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receive army pay; he is free to accept or reject the training.
DR. WILLIAM ALLAN NEILSON was installed as president of Smith College on June 13. Because of war conditions other educational institutions were not asked to send representatives.
B. R. BUCKINGHAM has been appointed head of a bureau of research which forms a part of the newly established college of education of the University of Illinois.
DR. A. R. BAILEY, assistant professor of engineering at the University of Michigan, has resigned.
DURING the past year Professor Leo F. Rettger, of Yale University, gave the course of lectures in general bacteriology at Wesleyan University which for many years was one of the regular courses conducted by the late Professor H. W. Conn.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE MEADE COTTON
THIS name has been given to a new Upland long-staple variety representing the nearest approach to Sea Island cotton in length and fineness of fiber. The original selection was made in 1912 at Clarksville, Texas, in a field of a variety locally called Blackseed" "Black Rattler," but not the same as the varieties that have borne these names in other parts of the cotton belt. The possibility of securing from this stock an Upland variety that would rival the Sea Island in length and fineness of staple appealed very strongly to Mr. Rowland M. Meade, at that time an assistant in cotton breeding in the Bureau of Plant Industry, and his enthusiasm now appears fully justified by the results of the work that he began.
Three generations of progenies from select individuals had been raised and a superior stock had been separated before the sudden and untimely death of Mr. Meade at San Antonio, Texas, in June, 1916, at the age of twenty-seven. The new variety has been called Meade as a tribute of personal regard of his associates, and to commemorate his services as a plant breeder. Though his work
ended at an age when men are supposed to be prepared only to begin such investigations, he had studied cotton intensively for more than a decade and had made notable contributions to our knowledge of the habits of the plant and to the breeding of superior varieties.
Brief statements regarding the Meade variety have appeared in the current annual reports of the chief of the Bureau of Plant In
dustry and of the chief of the Bureau of Markets. Tests of the strength and spinning qualities of the fiber have given favorable results, so that the possibility of substituting this type of cotton for corresponding lengths of Sea Island is definitely indicated. The length of staple equals or may slightly exceed much of the "mainland" Sea Island crop of Georgia and Florida, Meade fiber under favorable conditions being usually about 1 inches, seldom falling below 1, and sometimes attaining 13. There is little tendency to "butterfly," that is, to shorten the fibers at the base of the seed, which was one of the undesirable traits of the older long-staple varieties, such as Floradora, Sunflower and Allen.
When compared with Sea Island in adjoining rows or plots, the cultural superiority of the Meade cotton is clearly shown. It produces earlier and more abundant flowers, the bolls are nearly twice as large, a heavier crop can be set in a short period, and the fiber matures in advance of the Sea Island, all tending to avoid damage by the boll weevil. Even when a large proportion of the buds or young bolls are shed, as a result of severe weevil injury or other unfavorable conditions, the Meade rows often yield two or three times as much as the Sea Island. And since buyers are accepting the Meade fiber as practically equivalent to the Sea Island the advantage to the farmer is clear. Some of the 1917 crop of Meade cotton was sold for 73 cents on the Savannah market.
Substitution for the Sea Island is also facilitated by the fact that the seeds of the Meade cotton do not have a dense covering of fuzz like most of the Upland varieties, but are naked on the sides like the seeds of the Sea Island and Egyptian cotton, so that it is pos
sible to use the roller gins with which the Sea Island growers are already equipped. The only difficulty arises from the fact that the Meade seeds average somewhat larger than the Sea Island, but this can be avoided by a slight modification of the ginning equipment.
Another consequence of the larger size of the seeds is that the percentage of lint is lower than with some of the Sea Island varieties, although the lint index, the number of grams of lint produced by 100 seeds, is higher. Thus a sample of Meade cotton with a lint percentage of 26.6 had a lint index of 5.45, while Sea Island cotton with a percentage of 30.7 had an index of 4.93. In addition to producing more lint per acre the Meade cotton produces more seed than the Sea Island, the increase being at the rate of about 250 pounds of seed for each 500-pound bale. In such cases the popular idea of the supreme importance of the lint percentage is clearly erroneous.
That the Meade variety was not produced by hybridization, but by the discovery and selection of a superior type already existing, is of interest in relation to heredity. Confusion is likely to arise, as already shown by unauthorized statements appearing in newspapers and agricultural journals, in which the Meade variety appears as a new early Sea Island cotton or as a hybrid between the Upland and Sea Island types. The usual reasoning in such matters is to assume that a variety like Meade must be a hybrid because the plant is like Upland cotton and the lint like Sea Island, but the uniformity of the Meade cotton at once places it in a different class from any stock known to have a direct hybrid origin.
The need of combining the superior fiber of the Sea Island or Egyptian types of cotton with the superior cultural characters of the Upland type has appealed strongly to breeders, and many attempts have been made to secure this result by hybridizing different Upland varieties with Sea Island or Egyptian sorts. Crossing is readily accomplished and the results usually appear promising in the first and second generations. Thousands of natural and artificial hybrids have been raised, compared,
and selected, and progenies of such hybrids have been carried through numerous generations, but without finding any hybrid stock with a sufficiently uniform and stable combination of the desirable characters of the parental types to justify commercial planting. While it is doubtless true that need of uniformity is greater with cotton than with many other crops, on account of the industrial uses of the fiber, the failure to secure sufficiently stable combinations of characters from hybrids between widely different types may be significant. О. Е. Соок
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY,
INTERNATIONAL ZOOLOGY AND THE INTERNATIONAL CODE
DISCUSSION of the famous Piltdown jaw has developed one of the best examples imaginable of evil due to a disregard for established rules of zoological nomenclature. The great interest shown in this specimen by men other than professional zoologists makes the case a particularly good one on which to base an earnest plea for universal use of the International Code without restrictions and evasions. Three comparatively late papers on the Piltdown remains are enough to cite in the present connection.
Miller, in describing the jaw as the type specimen of a new species of extinct chimpanzee, called it Pan vetus. Pycraft, in a totally adverse reply to Miller, attempts to set his readers straight in matters of nomenclature by the statement that "when Mr. Miller speaks of the genus Pan he means the genus Simia." Boules in a review of Miller's paper in which he agrees with that author in every detail except nomenclature, uses for the chimpanzee the generic name Troglodytes.*
1 Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 65, No. 12, November 24, 1915.
2 Science Progress, No. 43, pp. 389-409, January, 1917.
3 L'Anthropologie, Vol. 28, pp. 433-435, JulyOctober, 1917.
4 More expansive than Pycraft, he explains as follows: "Pour ceux de mes lecteurs qui ne serai
Here we have three authors, writing about one specimen and using three generic names for the chimpanzee. The subject is further complicated by the action of a group of European mammalogists who have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to fix the name of the chimpanzee by fiat, not as Pan, Simia, or Troglodytes, but as Anthropopithecus. One of these zoologists, after making his recommendation to the Commission, does not wait for action by that body, but immediately proceeds to use Anthropopithecus when he has occasion to mention the chimpanzee in print. Four generic names are thus current for this one ape. One of these names, Simia, is applied by Boule to the orang-utan, and the fiat petitioners ask that it be fixed on the same animal; but by some authors, it is correctly applied to still another primate, the Barbary ape. Another name, Troglodytes, would mean to most people familiar with generic terms in zoology, past and present, either the gorilla, or a wren.
All this confusion might be avoided if authors would observe the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and use the correct names for these anthropoids, Pan for the chimpanzee, Pongo for the orang-utan, and Gorilla for the gorilla. These names are now well known, and are entirely free from ambiguity.
ent pas familiarisés avec la nomenclature américaine, je dois dire que nos confrères des EtatsUnis ont récemment débaptisé, sans raisons bien sérieuses, les Chimpanzés et les Orangs. A leurs vieux noms latins, universellement connus et employés, de Troglodytes et de Simia, ils ont substituté les termes de Pan pour les Chimpanzés et de Pongo pour les Orangs, sous le prétexte que ce sont là les noms les plus anciennement donnés.''
5 Zoolog. Anzeiger, Vol. 44, pp. 284-286, May, 1914.
• Kungl. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 18-27, 1917.
7 Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1911, p. 125; Miller, "Mamm. Western Europe Brit. Mus.,'' p. vii, 1912; Elliot, "Review Primates," Vol. 2, p. 172, 1913.
HELPING TO STABILIZE NOMENCLATURE
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In these days when there are so many workers in the science of entomology, and when many of the workers have had but little experience in the taxonomic side of the science and, therefore, do not realize its requirements and value, it is especially important that the periodicals should have certain definite, recognized policies, which will make it necessary for all authors to so make up their communications that they will contain at least the most of the important, although seemingly minor, details which are of great assistance to contemporaneous and future workers and tends to stabilize our nomenclature. With this in mind the Entomological Society of Washington has recently adopted the following rules and suggestions governing publication in their Proceedings:
Rule 1.-No description of a new genus, or subgenus, will be published unless there is cited as a genotype a species which is established in accordance with current practise of zoological nomenclature.
Rule 2.-In all cases a new genus, or subgenus, must be characterized and if it is based on an undescribed species the two must be characterized separately.
Rule 3.-No description of a species, subspecies, variety or form will be published unless it is accompanied by a statement which includes the following information, where known: (1) the typelocality; (2) of what the type material consists-with statement of sex, full data on localities, dates, collectors, etc.; and (3) present location of type material.
Rule 4.-No unsigned articles, or articles signed by pseudonyms or initials will be published.
Rule 5.-The ordinal position of the group treated in any paper must be clearly given in the title or in parentheses following the title.
Suggestion 1.-All illustrations, accompanying articles, should be mentioned in the text and preferably in places where the object illustrated is discussed.
Suggestion 2.-It is desirable in describing new genera and species that their taxonomic relationship be discussed, and that distinguishing characters be pointed out.
Suggestion 3.-In discussion of type material modern terms indicating its precise nature will be found useful. Examples of these terms are: type (or holotype), allotype, paratype, cotype, lectotype, neotype, etc.
Suggestion 4.-In all cases in the serial treatment of genera or species and where first used in general articles the authority for the species, or genus, should be given; and the name of the authority should not be abbreviated.
Suggestion 5.-Where the title of any publication referred to is not written in full, standard abbreviations should be used.
Suggestion 6.-When a species discussed has been determined by some one other than the author it is important that reference be made to the worker making the identification.
It is believed that nearly all workers will realize the importance of these or similar rules and it is hoped that other periodicals will carefully consider the matter and determine on definite policies. Such a step would be of great help to all workers and would assure a firmer foundation.
Rule 4 covers a subect which is often abused. When we consider that much of the cataloguing and indexing is now done by people with but little experience and knowledge, it is especially important that all communications should be properly signed.
S. A. ROHWER, Corresponding Secretary-Treasurer
A NEW MARINE TERTIARY HORIZON IN SOUTH AMERICA
IN preparing a monograph on marine Tertiary mollusca from the Lower Amazon region for the Serviço Geologico e Mineralogico do Brazil, we have been astonished to note that we are dealing with a horizon approximately equivalent to the blue marls of the Yaqui valley, Santo Domingo; the Bowden beds of Jamaica; the Gatun formation of the Isthmus of Panama, and the Chipola beds of Florida. CARLOTTA J. MAURY
DEPARTMENT OF PALEONTOLOGY,
THE PANAMA CANAL SLIDES THAT WERE
THE big slides that blocked the Panama Canal after its opening were removed suffi
ciently about April 15, 1916, to permit ships to again use the waterway. The dredges continued at work, however, until they had not only brought the channel to its former size but, by April 1, 1917, had also made the part where maximum sliding occurred more than 200 feet wider than it was before the temporary stoppage of traffic. After January 1, 1917, only a little dredging was done, and by February 1, 1918, it was practically discontinued.
On August 30, 1916, a large bowlder slid into the channel and, because of its menacing position, caused navigation to be suspended until it could be blasted out. Because of its great hardness the rock was not completely removed until September 7, 1916. Since this 7-day interruption to navigation in 1916 the canal has given absolutely satisfactory and uninterrupted service.
Now that even dredging in the vicinity of the former slides, except a very little for general maintenance, has been discontinued for several months, it is interesting to recall an article published in the New York Times during the latter part of 1915, part of which follows:
That uninterrupted service through the Panama Canal could not be expected for several years was the statement made last night by Professor Benjamin Le Roy Miller, Ph.D., who occupies the chair of geology at Lehigh University.
The article continues, quoting the professor directly:
Before the canal can be said to be completed and permanently opened to traffic, the amount of material that must be taken out will not fall far short of the amount already taken from the Culebra cut.
Transportation companies planning to use the canal should realize that they must not expect uninterrupted service for several years. During the dry season the canal may be opened, but it is certain to be closed during the rainy season when the earth is soaked with water and its movement toward the canal facilitated.
General Goethals, then governor of the Panama Canal, in his annual report for 1916
strongly condemns the professor's wild statements. The committee from the National Academy of Sciences, sent down by President Wilson about the end of 1915, also believed such assertions were not warranted by facts. Now the zephyrs of time have completely cleared away the foundations of fog on which the professor's off-hand, sweeping, and calamitous prophecy was based. One might pardon a professor of poetry for indulging in such dire and generalized prophecy regarding the canal, but that a professor of science should ascend so far into the rarified realms of imagination is surely an anomaly.
DONALD F. MACDONALD, Formerly Geologist to the Isthmian Canal Commission
Wishes will hardly avail to rule that Canada is no part of America. The united states south of the Rio Grande bear the name Mexico; similarly the united states (provinces) north of the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes bear the name Canada. Mexico and Canada are both good names, because they are single words and readily afford corresponding adjectives. The geographically intermediate group of states suffers the misfortune of having no name, and a much needed adjective is consequently lacking. All three groups are, of course," of America "-Mexico being, however, rather more American than the other two.
An Introduction to the Chemistry of Plant Products. By PAUL HAAS, D.Sc., Ph.D., Lecturer on Chemistry, Royal Gardens, Kew, and in the Medical School of St. Mary's Hospital, London; and T. G. Hill, A.R.C.S., F.L.S., Reader in Vegetable Physiology in the University of London, University College. With diagrams. Second edition. London, New York, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras, Longmans, Green and Company. 1917. $3.50 net.
The subject of paramount importance in biology is the study of the cell and its constituents. A great deal is known concerning the physical properties and occurrence of nearly all those bodies that possess definite forms under normal conditions. Independent of the biologist a large number of constituents have been isolated and these have been studied as to their chemical properties and in some instances their constitution has been ascertained. The work of the biologist and phytochemist has been usually conducted more or less independently. Up until now this was inevitable on account of the special training required in both these sciences. The time has come, however, when the results of the biologist should be understood by the chemist and the discoveries of the latter interpreted and applied to the study of the constituents of the cell. This work of Haas and Hill aims to supply this deficiency and is likely to be an incentive to the publication of other books covering these subjects.
This work deals essentially with the important plant constituents and includes: (1) Fats, oils and waxes; phosphatides; (2) carbohydrates; (3) glucosides; (4) tannins; (5) pigments; (6) nitrogens bases; (7) colloids; (8) proteins; (9) enzymes. These various substances are considered as to their occurrence in nature, their physical and chemical properties, microchemical reactions, method of extraction, quantitative estimation and physiological significance. The chemical methods of isolation of the plant products and their chemical reaction are very fully considered and for this rea