May 24, 1918, p. 511.

33 Scientific American, December 8, 1917, p. 435.



on the basis of something more than a superficial knowledge of its content, can do so with all sincerity. It is legitimate that we should struggle to make it as popular a science as may be without discarding its essentially rigorous methods, for, as Dr. Nutting has said, the typical product of slack methods is a slacker.34 But difficul. ties will only serve to heighten its estimated value, once it becomes generally known that physics is good for something. In meeting the demand for such evidence, the physics teacher will find the greatest opportunity for his own development and that of his beloved science.


Thus, types which in America north of Mexico have not succeeded in reaching the Pacific slope, have, within the Tropics, crossed the divide. ...

3. The third fauna is the Mexican of the Rio de Santiago. This is undoubtedly the relict of an old fauna reenforced by a few immigrants from the north. It is here not a question of the origin of the fauna from an eastern one, but of an autochthonus development that has, on its part, contributed elements to the surrounding rivers. It passively contributed to the Atlantic slope fauna by having one of its small rivers captured by the Rio Panuco.

4. Of more particular interest is the origin of the fauna of western Peru and Ecuador and that of western Central America. Not enough is known of the fauna of the western part of Central America to attempt an explanation of its origin.

Concerning the Andean fauna I said in part,

page 305:


IN 1909 I summarized the knowledge of the distribution of South American fresh-water fishes in general. I dealt with the origin of the Pacific slope fish fauna in part in the following words:1

There are four distinct faunas on the Pacific slope of America between Cape Horn and the Tropic of Cancer. One of these is of common origin with that on the Atlantic slope, one is autochthonus and the other two are derivative from the Atlantic slope faunas opposed to them.

1. The fauna of southern Chili is essentially like that of Patagonia, and inasmuch as it is largely made up of marine forms entering fresh water, and fresh-water forms entering the ocean, it seems very probable that the species migrated from river to river along the coast from Patagonia to Chili or from Chili to Patagonia.

2. At the other extreme in the Rio Mezquital of the Transition Region and the Yaqui just to the north of it there is a fauna essentially like that of the Rio Grande east of them. As Meek has pointed out, the Yaqui and Mezquital have captured tributaries of the Rio Grande togther with the fishes in them, and the migration of Atlantic slope northern forms to the Pacific slope has been a passive one.

34 Scientific Monthly, May, 1918, p. 406.

1 Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, III., 1909, p. 352.

The Andean region includes the high Andes on both slopes from Venezuela and Colombia to Chili.

It is poor in species at any given point, but some of the genera have a large number of local adaptations or species. This region is distinctly marked off into three provinces.

1. The Northern includes the highlands of northern Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. This is the richest in species and distinguished by the genera Arges, Cyclopium, Prenadilla and the high development of Chætostomus. Its fauna is largely an ancient derivative from the lowland freshwater fauna of Archiguiana.

2. The Titicacan, including the basin of Titicaca and neighboring streams, and possibly the landlocked basins of Bolivia, concerning which nothing is known, is distinguished by the genus Orestias and the absence of the genera distinguishing the northern province. Its fauna is largely an ancient derivative from the ocean.

3. The Southern is the poorest in species, characterized by the absence of everything but a few species of Pygidium, a genus which extends the entire length of the Andean region.

Further, p. 373, I said:

The points of strategic importance for ichthyic chorology in South America are, therefore, western Colombia and Panama, Guayaquil and Peru to the Amazon, across the Andes. . .

Most of my time since the publication of the monograph quoted, in fact, since its preparation several years earlier, has been de

voted to working out the details of a plan then made. I have had the cooperation of various institutions and individuals.

As part of this scheme I urged in SCIENCE, N. S., Vol. XXII., No. 549, pp. 553–556, the exploration of Panama before the canal should be completed. This work was well done by the late S. E. Meek and S. F. Hildebrand, under the auspices of the Field Museum and the Smithsonian Institution.

To examine conditions in Colombia I traveled in 1913 from Cartagena up the Magdalena to Girardot, thence to Bogotá in the eastern Cordilleras, thence across the Magdalena valley to Ibagué, across the central Andes to Cartago, up the Cauca valley to Cali, and across the western Andes to Buenaventura on the Pacific, thence up the Pacific slope stream San Juan, across the divide and down the Atlantic slope rivers, Quito and Atrato, to the starting point. My assistant during this trip, Mr. Manuel Gonzales, later visited the Atlantic slopes of the easternmost Andes between Bogotá and Barrigona, and Hermano Apolinar Maria, the efficient director of the Instituto de la Salle of Bogotá, had collections made for me in the Llanos east of Bogotá.

Mr. Hugh McK. Landon and Mr. Carl G. Fisher later enabled Mr. Arthur Henn, now in medical service with the American Expeditionary Forces, and Mr. Charles Wilson, also now in medical service, to explore the Patia and Atrato San Juan Basins of western Colombia, and still later Mr. Henn was enabled by Mr. Landon and Indiana University to explore the western slope of Ecuador, especially the Guayaquil basin.

Various attempts to secure the means to carry the work southward have failed until this spring, when the American Association for the Advancement of Science made me an appropriation of five hundred dollars, the Indiana University made a similar appropriation, and Mr. William G. Irwin, of Columbus, Indiana, sent the university a check to cover the larger part of the estimated expenses of the Peruvian part of the field work. The University of Illinois is providing the expenses of an assistant, Mr. William Ray Allen, who is to devote

his time largely to parasites, and Miss Adele Rosa Eigenmann, a medical student in Indiana University, is to go as a volunteer assistant. Submarines being willing, we are to sail June 21 and the expedition is to be known as the Irwin Expedition.

As far as field work may be planned in advance, it is the intention to cross from the Pacific to the Amazon basin in at least three points in Peru:

First, Pacasmayo over Cajamarca to Balzas on the Marañon. The fishes of Pacasmayo are known in part at least through collections made by Osgood, of the Field Museum. Nothing is known of the fauna of the Cajamarca valley and very little of that of the upper Marañon.

Second, Callao over Oroyo, Cerro de Pasco to Huanuco. An attempt will be made to secure the faunas of the Rimac, of the High: Andean Lake Hunin, and of the head waters of the Huallaga.

Third, Mollendo, Arequipa, Puno, Cuzco and Rio Urubamba. Attempts will be made to get as complete a representation as possible of the fauna of the Andean Lakes Titicaca and Poopo, and of the Rio Urubamba of the Ucayale basin.

Fourth, etc., some work will be done in Bolivia and Chili, but this will depend largely upon whether additional sums become available.

The expedition as definitely planned ought to give us as fair a notion of the Pacific slope fauna from the desert of northern Chili to Ecuador as we have of the Pacific slope of Ecuador, Colombia and southern Panama, as well as of the fauna immediately east of the crest of the Andes in Peru.

I am indebted to the president and trustees of Indiana University, who have made it my duty to devote myself to the work as outlined for the time needed to complete it.



The War Industries Board authorizes the announcement that some of the fundamental

items required by the army and navy in war as they are able to do to aid our soldiers and times are technical in nature and would ordi sailors, but have desired an opportunity for narily not be thought of by the casual ob more responsible work. Not every woman can server. Such an item is optical glass, which is become a nurse, and there are still great numused in telescopes and instruments that serve bers of young women whose energies are not in the direction and control of firing large and fully utilized and who are not doing their bit small guns and in engineering and surveying toward winning the war. A good opportunity operations. The artilleryman without fire to do this is afforded by the optical training control instruments can accomplish little; the school at Rochester. Work in optical munisubmarine without its periscope is of small tions is most urgent and is of highly responvalue; the airplane without a camera can make sible character. Optical munition workers are no maps of the enemy's country. Therefore, well paid and are contributing directly to optical glass is very essential in military in

American success in this war. struments of different types.

In England two training schools of this The optical glass problem in this country nature were established some time ago and has been solved and there is now available have proved most successful. As a result, the manufacturing capacity for optical glass suffi manufacture of optical munitions in England cient to supply the Army and Navy; but the is well in hand, and many of the responsible skilled labor necessary to work up this glass positions are held by young women, not forminto lenses and prisms, and to assemble these erly employed, who are serving their country into finished instruments is not adequate. most effectively in this capacity. This situation is so serious that unless steps Details regarding the courses of instrucare taken to provide this labor the soldiers tion can be obtained from Dr. Barker, presiand sailors will be only partially equipped with dent of the Mechanics Institute, Rochester, necessary fire-control instruments.

N. Y. The largest factories are located in To meet this situation the Ordnance De Rochester, Buffalo, and New York, N. Y.; Bospartment of the Army is establishing in Roch ton and Southbridge, Mass.; Pittsburgh, Pa., ester, N. Y., a training school for operatives and Dayton, Ohio. on precision optics. The school is to be located at the Mechanics Institute, in Rochester,


THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES and the large optical manufacturing firms in

Work at the Fairport laboratory is proceedRochester are providing instructors and aiding in the installation of the necessary grinding,

ing with the least possible interruption this polishing, and centering apparatus.

summer. Through the cooperation of the per

manent employees of the station arrangements Courses in the different branches of this

for working quarters and living accommodaindustry will be given and extended over a

tions for a limited number of investigators period of six weeks. A living wage will be

have been made. Professors C. B. Wilson, paid to those who take these courses. On com

Emmeline Moore, and H. S. Davis continue pletion of the course the student will be in a

investigations of aquatic insects, plants, and position to enter one of the optical munition

protozoan parasites of fishes, respectively, in factories and be competent to perform certain

relation to fish culture in ponds. of the operations required.

Dr. Albert Mann, of the Bureau of Plant Work of this kind on the grinding, polish

Industry, has been detailed by the Secretary ing, centering, assembly, and inspection of

of Agriculture, at the request of the Secretary lenses and prisms for optical systems is not of Commerce, for special work on the diatom heavy, and is well suited for young women who flora of the Woods Hole region. Portions of desire to do their share on war-munitions the laboratory of the Woods Hole station are work. Many young women in this country in the possession of the Navy Department, but have been knitting and doing such other work laboratory facilities are available for a limited

« PreviousContinue »