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ence, and sought to offset them by the creation of appropriate agencies. Thus arose throughout the British Empire a group of councils for scientific and industrial research. The first of these was established in England by an order in council issued in 1915. Subsequently, Canada, Australia and South Africa followed the example of the mother country, and New Zealand proposes to do likewise. The world-wide movement swept across the empire, and its benefits will be felt in every country under the British flag. A similar awakening was experienced in France and Italy, but in both of these countries the pressure of the war concentrated attention for the moment upon military problems. At present, the needs of industry are also under consideration, and research organizations are being developed to meet them.
Without entering here into a detailed discussion of these councils, we may mention certain typical illustrations of their activities from the report of the British Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research for the year 1916-17. In this period it devoted itself mainly to the organization of industrial research, partly because of the prime importance of stimulating and fixing the interest of manufacture in the development of industry through research, and partly because the effect of the war has been to render industrial leaders more susceptible than ever before to the growth of new ideas. In pure science, on the contrary, the war has seriously affected the prosecution of research, because so many investigators have been drawn into military and industrial activities. Thus, while the advisory council strongly emphasizes the fundamental importance of pure science, it has been forced to postpone its activities in this field until the arrival of more favorable conditions.
Research for the development of the industries may be conducted in several different ways. In this country a stimulating example has been set by such great corporations as the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, the General Electric Company, the Eastman
Kodak Company, the Dupont Companies, and the Westinghouse Electric Company, which have established large research laboratories.
The value of this example has been enhanced by the remarkable success achieved by these laboratories in matters affecting public welfare, such as the reduction in cost of electric lighting caused by the development of the Mazda lamp and the possibility of transcontinental telephony, not to mention the latest advances in the field of wireless telephony.
Self-interest will sooner or later induce many other corporations to adopt similar methods of improving their products, but the heavy expense of establishing independent research laboratories will sometimes prove an insurmountable obstacle. Other means must then be resorted to. A useful example is that afforded by the National Canners' Association, which has established a central research laboratory in Washington, where any member of the association can send his problems for solution and where extensive investigations, the results of which are important to the entire industry, are also conducted.
The British Advisory Council, aided by a government appropriation of one million pounds, is actively promoting the organization of trade research associations for the mutual benefit of the members of the great industries. Thus a provisional committee representative of the British cotton industry has proposed the establishment of a cooperative association for research in cotton, to include in its membership cotton spinning, doubling the thread making firms, cloth, lace and hosiery manufacturers, bleachers, dyers, printers and finishers, which will conduct researches extending from the study of the cotton plant to the "finishing" of the manufactured article. So long ago as 1835 Baine wrote in his "History of the Cotton Manufacture":"The manufactory, the laboratory and the study of the natural philosopher, are in close practical conjunction; without the aid of science, the arts would be contemptible; without practical application, science would consist only of barren theories, which men
would have no motive to pursue." This spirit, clearly shown in the early cotton industry, is now to be revived for the common benefit.
The woolen and worsted manufacturers of Great Britain are also drafting the constitution of a research association, and the Irish flax spinners and weavers are about to do likewise. Research associations will be established by the Scottish shale oil industry and the photographic manufacturers, while various other British industries are looking in the same direction. Thus a national movement for research, directly resulting from the war, has already made marked headway. The research councils in various parts of the British Empire, actuated by the same spirit, are rapidly extending the advantages which an appreciation of the national importance of research will afford.
The National Research Council, aided and supported by the Engineering Foundation, is just entering upon an extensive campaign for the promotion of industrial research. In addition to a strong active committee, comprising the heads of leading industrial laboratories and others prominently identified with scientific methods of developing American industries, an advisory committee has been formed to back the movement. This already comprises the following gentlemen: Honorable Elihu Root; Mr. Theodore N. Vail, president of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company; Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; Mr. Edwin Wilbur Rice, Jr., president of the General Electric Company; Mr. George Eastman, president of the Eastman Kodak Company; Mr. Pierre S. duPont, president of the E. I. duPont de Nemours Powder Company; Mr. A. W. Mellon, founder of the Mellon Institute for Industrial Research; Judge E. H. Gary, president of the United States Steel Corporation; Mr. Cleveland H. Dodge, of the Phelps-Dodge Corporation, and Mr. Ambrose Swasey, of The Warner and Swasey Company.
We are indeed fortunate to have the aid of men whose experience and standing are SO
certain to command public recognition of the claims of scientific and industrial research.
Science is in the air, keen competition is in prospect, and the industries are more favorably inclined than ever before to the widespread use of research methods. Their greatest leaders, moreover, are unanimous in their appreciation of the necessity of promoting research for the sake of advancing knowledge, as well as for immediate commercial advantages. Only thus can the most fundamental and unexpected advances be rendered possible, and continued progress in all directions assured.
GEORGE SCHRADER MATHERS CAPTAIN GEORGE SCHRADER MATHERS, M.C., U. S. Army, a member of the staff of the McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases, Chicago, died October 5, 1918, at the age of thirty-one.
Captain Mathers took his college work in the University of Texas and the University of Chicago, and received his medical degree from Rush Medical College in affiliation with the University of Chicago in 1913. Having served one year and one half as interne in the Cook County Hospital he began work in the McCormick Institute under a grant from the Fenger Memorial Fund, but before long he became associated fully with the institute. During the three and one half years of this association he accomplished much fruitful work and published important papers or lobar pneumonia, epidemic poliomyelitis, acute respiratory infections in man and in the horse, and on epidemic meningitis. He demonstrated that a streptococcus-like microorganism occurs apparently constantly in the central nervous system in persons that have died from epidemic poliomyelitis. Early last spring he was commissioned as first lieutenant and placed in charge of the laboratory of the embarkation hospital at Camp Stuart. In May he was promoted to captain and given charge of the laboratory of the base hospital at Camp Meade. He gave himself completely to his work. In the course of his duties and while intensely
engaged in a study of the bacteriology of influenza he was stricken and died with pneumonia in a few days.
Captain Mathers was a fine, lofty-minded, lovable young man, of rare enthusiasm for work, and a remarkable efficiency. He had committed himself to research and his early death is a great loss to medicine.
DR. ARTEMAS MARTIN, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, died on November 7, 1918, after an illness of two weeks, in the eight-fourth year of his life. He was born on a farm in Steuben County, New York, on August 3, 1835. Four winters in the schools of Venango County, Pennsylvania, comprised all his schooling. Wood-chopping, oil-well drilling and farming-with four winters as a district teacher-made up his work until the age of fifty. The little leisure afforded by such work was devoted to the study of mathematics.
Early in life he began contributing problems and solutions to various magazines. In 1877, while engaged in market gardening for a livelihood, he began the editing and publishing of the Mathematical Visitor and in 1882 he followed this up with the Mathematical Magazine. Not only did he do the editing and publishing of these magazines, but for financial reasons was compelled to do the type setting also. That he did this well is evidenced by the character of the mathematical typography of his journals.
Aside from articles in his own magazines, he contributed a large number of papers to various mathematical journals here and abroad. His writings dealt chiefly with properties of triangles, logarithums, properties of numbers, diophantine analysis, probability and elliptic integrals. He was an authority on early mathematical text-books and collaborated with Dr. Greenwood in the "Notes on the History of American Text-Books on Arithmetic."
Dr. Martin's mathematical abilities received
In 1885, Dr. Martin was appointed librarian of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, where his wide knowledge of mathematics made him of great service. In 1898 he was made computer in the Division of Tides, which place he held until his death.
Personally, he was a man of very prepossessing appearance. Of simple tastes and exhibiting few of the limitations of the pioneer period through which he passed the first fifty years of his life, he exemplified most of its robust virtues. Fond of home life and children he denied himself marriage that he might care for his parents and sisters. Traveling scarcely at all, he was well known to American mathematicians of the previous generation who found him an agreeable and companionable man.
Dr. Martin's memory is to be fittingly perpetuated in the Artemas Martin Library of the American University at Washington, D. C. This library, consisting principally of mathematical works, and given by Dr. Martin to the American University shortly before his death, was considered one of the finest private collections in America. At the same university there is also to be an Artemas Martin Lectureship in mathematics and physics, endowed by Dr. Martin.
THE BEQUESTS OF MRS. SAGE
THE will of Mrs. Margaret Olivia Sage, disposes of an estate estimated at $50,000,000, of which more than $40,000,000 is to be distributed among charitable, educational and religious institutions. It is said that since the death of her husband, Mrs. Sage had given between $35,000,000 and $40,000,000 to various institutions and charities, using part of the principal, as well as the income, of the Sage estate in these benefactions.
The estate is divided into fifty-two equal parts for convenience in distributing the residue among the various charities named in the instrument. Each of these parts is valued at approximately $800,000.
The will contains the following clause relating to these legacies: "It is my desire that each religious, educational and charitable corporation, which may receive a share of my residuary estate shall use the whole or part of such legacy received by it for some purpose which will commemorate the name of my husband, but I simply express this as a desire and do not impose it as a condition on my gift." Certain sums given by Mrs. Sage in her lifetime to institutions and organizations are to be deducted from the amounts to be distributed from the residue, which is to be divided as follows:
Russell Sage Foundation, $5,600,000; Troy Female Seminary, Woman's Hospital in the state of New York, Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church of America (woman's executive committee), Woman's Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, New York City Mission and Tract Society, American Bible Society, Children's Aid Society, Charity Organization Society, $1,600,000; Presbyterian Board of Relief for Disabled Ministers, $800,000; Metropolitan Museum of Art and The American Museum of Natural History, $1,600,000 each; New York Botanical Garden, New York Zoological Society, New York Public Library, Troy Polytechnic Institute, Union College, Schenectady, $800,000 each; Syracuse University, $1,600,000; Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., New York University, Yale University, Amherst College, Williams College, Dartmouth College, Princeton University, Barnard College, Bryn Mawr College, Vassar College, Smith College, Wellesley College, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, New York Infirmary for Women and Children, Presbyterian Hospital in the City of New York, State Charities Aid Association and Hampton Institute, $800,000 each.
The will then gives the following specific legacies to public institutions:
Troy Female Seminary, $50,000; Association for the Relief of Respectable Aged Indigent Females in the City of New York, $125,000; Woman's Hospital in the State of New York, $50,000; Board of
Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church of the United States of America (Woman's Executive Committee of Home Missions), $25,000; Woman's Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, $25,000; New York City Mission and Tract Society (Woman's Board), $20,000; New York Female Auxiliary Bible Society, $10,000; Children's Aid Society of the City of New York, $10,000; Charity Organization Society of the City of New York, $20,000; First Presbyterian Church of Syracuse, $10,000; First Presbyterian Church at Sag Harbor, $10,000; Society for the Relief of Half Orphan and Destitute Children of the City of New York, $25,000; New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, $25,000; Home for the Friendless, $100,000; New York Exchange for Women's Work, $25,000; Woman's National Sabbath Alliance, $25,000; Ladies' Christian Union of the City of New York, $100,000; Working Women's Protective Union, $10,000; Servants of Relief for Incurable Cancer, $25,000; Salvation Army, $25,000; Park College, $100,000; Idaho Industrial Institute, $200,000; Old Ladies' Home at Syracuse, $25,000; Northfield Schools (Northfield Seminary and Mount Hermon Boys' School), $100,000; Middlebury College, $100,000; Rutgers College, $100,000; Y. M. C. A. of the City of New York, $100,000; Y. W. C. A. of the City of New York, $100,000; Mount Sinai Hospital, $100,000; Syracuse University, $100,000; Hampton Institute, $100,000. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION
THE following statement has been adopted unanimously by the Inter-Allied Conference on the future of International Organization in Science, which met at Burlington House under the auspices of the Royal Society on October 9. It is intended to serve as a preamble to a number of resolutions, dealing with the withdrawal of the Allied nations from existing international associations and the formation of new ones to take their place. The confirmation of the academies represented at the Conference is required before the text of the resolutions can be made public:
When more than four years ago the outbreak of war divided Europe into hostile camps, men of science were still able to hope that the conclusion of peace would join at once the broken threads; and that the present enemies might then once more be able to meet in friendly conference, uniting their efforts to advance the interests of science. For ever since the revival of learning in the Middle Ages, the
prosecution of knowledge has formed a bond strong enough to resist the strain of national antagonism. And this bond was strengthened during the latter part of the last century, when branches of science developed requiring for their study the cooperation of all the civilized nations of the world. International associations and conferences rapidly multiplied, and the friendly intercourse between the learned representatives of different countries grew more intimate, in spite of their political differences, which were admitted but not insisted upon.
In former times, war frequently interrupted the cooperation of individuals without destroying the mutual esteem based on the recognition of intellectual achievements; peace then soon effaced the scars of a strife that was ended. If to-day the representatives of the scientific academies of the Allied nations are forced to declare that they will not be able to resume personal relations in scientific matters with their enemies until the Central Powers can be readmitted into the concert of civilized nations, they do so with a full sense of responsibility; and they feel bound to record the reasons which have led them to this decision.
Civilization has imposed restrictions on the conduct of nations which are intended to serve the interests of humanity and to maintain a high standard of honor. Such are the recognition of the sanctity of treaties-especially those designed to apply to a state of war-and the avoidance of unnecessary cruelties inflicted on civilians. In both these respects the Central Powers have broken the ordinances of civilization, disregarding all conventions and unbridling the worst passions which the ferocity of war engenders. War is necessarily full of cruelties: individual acts of barbarity can not be avoided and have to be borne. It is not of these we speak, but of the organized horrors encouraged and initiated from above with the sole object of terrorizing unoffending communities. The wanton destruction of property, the murders and outrages on land and sea, the sinking of hospital ships, the insults and tortures inflicted on prisoners of war, have left a stain on the history of the guilty nations which can not be removed by mere compensation of the material damage inflicted. In order to restore the confidence, without which no scientific intercourse can be fruitful, the Central Powers must renounce the political methods which have led to the atrocities that have shocked the civilized world.
The following delegates were expected to attend the Conference, representing different nations and academies:
Belgium.-Major Lecomte, director of the Royal Observatory of Belgium; M. Massart, professor of botany at the University of Brussels; Professeur de la Vallée Poussin.
France.-B. Baillaud, director of the Observatory of Paris; G. Bigourdan, astronomer at the Observatory of Paris; A. Haller, professor of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne; M. Lacroix, secretary of the Académie des Sciences, professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne; Ch. Lallemand, director of the Trigonometrical Survey; Ch. Monreu, professor of pharmaceutical chemistry at the Ecole Supérieure; Emile Picard, secretary of the Académie des Sciences, professor of mathematics at the Sorbonne.
Italy.-Vito Volterra, professor of mathematical physics at the University of Rome, member of the Italian Senate.
Japan.-Joji Sakurai, professor of chemistry at the University of Tokyo; Aikitsu Tanakadate, late professor of physics at the University of Tokyo.
Portugal.-Professor Braamkamp Freire, president of the Academy of Science, Lisbon.
Serbia.-Bogdan Popovitch, professor of literature and rhetoric at the University of Belgrade; Dr. Zonjovitch, president of the Royal Academy of Belgrade.
United States.-H. A. Bumstead, professor of physics at Yale University; Colonel J. J. Carty, chief engineer of the American Telegraph and Telephone Company; W. J. Durand, professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University; S. Flexner, director of the Rockefeller Institute; G. E. Hale, director of the Mount Wilson Observatory, A. A. Noyes, professor of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
THE HARVEY SOCIETY
Ar a meeting of the Harvey Society held during September the following officers were elected:
President-Dr. Graham Lusk.
Other members of the Council-Dr. John Auer, Dr. James W. Jobling, Dr. Frederic S. Lee.
It was decided at this meeting that the number of lectures to be given during the winter of 1918-19 should not exceed six; that the lectures of last winter and this winter be incorporated together in one volume; and that the members of the society be charged dues