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DR. H. S. WASHINGTON, of the Geophysical DR. FRANK C. GATES, professor of biology at Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, has Carthage College, Carthage, Ill., has been been appointed chemical associate to the scien- commissioned second lieutenant in the Sanitific attachés at the American embassies in tary Corps and reported at Yale University Paris and Rome.

on September 9. PROFESSOR GRAHAM LUSK, of Cornell Med- LIEUTENANT CHARLES A. WATERS, who reical College, and one of the representatives at cently returned to this country after fourteen the recent meetings of the “ Interallied Scien- months' service with the Johns Hopkins Base tific Food Commission” abroad, will give at Hospital in France, will leave shortly for Fort the New York Academy of Medicine on Thurs- Oglethorpe, Ga., where he will be an instrucday evening, October 3, at nine o'clock, the tor in the roentgen-ray division of that canWesley M. Carpenter lecture on “ The scien- tonment. He expects to return to France tific aspect of the interallied food situation." later.

DR. WILLIAM P. Harlow, head of the 0. L. THOMAS has been transferred from the school of medicine of the University of Colo

Colo- Experimental Station of E. I. du Pont de rado, has been appointed a major in the Med- Nemours and Co., Wilmington, Del., where he ical Corps, and has been placed in charge of acted as research chemist, to the U. S. Gove General Hospital No. 21.

ernment Powder Plant at Jacksonville, Tenn., DR. H. L. HOLLINGWORTH, associate pro

where he will be chief supervisor of caustic fessor of psychology in Barnard College, Co

soda manufacture and soda ash recovery. lumbia University, has been commissioned a The Mary Kingsley medal of the Liverpool captain in the Sanitary Corps, and will report School of Tropical Medicine for research in at the Plattsburg Barracks.

tropical diseases has been awarded to Dr. Rhys D. EVANS, associate professor of phys

Griffith Evans, the discoverer of the trypanoics in Bowdoin College, formerly instructor in

some of Surra, a disease of horses and camels physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, the

of India, Burma, and the east. son of Professor D. J. Evans, of the latter in- DR. CAROLINE S. FINLEY, Dr. Anna I. Von stitution, has been commissioned captain in Sholly and Dr. Mary Lee Edward, of New the Chemical Warfare Service.

York, who are connected with the Women's DR. W. E. CARROLL, professor of animal

Overseas Hospitals, have been decorated by husbandry at the Utah Agricultural College,

the French government and commissioned

lieutenants in the Medical Corps of the has been commissioned as captain in the Sanitary Corps of the United States Army, and

French Army, the commissions having been will report to Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, for

bestowed for excellent surgical work and treatspecial training at the medical officers train

ment of the wounded under heavy bombarding camp.

ment in a hospital at the French front. DR. W. L. Argo, formerly of the University

R. G. WEBBER, assistant professor of physics, of California, has been commissioned a lieu

Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, who has been tenant in the Chemical Warfare Service and

in the service of the government during the has been sent to France.

summer at the Watertown Arsenal, has had

his leave of absence extended through the Dr. W. J. ROBBINS, formerly professor of botany at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute,

coming college year to continue his work in

the physical testing department of the arsenal. has been appointed a lieutenant, Sanitary

PROFESSOR C. H. GORDON, Ph.D., professor Corps, and is stationed at Yale University.

of geology and mineralogy, University of Joun PAUL GIVLER, of the department of Tennessee, has returned after an absence of zoology, University of Tennessee, has been ap- two weeks in lecturing at army camps under pointed first lieutenant in the Sanitary Corps. the auspices of the Army Y. M. C. A. The

man.

first week was spent at Camp Hancock, Au- which the professors and students of the unigusta, Ga., and the second at Camp Sevier, versities have been keeping up an agitation, has Greenville, S. C. The plan of giving lectures culminated in a bill presented by the president in the camps on geographical and travel sub- of the republic to congress for deliberation and jects was undertaken at the instance of the action. The bill coincides in general with the committee on geology and geography of the demands of those contending for reforms. It National Research Council, of which Professor provides that the dean shall be elected by the W. M. Davis, of Harvard University, is chair- professors, he shall serve four years and can

not succeed himself. The election will be by Dr. D. S. JENINGS has been appointed to the

a council of seven members, one representing staff of the Experiment Station of the Utah the students, one the alumni and the others the Agricultural College as expert in charge of an professors. extensive soil survey to be made of the state At Harvard University, Dr. Wallace Cleof Utah. This survey will be conducted in

ment Sabine has been appointed acting diconsultation with the station departments of

rector of the Jefferson Physical Laboratory, agronomy, geology, horticulture, irrigation

and Dr. Herbert Sidney Langfield, acting diand drainage, botany, chemistry and bacteriol

rector of the Psychological Laboratory. ogy, and farm management.

PROFESSOR LOUIS DE L. HARWOOD, Montreal, PROFESSOR A. S. HITCHCOCK, Bureau of

has been appointed dean of the medical dePlant Industry, spent the month of August

partment of Laval University. studying and collecting grasses in Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Colorado.

F. C. WERKENTHIN, assistant professor of

biology in New Mexico College of Agriculture DR. IRA E. LEE, instructor of chemistry at

and Mechanic Arts, has been elected to the the University of Rochester, has become a research chemist with E. I. du Pont de Nemours

associate professorship of botany in New & Co., Wilmington, Del.

Hampshire Agricultural College and will as

sume his new duties with the opening of colDR. ALFRED R. SCHULTZ has presented his

lege in September. resignation from the U. S. Geological Survey, to become manager of a hydro-electric power

Ar Cornell University Dr. R. C. Gibbs has and milling company.

been promoted to be professor of physics; Dr. MR. JOHN A. COYE has resigned his position

H. E. Howe, formerly professor of physics at as chief chemist with the Engineering Experi- Randolph-Macon College, has been appointed ment Station of the Iowa State College, Ames,

assistant professor. Iowa, to accept the position of assistant chem- DR. H. L. WALSTER, of the college of agriculist with the General Chemical Company at ture of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, their Laurel Hill Works.

Wisconsin, has returned to his position as PROFESSOR JOJI SAKURAI, who has arrived in associate professor of soils in the university London from Japan, has brought with him a after having spent a year's leave of absence at contribution from Japan to the Ramsay Me- the University of Chicago, where he received morial Fund, amounting to £487 9s. 2d., which the Ph.D. degree in plant physiology and he has handed over to the honorable treasurers, plant ecology. Lord Glenconner and Professor Collie.

The following changes in the faculty of the

department of agriculture in the University of UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

Minnesota have been made recently: H. H.
NEWS

Kildee has resigned as chief of the dairy husThe movement for reform in the manage- bandry division in order to take charge of animent of the universities in Argentina for mal husbandry work at Iowa State College,

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and has been succeeded by C. H. Eckles, terial in 1910 at Yale University, it was supformerly of the University of Missouri; J. S. posed that the result obtained in 1909 by Montgomery and T. G. Paterson have resigned Lenard and Saeland at the University of as associate professors of animal husbandry, Heidelberg was correct. Ho ver, it was found and R. C. Ashby as assistant professor of ani- that the photoelectric effect of phosphorescent mal husbandry, to enter commercial work; W. calcium stopped at about 4,200 Ång., which is H. Peters, formerly head of animal husbandry a shorter wave-length than red light. Thus of the North Dakota Experiment Station, has the result of Lenard and Saeland is incorrect. been appointed professor of animal husbandry; The error arose from confusing the effect of P. A. Anderson has been promoted from in- red light on the conductivity, which did exist, structor to assistant professor of animal hus- with that of the photoelectric effect which did bandry; J. C. Cort, formerly of Iowa State not exist. In their paper in the Annalen der College, has been appointed assistant professor Physik, Lenard and Saeland described what of dairying.

they thought to be a new effect with red light

which was called “ Aktinodielektrische WirkDISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE ung.” This effect differed from the photo

RED RAYS AND PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT electric effect in that the test plate instead of

I wish to call attention to an error which charging up only positively, charged up both should be corrected as it is being repeated and positively and negatively. It was thought that found its way into such standard texts as

the long heat or red waves being more nearly Hughe's “Photoelectricity” (Cambridge Uni- comparable with the dimensions of the moleversity Press). Red light does not give a cules affected them beyond the point where the photoelectric effect with phosphorescent cal- photoelectric effect stopped. However, after cium sulphide, as the effect stops at the wave- working about a year on the effect of red rays length of about 4,200 Ångström, as was shown on phosphorescent calcium sulphide, the writer by the writer. 1 This result was later con

came to the conclusion that no photoelectric firmed at the University of Berlin. The re

effect could be obtained with red light and that sult is of considerable theoretical importance

the actinodielectric effect was nothing more because the theory of the photoelectric effect

than an increase in conductivity such as had which takes into account the necessity of a

previously been known to exist for selenium. critical energy content before the electrons can

After the foregoing conclusion was reached be shot off, shows that there will be a wave

a reexamination of the original article of length for each element beyond which no

Lenard and Saeland showed that on account photoelectric effect will be produced. The ele

of a faulty construction of their apparatus the ment which gives the photoelectric effect in plate on which the material was placed was not phosphorescent calcium sulphide is not known, completely insulated from the accelerating but has been supposed by the writer to be and retarding fields, as is necessary when the sulphur as it is photoelectric for ultra-violet photoelectric effect only is to be obtained. light and it was shown experimentally to give In order to confirm the conclusion, my own a photoelectric effect for wave-lengths longer apparatus was later reconstructed

at the than 3,200 Ångström. This hypothesis could Massachusetts Agricultural College so as to be established by showing that the photoelectric obtain both effects separately at will. It was effect of sulphur ended at the same point as

shown with this apparatus that sulphur was was shown for phosphorescent calcium sul- both photoelectric and actinodielectric. The phide.

photoelectric effect required a high vacuum, When the writer began an investigation of but the actinodielectric effect worked in addithe photoelectric effect of phosphorescent ma- tion at atmospheric pressure, the direction of

1" The Photoelectric Effect of Phosphorescent the current depending upon the direction of Material,” American Journal of Science, 1912. the applied field.

The conductivity of phosphorescent cal the seed piece is reduced. The weak, slender cium sulphide was later separately investigated sprouts produce correspondingly weak plants at the University of Heidelberg, and it was which remain weak during their entire period shown that certain wave-lengths not in the of growth and yield a small crop of tubers. infra-red gave a maximum effect, which was The weak sprouts are not due to lack of contrary to what one might have expected usual food materials, as sprouts on pieces still from Lenard's theory. Rather the effect was large enough to contain an abundance of these a maximum near the point where the photo- substances, show considerable decrease in vigor. electric effect stopped, suggesting some relation If a lack of sufficient ash constituents is rebetween the photoelectric and actinodielectric sponsible for the weak sprouts, they might be effect. An investigation of the relation be expected to approach their usual vigor if the tween these two effects (which amounts to small pieces be allowed to sprout in rich soil, finding out the relation between the ease with as the sprouts form roots very quickly in moist which the electrons are ejected and the in soil. The sprouts from such pieces, however, crease in conductivity for different wave do not gain any vigor under these conditions. lengths of light) was started for sulphur, dur It seems logical to conclude that the potato ing the summer of 1913, by the writer at the tuber contains a limited amount of a special Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory of the growth-promoting substance and if the amount Royal Institution, London, England, but was of tissue surrounding the growing bud is too not finished.

small, there is not enough of this substance The relation between the photoelectric effect, available for normal growth. actinodielectric effect and phosphorescence has Some of the experimental data is included been discussed by the writer and a general in Bulletin No. 212 of the Maryland Agricultheory of phosphorescence has been developed tural Experiment Station under the following which includes fluorescence, fluorescent X title: "Physiological Basis for the Prepararays, organic phosphorescence and self-lumi tion of Potatoes for Seed.” While this bulletin nous radioactive substances. In the review was in press an article appeared by Loeb, in of this theory in the “ Beiblatter zu den An which he states that equal masses of sister nalen der Physik " the difference between leaves of Bryophyllum calycium produce apLenard's theory of phosphorescence and the proximately equal masses of shoots in equal author's is not clearly pointed out.

time and under equal conditions, even if the thor's theory takes into account resonance, number of the shoots varies considerably. He Stokes's law and a critical energy content, concludes that the limited amount of material which is not done by Lenard.

available for growth and the automatic attracIn conclusion, in respect to phosphorescent tion of the material by the buds which grow calcium sulphide, it should be said that red out first, explain the inhibiting effect of these light does increase its conductivity, but does buds on the growth of the other buds. not give a photoelectric effect.

If the correlative inhibition of bud growth CHESTER ARTHUR BUTMAN

on the potato tuber has a chemical basis it does

not appear to be identical with the growthSPECIAL GROWTH-PROMOTING SUBSTANCES promoting substance which the writer has posAND CORRELATION

tulated and which seem to effect the growth of The vigor of potato sprouts bears a direct re

sprouts only after they have started. Several lation to the size of the seed piece, or in other

facts in connection with the growth of sprouts words to the amount of tissue surrounding the

on potato tubers could be mentioned to subeye. When a certain minimum is reached, the

stantiate this conclusion but the two following vigor of the sprouts decreases as the size of

experiments seem sufficient. 2 See “The Electron Theory of Phosphores

If a potato tuber bearing vigorous sprouts cence,Physical Review, 1912.

on the terminal end is cut transversely into

The au

halves, sprouts will appear on the basal half. Therefore, this half still contained sufficient growth material to produce sprouts. This proves that, although the basal buds would not grow out before their connection with the terminal end of the tuber was severed, they were not prevented from doing so because the terminal sprouts had automatically attracted the limited amount of material for growth.

If a tuber, before the end of the rest period, is cut into transverse slices the buds on the basal slices will grow out first. If the tuber is cut lengthwise into fractions the growth of basal buds is entirely suppressed. The terminal buds on these fractions do not produce sprouts until the end of the natural rest period for whole tubers, which in some cases is a month after the basal buds on the transverse slices have grown out. The basal buds seem to have a shorter rest period than the terminal ones but are unable to grow out until their connection with the terminal end of the tuber is severed. This experiment shows that the terminal end of the tuber, even before its buds have grown out, may inhibit the growth of buds more basally situated.

Potatoes are sometimes affected with a physiological disease called "Spindling Sprout," because the whole tubers produce long, slender, weak sprouts. In all probability the special growth-promoting substances are abnormally low in these tubers. In this connection, however, the most interesting symptom of the disease is a lack of any inhibiting effect of the terminal buds on the other buds, as the sprouts appear, as a rule, simultaneously over the entire tuber. The behavior of the Bryophyllum plants reported on by Braumi may have been due to a condition of the particular plants analogous to the “Spindling Sprout” of the potato. If this were true it would account for the instances of regeneration of Bryophyllum leaves seemingly at variance with the experiments described by Loeb.2

CHARLES 0. APPLEMAN MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STA.,

COLLEGE PARK

QUOTATIONS
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION IN GREAT

BRITAIN AND THE WAR
The effect of the war upon the number of
medical students in their different years of
professional study has been described from
time to time by the president of the General
Medical Council. Between the years 1910 and
1914 the annual entry of first-year medical
students averaged roughly 1,440. Since the
war the number of these entries has increased
by five or six hundred a year. Thus the whole
number of students actually pursuing medical
studies in the medical schools of the United
Kingdom has shown a steady upward move-
ment. In May, 1916, the total was 6,103, in
January, 1917, it was 6,682, in October, 1917,
it was 7,048, while the latest figure, for May,
1918, was 7,630. But for some time the larger
withdrawals of male students from the medical
schools for combatant service or for service as
surgeon probationers in the navy, more than
nullified the increased entries and bade fair to
produce a serious deficiency of new practition-
ers in the years 1918 and 1919. Urgent repre-
sentations upon this matter were made to the
government. As a result something has been
done to make good the threatened shortage by
the return of third-year students from active
service to complete their studies, by the re-
tention in the medical schools of students on
their way towards qualification who are liable
to be called to the colors, and by limiting the
period of service of surgeon probationers. The
Minister of National Service has further un-
dertaken to provide that, if possible, the sup-
ply of students in training shall be kept at a
level sufficient to give an annual yield of at
least 1,000 new practitioners. This is the
official estimate, but it will be well to re-
member that though there has been heavy
wastage among medical men through the
hazards and hardships of war the declaration
of peace will be followed by the release from
military duty of the majority of the medical
men now serving in the army and navy. De-
mobilization is a matter which effects the med-
ical profession at least as much as other sec-
tions of the community. The method in

1 Braun, Lucy E., Bot. Gaz., 65, 191–193, 1918. 2 Loeb, J., Bot. Gaz., 65, 150–174, 1918.

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