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testimony to the presence in him of the same sterling qualities of mind and heart. He was a man of great physical and intellectual strength and endurance, possessing a well-ordered mind, with all its powers under perfect control, a realization, in truth, of Huxley's picture of a liberally educated man:

That man, I think, has had a liberal education, who has been so trained in youth that his body is the ready servant of his will, and does with ease and pleasure all the work that, as a mechanism, it is capable of; whose intellect is a clear, cold logic engine, with all its parts of equal strength, and in smooth working order; ready, like a steam engine, to be turned to any kind of work, and spin the gossamers as well as forge the anchors of the mind; whose mind is stored with a knowledge of the great and fundamental truths of nature and of the laws of her operations; one who, no stunted ascetic, is full of life and fire, but whose passions are trained to come to heel by a vigorous will, the servant of a tender conscience; who has learned to love all beauty, whether of nature or of art, to hate all vileness, and to respect others as himself.

I have been led to a choice of a theme for this occasion by the memory of a conversation, if that may be called a conversation where one talked and the other listened, which took place more than thirty years ago. Professor Baird then expressed his disappointment that more of the young zoologists of America were not taking up the study of groups of animals, thus making themselves authorities in some not too narrow field. Thus in time authoritative memoirs and monographs would be forthcoming based on our own fauna, valuable alone as contributions to knowledge, and sure to be of assistance in the solution of problems of vital importance to the welfare of the people. The disposition of American teachers, especially in the eastern universities, to interest themselves and their students exclusively in the biological fad of the hour was criticized, but, of course, not unkindly.

We were seated on the veranda of the Fish Commission residence at Woods Hole, and the murmur of a strong tide making to the eastward through the "hole" was in our ears. Since that quiet evening many tides have ebbed and flowed, and many biological fads have risen to flood and have ebbed away, bearing on their bosoms the wreckage of many rejected theories.

Assuming that as accurate a knowledge as it is possible to gain of the living forms that are found in our country is desirable, to what extent, if any, has the situation improved as it relates to those tendencies which disturbed the scientific and patriotic mind of Professor Baird nearly a generation ago?

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Had he been on the same spot some twenty-three years later, when in 1907 a considerable number of foreign delegates to the International Zoological Congress, which met that year in Boston, visited Woods Hole, his feelings as an American zoologist could be imagined, when he heard, as many of us did, expressions of surprise from visiting European naturalists, that among all the American zoologists at Woods Hole, drawn as they were from a large number of the universities and colleges of the country, there were so few who had an authoritative knowledge of any part of the fauna of their country.

It is a significant fact that Professor von Graff, who at the Boston meeting was elected to the presidency of the congress for its next meeting, while in this country, made collections of turbellarians at Syracuse, Cold Spring Harbor and Woods Hole and, returning to his university, Gratz, published, four years later, an important paper on these American forms. This paper, beside giving descriptions of seven new genera and thirty-one new species and one new subspecies, contained much anatomical and morphological detail.

Out of the hundreds of young men who had been trained in our universities for research work, why had there not arisen at least one who had already become an authority on von Graff's specialty? Must America be rediscovered, and our birthright taken away from us? Is this failure on the part of American zoologists to become acquainted with their own fauna of a piece with the happy-go-lucky existence which we as a nation have been, and are, living, flinging in spendthrift fashion our great natural resources to the viewless air, whence they come back to us not again any more? Or is it due to the same tendencies which Professor Baird deplored? An answer is suggested by the following statistics, compiled from Dr. Cattell's valuable tables, which, unfortunately, extend back only to 1898: Of the 400 doctorates conferred by our universities for work along zoological lines, excluding physiological and paleontological titles, noted in SCIENCE for the years 1898–1915 inclusive, barely 6 per cent. deal with problems which involve the study of groups as large as a family; and of these there appear to be but two that are of monographic proportions.

The prosperity of the nation is in no small degree dependent upon the understanding and sympathy which exist, and are maintained, between the men of science and the members of our law-making bodies. A challenge might be issued to the leaders of scientific thought in our universities to explain why they have played so small a part in public affairs, and why they have had so little influence upon legislation affecting the health and welfare of the people. It is true that a considerable majority of our national legislators are men learned in the law, and, in consequence of their training, peculiarly unresponsive to new ideas, and disposed to judge things as they are; while the scientific man is inclined to

judge things as they ought to be. Thus the scientific man is appalled at the great waste of our natural energy occasioned by the absence of uniform and suitable forestry laws, that would not only help to conserve what we already have, but would make provision for the future. He is inclined, somewhat sharply perhaps, to demand why the energy that is stored in our coal supply, and flowing in every running stream and tide-way has not been made the property of the whole people. He grows impatient under the bonds of the antiquated and chaotic system of weights and measures which we are wearing to our discredit as a supposedly enlightened people, and to our disadvantage in the accomplishment of our commercial enterprises and ambitions. He has difficulty in understanding the state of mind of the person who replies to suggestions that we rationalize the spelling of our words with ludicrous and conventional exhibitions of the skepticism of ignorance, which such suggestions invariably call forth. When he lifts his voice to advocate a change, it seems to him that he is simply a voice crying in the wilderness, for none of these things move the man of precedent, and, learning that even in this day people stone the prophets who would jostle them from the calm of things as they are into the apprehended turmoil of things as they ought to be, too often subdues his voice, and returns in disgust to his laboratory.

As I look over the titles of theses for doctorate degrees in biology, however, knowing that they must, in some fashion, reflect the activities of our biological leaders, I am led to wonder if the failure of science to influence legislation in the interests of the people is not to be charged to the propensity on the part of these leaders to shun the practical. Is there a hierarchy in science that frowns upon independence of thought and action in her sanctuary? That

can hardly be. Let the heads of departments of biological research in our univerities then take heart, and not be afraid to follow the lead of Pasteur, who surely committed no violence upon science by undertaking the solution of practical problems. Let us now turn to the consideration of Professor Baird, the man of science. If there are any who ask what his claims to the appellation, man of science, are, let them turn to the voluminous bibliography, of over one thousand titles, of his writings, one fifth of which are formal contributions to scientific literature. Two of these, his "Mammals of North America" and his "Birds of North America" (Vols. VIII. and IX. of the Pacific Railroad Reports) alone would secure a high place for their author among the world's great scientific


To this virtue of original productiveness in science was added signal ability as an organizer and administrator. When, in 1850, he was called from his position of professor of chemistry and natural history in Dickinson College to the position of assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the young professor brought with him his own private collection, around which, through his genius for organization, grew the great and priceless collections of the Smithsonian Institution and National


Professor Goode presents the following useful condensed outline of the principal phases of activity in the life of Professor Baird; phases, which, it will be observed, overlap in a complicated manner:

(1) A period of twenty-six years' (1843-1869) occupation and laborious investigation and voluminous publication upon the vertebrate fauna of North America; (2) forty years (1840-1880) of continuous contribution to scientific editorship; (3) five years (1845-1850) devoted to educational work; (4) forty-four years (1843-1887) devoted to the encouragement and promotion of scientific

enterprises and the development of new workers among the young men with whom he was brought in contact; (5) thirty-seven years (1850-1887) devoted to administrative work as an officer of the Smithsonian Institution and in charge of the scientific collections of the government; twenty-eight (1850-1878) as practical executive officer, and nine (1878-1887) as secretary and responsible head; (6) sixteen years (1871-1887) as head of the Fish Commission, a philanthropic labor for the increase of the food supply of the world, and, incidentally, in promoting the interests of biological and physical investigation of the waters.2

It is in that phase of Professor Baird's life which is presented by his activities as fish commissioner that are to be found illustrations of practically ideal relations maintaining between science and legislation.

From the summer of 1863, when he first visited Woods Hole, he realized the importance of a thorough investigation into the causes of the decrease of the food fishes along our coast.

In 1870 he made a systematic beginning in this inquiry, $100 having been set apart for that purpose by the Smithsonian Institution, and the Treasury Department granting the use of a 30-foot sloop yacht.

Having thus demonstrated to his own satisfaction by personal investigation that a problem existed, the solution of which was of vital importance to the nation, and realizing that the necessary inquiries were beyond the resources of any private enterprise to carry on, he set about securing the support of the national government.

To this task he brought the great powers of his own natural sagacity, to which was added the experience of thirty years of productive scientific work, and nearly four decades spent in the administration of what had grown, under his management, to be a great museum whose activities had become world-embracing. Although it is said of

2 Smithsonian Report for 1888, p. 83.

him that he could never be induced to make a public address, he spoke easily and fluently in the presence of a few, and with the pursuasive eloquence of simple and exact statement. He soon won interested supporters to his plan.

The following brief extracts from his correspondence, which are taken from Dall's valuable "Biography of Professor Baird," will, I hope, illustrate something of the simple directness of his method of bringing the importance of an inquiry into the causes of the decrease of food fishes to the attention of Congress.

The first is a letter addressed to the Hon. H. L. Daws, M. C., and bears the date December 15, 1870.

Dear Sir: In the accompanying communication I give you a memorandum in regard to the subject of the decrease of the fish of our coast; though I fear I have not expressed my ideas as satisfactorily as might be desired.

In reference to the mode of action to be adopted in regard to this subject I have prepared a resolution which I commend to your consideration.

If you feel inclined to take immediate action in regard to an appropriation to meet the cost of the necessary investigation I would suggest that an item be introduced in one or other of the bills in your hands, providing the sum of, say, five thousand dollars, or as much thereof as may be necessary, to be expended by the commissioner under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, in prosecuting investigations into the subject of food fishes of the Atlantic coast, with a view of ascertaining what remedy can be applied toward securing the supply against its present rapid diminution.

The investigation would have to be carried on at several points on the coast, for instance, the Vineyard Sound, the coast of Maine, the Bay of Funday and perhaps the coast of New Jersey; and require several years for their completion.

Yours truly,

The following extracts are from a letter. of date January 3, 1871, from Professor Baird to the chairman of the House and

Senate Committees on Appropriations. They are chosen to show the judicious mingling of information which, as a scientific man, it was his especial province to impart to Congress, with facts touching upon certain practical interests concerning which members of Congress might be sensitive.

. . . During my visit of last summer to the Vineyard Sound and other maritime portions of New England, I was much impressed by the great dimi


nution in the numbers of the fish which furnish the summer food supply to the coast, . . as compared with their abundance during a previous visit in 1863. . . . The belief is everywhere loudly expressed that unless some remedy be applied. the time is not far distant when we shall lose, almost entirely, this source of subsistence and support. . . . The causes assigned are varied, . most disinterested persons, however, ascribing the scarcity to the use of nets of one pattern or another and the capturing of the fish on or near their breeding grounds before they have spawned; and urging vehemently the passage of laws for preventing or regulating the employment of nets or weirs.


State action has been invoked at various times for the purpose of securing a remedy for the evil in question; but owing to conflicting interests and the influence of powerful parties who are concerned in maintaining the present mode of fishing, little has been accomplished. . . . Before intelligent legislation can be initiated, however, and. measures taken that will not unduly oppress or interfere with interests already established, it is necessary that a careful, scientific research be entered upon, for the purpose of determining what should really be done; since any action presupposes a knowledge of the history and habits of the fish, that, I am sorry to say, we do not at present possess. We must ascertain, among other facts, at what time the fish reach our coast, and during what period they remain; when they spawn and where; what is the nature of their food; what localities they prefer; what agencies interfere with the spawn of the fish; what length of time elapses before the young themselves are capable of reproducing; for how many years the function of reproduction can be exercised; and many other points of equal importance.

Cod and mackerel are not concerned directly in this inquiry, as they are not captured to any great extent in pounds; but since they feed almost en


tirely on other fish, their abundance on or near our coast depends largely upon that of the kinds mentioned in the beginning of this letter. . . .

With regard to salmon, shad and alewives, which run up into inland ponds and streams to spawn, the protective measures now enforced by State Legislatures while these fish are in fresh water are amply sufficient to secure their increase. There are, however, about forty species of food fishes, belonging almost exclusively to the salt water of the coast from the Bay of Fundy to the Gulf of Mexico which require the consideration herein indicated.

As a result of such quiet but convincing appeals to reason, based on a profound knowledge of the subject, and a full understanding of the results desired, many members of Congress became interested, and a bill which was drawn up by Senator George F. Edmonds and Professor Baird was passed by Congress in 1871.

The resolution which established the office of commissioner of fisheries required that the person to be appointed should be a civil officer of the government, of proved scientific and practical acquaintance with the fishes of the coast, to serve without additional salary.

The choice of the commissioner of fisheries was by the terms of the bill practically limited to a single man, Spencer F. Baird, assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

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fessor Goode. It gives in brief form a synopsis of what the Fish Commission had become at the time of the death of its founder, Professor Baird.

The Fish Commission now fills a place ten fold more extensive and useful than at first. Its work is naturally divided into three sections:

1. The systematic investigation of the waters of the United States and the biological and physical problems which they present. The scientific studies of the commission are based upon a liberal and philosophical interpretation of the law. In making his original plans the commissioner insisted that to study only food fishes would be of little importance, and that useful conclusions must needs rest upon a broad foundation of investigations purely scientific in character. The life history of species of economic value should be understood from beginning to end, but no less requisite to know the histories of the animals and plants upon which they feed or upon which their food is nourished; the histories of their enemies and friends, and the friends and foes of their enemies and friends, as well as the currents, temperatures and other physical phenomena of the waters in relation to migration, reproduction and growth. A necessary accomplishment to this division is the amassing of material for research to be stored in the national and other museums for future use.

2. The investigation of the methods of fisheries, past and present, and the statistics of production and commerce of fishery products. Man being one of the chief destroyers of fish, his influence upon their abundance must be studied. Fishery methods and apparatus must be examined and compared with those of other lands, that the use of those which threaten the destruction of useful

fishes may be discouraged, and that those that are inefficient may be replaced by others more serviceable. Statistics of industry and trade must be secured for the use of Congress in making treaties or imposing tariffs, to show to producers the best markets, and to consumers where and with what their needs may be supplied.

3. The introduction and multiplication of useful food fishes throughout the country, especially in waters under the jurisdiction of the general government, or those common to several states, none of which might feel willing to make expenditures for the benefit of the others. This work, which was not contemplated when the commission was tablished, was first undertaken at the instance of the American Fish Cultural Association, whose rep


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