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ical industries, and in the manufacture of electric batteries. There are four commercial sources of manganese-manganese ores, manganiferous iron ores, manganiferous silver ores and manganiferous residuum from roasting zine from an ore containing zinc, iron and manganese minerals. Under normal conditions the world's supply of manganese ore has come mainly from India, Brazil and Russia, but owing to the derangement of ocean transportation and of the foreign manganese industry only the deposits of Brazil are now available to the United States, and these can not be drawn upon freely because of the scarcity of ships and the long shipment.

The deposits of manganese ore in the Cartersville district, Ga., have recently been examined by Laurence LaForge, geologist of the United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, in cooperation with Mr. J. P. D. Hull, assistant state geologist of Georgia, and Professor W. R. Crane, of the United States Bureau of Mines. The ore deposits occur in a belt, 1 to 3 miles wide and 18 miles long, on the east side of the Coosa Valley, at the base of and on the western slopes of the hills that form the western margin of the Piedmont Plateau. This belt is in the eastern part of Bartow county, and the city of Cartersville is on its west side near its south end A branch of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad extends along the west side of the belt and spur tracks reach several of the larger mines. Iron ore, ocher and barite are also mined in this belt, and some of the mines produce two or more of these minerals.

The result of the examination is encouraging, for, although the district is an old one, the field studies of the geologists and the exploratory work of the mining companies have revealed the existence in it of large reserves of both high-grade manganese ore and manganiferous iron ore. In recent years little manganese ore has been mined in this district, but the necessity of the war and the curtailment of imports which have stimulated the production of domestic ore have caused a revival of mining there.

The workable manganese ores occur in part

in vein and replacement deposits and in part in detrital deposits. The ores in the vein and replacement deposits are believed to have been deposited from surface water that carried in solution material leached from a considerable thickness of weathered rock, or, in places, from other older deposits of the same sort. The detrital deposits are scattered through a widespread thick surficial mantle of rock waste, wash and alluvium. The deposits of both types are extremely irregular in character and occurrence. They include both hard and soft ore and both pyrolusite and psilomelane, and perhaps manganite, though pyrolusite seems to be more abundant. Both types include large bodies of manganiferous limonite.

The vein and replacement deposits are found mainly in residual clay and fragments of rock derived by weathering from a siliceous limestone, or in a breccia made up chiefly of the shattered, weathered and somewhat displaced upper beds of quartzite that lies beneath the limestone. Some, however, are found at or near the base of the thick surficial blanket of rock waste and alluvium, in which detrital ores also occur. The manganese minerals occur as coatings on or as veins filling crevices in the quartzite; as irregular veins, sheets and pockets in both residual clay and alluvial material; and as stalactitic or mammillary concretions in the clay.

The hard rock that underlies most of the vein and replacement deposits is the Weisner quartzite, which was once overlain by the limestone that has been called the Beaver limestone, both Lower Cambrian formations. Beds of siliceous dolomite still remain, but nearly everywhere the soluble material of the limestone has been removed and nothing is left to indicate its former presence but a dense lumpy dark-red clay or masses of chert fragments in a red clay matrix. The strata have been sharply folded and have been displaced by many small thrust faults, so that the resulting structure is very complex.

The high-grade ore of the Cartersville district, as shown by the average of analyses of about 1,600 tons of material shipped within the last few months, contains about 42 per

cent. of manganese, 6 per cent. of iron, 6 per cent. of silica and 0.14 to 0.20 per cent. of phosphorus. The manganiferous iron ore of the district, as shown by the average of the analyses of about 300 tons shipped recently, contains about 15 per cent. of manganese, 20 per cent. of iron, 30 per cent. of insoluble material and 0.17 per cent. of phosphorus. Practically all the ore produced in the district is shipped to furnaces at Birmingham, Ala., for the manufacture of ferromanganese, spiegeleisen and manganiferous pig iron.

The irregularity of the occurrence of the ores, the complex geologic structure, and the scarcity of outcrops in much of the district make it extremely difficult to use the geologic conditions as a guide in exploration and development and hazardous to predict the probable occurrence of ore in any locality or to do much more than to guess at the reserves of ore. Fortunately, however, the district has been worked for many years, either for manganese ore or for other minerals, and has been rather thoroughly explored, so that there is some basis for an estimate of the reserves. The statement seems to be warranted that the district probably still contains at least 100,000 tons of minable high-grade manganese ore and perhaps 250,000 to 300,000 tons of manganiferous iron ore-sufficient to last for many years unless the rate of production is greatly increased.

BRITISH ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIES AFTER THE WAR

IN the general survey with which the report of the British Departmental Committee on the electrical trades is introduced, it is urged, as we learn from the Journal of the Society of Arts, that the national importance of those trades has never been realized either by the government or the general public. Through the achievements of Faraday, Wheatstone, Kelvin, Swan, Hopkinson, and many others, Great Britain was first in electrical enterprise, and should have retained her preeminence; but manufacturers were hampered while Parliament and local authorities debated how the distribution and use of electricity might be prevented from infringing "conventional

conceptions of public privileges and vested interests." Consequently foreign manufacturers were enabled, both in their own and other markets to gain a hold which they have never lost. The approximate annual value before the war of the total products of electrical plant, mains, and appliances in this country and Germany is set out in the following table:

Great Britain,
£

Total electrical products. 22,500,000
Exports
Imports

7,500,000
2,933,000

Consumption of homemade machinery

Germany,
£

60,000,000 15,000,000 631,000

15,000,000 45,000,000 Moreover, of the £22,500,000 manufactured here, a large proportion was produced by concerns under foreign control, and in the case of "British" exports a proportion consisted of foreign manufactures reshipped as British goods! Apart from legislative obstacles, Great Britain, it must be remembered, had attained much prosperity and technical efficiency in her use of steam, and therefore her manufacturers had less inducement than their rivals in foreign countries to adopt electrical driving. Another factor retarding our electrical progress has been the "strength of the gas interests." Again, foreign governments, appreciating the importance of conserving their home markets as a basis for the development of overseas trade, imposed protective duties and exerted influence on State Departments to purchase native goods. An industry cultivated under these and other encouraging conditions has had an immense advantage in international competition. There is, the committee says, conclusive evidence of the existence of German control over companies ostensibly British, and of that German control being exercised to the detriment of British interests indirectly through companies incorporated in America, Switzerland, and other neutral countries. "At the outbreak of war negotiations were in progress for the acquisition by Germany of financial control in existing companies of the United Kingdom, as well as in the British Dominions and India,

.....

which if successfully concluded would have still further restricted the use of British goods in many parts of the empire."

The scientific replanning of our distribution of energy on which the committee so strongly insists would, it is calculated, effect a saving of no less than 50 million tons of coal per annum. Witnesses of high authority estimate the loss incurred by the nation through failure to take full advantage of electrical progress at quite £100,000,000 a year.

The larger part of the report is devoted to a careful and detailed examination, from sectional points of view, of the position of the industry. Section I. deals with electricity generation and transmission; Section II. with electrical traction; Section III. with manufacturing; Section IV. with the interdependence of manufacture and finance; and Section V. with imperial control of sources of electrical energy. Respecting the latter, it is suggested that, in particular, India and the selfgoverning Dominions should take stock of their facilities for generating electricity, whether from water-power, coal, oil, or other sources of energy, and should appreciate their permanent and ever-increasing importance to the empire.

THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY OF THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK

THE following members of the staff of the department of chemistry have gone into war work:

1. In the service:

Captain Reston Stevenson, Sanitary Corps,
Overseas.

Major F. E. Breithut, Chief Personnel Officer,
Chemical Warfare Service.

Second Lieutenant Paul Gross, Research Division, Chemical Warfare Service. Captain D. L. Williams, chief of supplies, Re

search Division, Chemical Warfare Service. Second Lieutenant Martin Meyer, United States Army. Corporal Howard Adler, Chemical Warfare Service.

Corporal Arthur W. Davidson, Chemical Warfare Service. Ensign Benjamin Rayved, Paymaster Division.

Private Leon J. Smolen.

Private Nathan Rauch, Chemical Warfare Service.

Private Moses Chertcoff, Chemical Warfare Service.

Private F. L. Weber, Students' Army Training Corps.

Private Martin Kilpatrick, Chemical Warfare Service.

Private Hyman Storch, Chemical Warfare Service.

Joseph L. Guinane, Chemical Warfare Service.
Private Samuel Yachnowitz.
Yeoman Julius Leonard.

Yeoman Alexander Lehrman, Chemical Division.

2. In civilian capacity:

Professor H. R. Moody, War Industries Board. Tutor B. G. Feinberg, Ordnance.

Fellow Paul Scherer, Ordnance.

The present staff is as follows:

Baskerville, Charles, professor and director of the Chemistry Building, emeritus.

Friedburg, L. H., associate professor of chemistry. Curtman, Louis J., assistant professor, chief of the

Division of Qualitative Chemistry.

Prager, William L., assistant professor, chief of the Division of Organic Chemistry.

Curtis, Robert W., assistant professor, chief of the Division of Quantitative Chemistry. Estabrooke, William L., assistant professor, chief of the Division of the Evening and Summer Sessions.

Coles, Henry T., assistant professor of industrial chemistry.

Cooper, Herman C., assistant professor of physical chemistry.

McCrosky, Carl R., instructor.
LeCompte, T. R., instructor.
Brown, Stanley F., tutor.
Meltsner, Max, tutor.
Babor, Joseph A., tutor.

THE CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE THE Chemical Warfare Service has been duly authorized by order of the Secretary of War, to make the necessary arrangements through the Adjutant General's Office to secure the furlough, without pay or allowances, of such chemists as are necessary in such government bureaus as the Bureau of Standards, Bureau of Chemistry, Bureau of Mines, United States Patent Office, where such chem

ists are engaged in chemical work for the government, or state bureaus concerned, essential to the prosecution of the war. At the same time they are advised that the new selective service regulations, to be published shortly, will emphasize to the draft boards the fact that skilled employees of war industries should be placed in deferred classification. The induction into the military service of skilled men necessary to essential industries or occupations, to be subsequently furloughed back to their industries or occupations, involves an expense to the government, and the men concerned lose time from their necessary work. The bureaus concerned are authorized by the selective service regulations to submit to the draft boards affidavits and written proof to maintain their contention that their employees should be placed in deferred classification and it is believed that they should be encouraged in securing deferred classification rather than securing the furlough of the men after they have been inducted into the military service. All communications in regard to information from those desiring any details should be addressed to Major Victor Lenher, Chemical Warfare Service, U. S. A., chief, governmental and State Relations Branch, Unit F, Corridor 3, Floor 3, 7th and B Streets, N.W., Washington, D. C.

THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS

THE American College of Surgeons will convene at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City on October 21. Arrangements for the meeting, which is expected to attract surgeons from all parts of the United States and Canada, are in charge of a committee headed by Dr. J. Bentley Squier. Three important meetings at which the latest discoveries in medical science will be discussed and demonstrated will be held on October 22, 23 and 24.

The first will be addressed by the retiring president, Dr. John G. Clark, of Philadelphia, after which Dr. William J. Mayo, of Rochester, Minn., president-elect, will be inducted into office. Other speakers at this meeting will be Surgeon-General Gorgas, of the army, Surgeon-General Braisted, of the navy, and Sur

geon-General Victor Blue, of the public health service. Clinics will feature the remaining sessions.

Among the surgeons expected from abroad are Sir Thomas Myles, C.B., of Dublin; Gray Turner, of Newcastle-on-Tyne; Raffaele Bastianelli, of Italy; Major R. Ledeaux Lebard, of the French army; Theodore Tuffler, SurgeonGeneral of the French army; Lieutenant Colonel Clarence L. Starr, of Toronto; Sir Robert Jones, of Liverpool; W. W. Chipman, of Montreal; Pierre Duvall, of Paris; SurgeonGeneral Antoine de Page, of the Belgian army, and Colonel Cuthbert Wallace, of the British army.

Prominent American surgeons who are expected to attend are Major-General M. W. Ireland; Surgeon-General Blue, of the public health service; Major General Gorgas, of the army; Surgeon-General Braisted, of the navy; Colonel Frank Billings and Colonel Joseph Miller, of the Army Medical Corps, and Dr. Frank Martin, founder of the American College of Surgeons. An invitation has also been sent to Colonel Joseph A. Blake and Colonel George E. Brewer, New York surgeons, now with the forces in France.

THE AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COMMITTEE

THE United States Department of Agriculture announces the arrival in England of a committee of men familiar with food production and agricultural organization and activities in the United States. The personnel of the committee is as follows:

Dr. W. O. Thompson, chairman, president of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Mr. Carl Vrooman, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture; Mr. R. A. Pearson, president of Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa; Mr. T. F. Hunt, director of the Agricultural Experiment Station and dean of the College of Agriculture, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.; Mr. D. R. Coker, farmer and member of National Agricultural Advisory Committee, Hartsville, S. C.; Mr. Wm. A. Taylor, chief, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Mr. George M. Rommel, chief,

Animal Husbandry Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Mr. George R. Argo, specialist in cotton business methods, Bureau of Markets, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Mr. John F. Wilmeth, administrative assistant, Bureau of Markets, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

The committee will secure general information regarding food production conditions in England, France and Italy, so that, when they return, they will be able to reveal the needs more effectively to the leaders of agriculture in the United States and to farmers generally. They will also study agricultural problems in England, France and Italy, including the use of machinery and the assignment of labor in farming operations, the livestock situation, the depletion of herds and the probable extent to which Europe may call on this country for live stock to replenish herds, the seed situation and the probabilities of securing supplies from Europe and similar matters.

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS MAJOR GENERAL MERRITTE W. IRELAND, of the Medical Corps, has been appointed Surgeon General of the Army, to succeed Major William C. Gorgas, who was retired on October 5. General Gorgas will remain in Europe as the medical representative of the United States Army at the Interallied War Council.

DR. ARTHUR L. DAY, director of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington since its establishment in 1906, has resigned to accept a research position with the Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y.

PROFESSOR FRANK P. UNDERHILL, of Yale University, has received the commission of Lieutenant Colonel in the Chemical Warfare Service. He is in charge of gas investigations at New Haven.

SECRETARY HOUSTON has visited the droughtstrickened sections of the country to confer with field representatives of the Department of Agriculture in regard to making loans to farmers from the special fund of $5,000,000 set aside for that purpose. Professor G. I. Christie and Mr. L. M. Estabrook, assistants to the Secretary, are supervising the work in the northwest and southwest, respectively.

WILLIAM H. Ross, of the Bureau of Soils, has been commissioned captain in the Chemical Warfare Service and has been assigned to work in the chemical laboratory, at Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland.

DR. LUCIUS POLK BROWN, chief of the Bureau of Food and Drugs of the New York City Health Department, has been granted leave of absence without salary for the period of the war, to accept a commission as a captain in the food and nutrition division of the sanitary corps.

DR. PAUL E. KLOPSTEG, formerly of the physics department of the University of

Minnesota, is now with the Leeds and Northrup Company, of Philadelphia.

THE Italian Scientific Society has awarded the natural sciences gold medal for 1918 to Professor Filippo Eredia for his work in meteorology.

IN honor of Professor Golgi, who retires this year from the chair of pathology and histology at the University of Pavia, it is proposed to found a scholarship in the medical department for the orphan of some physician, preferably one whose father was lost during the present war. Contributions may be sent to the treasurer, Tesoriere dell' Ordine dei Medici della Provincia di Pavia.

MR. WILLIAM BOWIE has resigned as treasurer of the Washington Academy of Sciences on account of having been commissioned a major in the Engineering Corps, U. S. A., and is succeeded by Mr. R. L. Faris, of the Coast and Geodetic Survey.

MR. GEO. F. FREEMAN, plant breeder in the college of agriculture of the University of Arizona, has left for Egypt and will take up his permanent residence in Cairo, in connection with the Société Sultanienne de Agriculture.

THE first lecture of the series of the Harvey Society will be given in New York City on Oc

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