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ing stops, the artificial respiration should be resumed at once.
6. Artificial respiration is required only when natural respiration has ceased. In cases of simple unconsciousness from any cause in which natural respiration continues, artificial respiration should not be employed without medical advice.
7. The commission recommends that in cases of gas asphyxiation, artificial respiration, whether given by a manual method or by special apparatus, should be combined when possible with the inhalation of oxygen from properly constructed apparatus.
8. With regard to the employment of mechanical devices for artificial respiration the commission feels that it ought not at present to take a definite stand either for or against any particular form of apparatus. However, the commission recommends, that the use and installation of apparatus should be confined, for the present, to properly equipped institutions under medical direction. The commission recognizes the great need of simple devices capable of performing artificial respiration reliably and efficiently. It therefore recommends careful study of the problem, directed toward the development of a reliable method appropriate for general adoption.3 Such studies can best be carried on in properly equipped hospitals and laboratories which offer opportunities and facilities for critical observation and experimentation.
In view of the importance which the knowledge of proper methods of resuscitation possesses for public health and safety, and considering the fact that many practitioners, members of hospital staffs and graduates of medicine are not thoroughly familiar with the methods of resuscitation, especially that of the prone-pressure method, the commission recommends:
(a) That medical journals (and other scientific and practical journals which are interested in the problem of resuscitation) be asked to publish the resolutions adopted by the commission.
(b) That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the medical colleges with a request that proper instruction in this subject shall be arranged for in the College Schedules.
(c) That these resolutions be sent to as many hospitals as possible, with the recommendations that members of the house staff shall familiarize themselves with the methods of resuscitation.
3 See Appendix.
(d) In order that the resolutions of the commission may be brought to the attention of interested circles (fire and police departments, industrial plants, etc.) it was agreed that they be communicated to the Associated Press (by the National Electric Light Association).
It was voted that the Third Resuscitation Commission should be properly organized and continue its existence, ready to respond when requirements arise. The following officers were elected:
President-Dr. S. J. Meltzer.
Vice-president-Dr. Yandell Henderson.
Secretary-Dr. Reid Hunt.
It was voted to appoint a committee for the collection of verifiable data relating to resuscitation. The president appointed to the committee
Dr. D. Edsall-Chairman,
The commission consists of fifteen members. Fourteen approved the foregoing report without qualifications. The fifteenth member wishes to qualify his vote by the following
Dr. Yandell Henderson qualifies his support of the resolutions as follows:
While I concur in a considerable part of the report of the Resuscitation Commission I dissent from the statement in Resolution 8 recognizing "the great need of simple devices capable of performing artificial respiration reliably and efficiently."
Devices which are excellent from the mechanical standpoint are now available and widely sold; but the evidence regarding them indicates clearly, I believe, that even if these devices were on the spot where several gassings or electrocutions occurred, and if all the victims were treated with them, except one who was given manual (prone pressure) treatment, this one would have much the best chance of recovery. In actual practise the apparatus is seldom right on the spot adjusted and ready. Critical time is lost, and thus in the above suppositious cases, as they actually occur, the only victim with any considerable chance of resuscita
tion (aside from those who recover spontaneously and are credited to the apparatus) is the one treated manually.
Even more important is the fact, demonstrated now by univ sal experience, that when apparatus is known to be obtainable, it is sent for and the manual method neglected. Thus to-day the apparatus in public use is on the whole contributing very materially to decrease the saving of life.
SCIENTIFIC EVENTS PROTECTION GIVEN MIGRATORY BIRDS BY AMENDMENTS TO THE BIRD-TREATY ACT
THE United States Department of Agriculture announces the promulgation of amendments and additions to the Migratory BirdTreaty Act Regulations effective October 25, 1918.
Hereafter the open season for black-bellied and golden plovers and greater and lesser yellowlegs in Texas will be from September 1 to December 15. Another change prescribes a daily bag limit of 50 sora to a person in addition to the bag limit of not to exceed 25 for other rails, coots and gallinules.
An amendment of Regulation No. 6 has the effect of removing the limitation on the humber of birds that may be transported within a state during the federal open season. The export of migratory game birds is limited to two days' bag limit during any one calendar week of the federal season. Persons must comply with state laws further restricting the shipment or transportation of migratory birds.
An amendment to paragraph 2 of Regulation No. 8, which is of great interest to breeders of game, permits migratory water fowl raised in domestication to be killed by shooting during the respective open seasons for waterfowl, and the sale thereof to state laws; but after March 31, 1919, such waterfowl, killed by shooting, can not be sold or purchased unless each bird, before attaining the age of 4 weeks, shall have had removed from the web of one foot a portion thereof in the form of a "V" large enough to make a permanent well-defined mark, which shall be sufficient to identify it as a bird raised in domestication.
Another amendment provides that the plumage and skins of migratory game birds legally
killed may be possessed and transported without a federal permit. Provision is also made for the issuance of special permits authorizing taxidermists to possess, buy, sell and transport migratory birds.
Two new regulations have been added. Regulation No. 11 provides for the issuance of permits authorizing persons to sell migratory game birds lawfully killed and by them lawfully held in cold storage on July 31, 1918. Such birds may be sold under permit until March 31, 1919.
Another new regulation is as follows:
Nothing in these regulations shall be construed to permit the taking, possession, sale, purchase or transportation of migratory birds, their nests and eggs contrary to the laws and regulations of any state, territory or district made for the purpose of giving further protection to migratory birds, their nests and eggs when such laws and regulations are not inconsistent with the convention between the United States and Great Britain for the protection of migratory birds concluded August 16, 1916, or the migratory bird treaty act, and do not extend the open seasons for such birds beyond the dates prescribed by these regulations.
This regulation is a restatement of the substance of section 7 of the migratory bird-treaty act, and is intended to remove the confusion and uncertainty that exists in regard to the effect of the federal law and regulations on state game laws.
The federal migratory bird-treaty act regulations prohibit throughout the United States the killing at any time of the following birds: Band-tailed pigeon; common ground doves and scaled doves; little brown, sandhill and whooping cranes; wood duck, swans; curlews, willet, upland plover, and all shore birds (except the black-bellied and golden plovers, Wilson snipe or jacksnipe, woodcock and the greater and lesser yellowlegs); bobolinks, catbirds, chicadees, cuckoos, flickers, flycatchers, grossbeaks, humming birds, kinglets, martins, meadow larks, nighthawks or bull-bats, nuthatches, orioles, robins, shrikes, swallows, swifts, tanagers, titmice, thrushes, vireos, warblers, waxwings, whip-poor-wills, woodpeckers and wrens, and all other perching birds which feed entirely or chiefly on insects; and also auks, auklets, bitterns, fulmars, gannets, grebes, guillemots,
gulls, herons, jaegers, loons, murres, petrels, puffins, shearwaters and terns.
THE makers of pottery in the United States reported another record-breaking year in 1917 in value of output, which was $56,162,522, an increase of $7,945,280, or more than 16 per cent. over the value in 1916, according to figures compiled under the direction of Jefferson Middleton, of the United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.
The imports of pottery during the year were necessarily small, and the demand was fully equal to the largest domestic supply that would have been produced under normal codnditions, but the American potters found it impossible to supply the demand. Though the value of the output was the largest yet recorded, the volume of the product was probably not so large as it had been in some other years. Few plants, if any, ran to capacity, and many of them did not market more than three fourths of their normal output. The increased cost of labor and raw materials made it necessary to fix higher prices for the wares than those that have prevailed in the last few years. The imports showed an increase over those of 1916 but were much below normal imports before the war. This increase was due chiefly to greater imports from Japan, whose wares are now finding a larger market in the United States.
Notwithstanding the handicaps which the pottery industry suffered in 1917, greater efforts were made to place the industry on a firmer foundation than ever. Realizing that after the war he will have the keenest competition, and knowing that in order to hold his present trade he must not only make ware of superior quality but must be able to undersell all foreign competitors, the American potter has begun to study not only how to improve the quality of his wares but to find or devise labor-saving machines and improved kilns. The report of the United States Potters' Association shows that a number of such
devices that give promise of lowering the cost of labor and fuel were introduced in 1917 or were being successfully developed. Among these devices are sagger-making machines, a conveyer type of stove, a casting process that makes large production possible by unskilled" labor, and down-draft and tunnel kilns that insure a large saving of fuel.
The effort to establish in the southern states a pottery for the manufacture of high-grade ware has, after many years, at last been successful. In 1917, for the first time, white ware was manufactured in the south. The Southern Potteries (Inc.), began to operate at Erwin, Tenn., a 10-kiln plant for the manufacture of semi-vitreous porcelain table ware, using domestic clays exclusively.
Another important development in the pot tery industry of the United States is the production of chemical porcelain, the manufac ture of which in this country was considered impossible before the war. Several operators are now making chemical porcelain which satisfactorily meets the exacting requirements of the laboratory.
In 1917 the value of the output of every variety of pottery classified by the Geological Survey, except red earthenware, was greater than in 1916. White ware showed the largest increase $2,729,079, or 15 per cent. Porcelain electrical supplies also showed a large increase
$2,417,166, or 34 per cent. China, the highest grade of pottery, has been a minor product in value, yet its value in 1917 showed an increase of $1,327,534, or 38 per cent., compared with 1916. Its value in 1917 was nearly twice as great as in 1913.
The value of white ware, including china, which comprises the general household wares and constitutes more than 45 per cent. of the value of all pottery, was $25,726,375 in 1917, an increase of $4,056,613, or 19 per cent., over 1916. If to this sum is added the value of the high-grade products sanitary ware and porcelain electrical supplies, the total value in 1917 was $47,814,178, or $7,998,579 more than in 1916.
Overseas educational commission to take charge of the soils and fertilizer work in France during the demobilization period. Dr. McCall will arrange to continue his work for the National Research Council on the salt nutrient requirements for plants.
DR. GEORGE T. MOORE, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, has been appointed director of the productions division of the United States Food Administration for St. Louis.
PROFESSOR DAN OTIS, assistant dean of agriculture in the University of Wisconsin, has received an appointment from the government as farm management specialist for France.
DR. REGINALD A. DALY, Sturgis-Hooper professor of geology at Harvard, is a member of the committee which will have charge of the courses of instruction to be maintained in Europe for United States soldiers until they return to this country.
MAJOR R. W. BROCK, of the University of British Columbia, has been appointed geological adviser to the British Army in Palestine. For the last two years he has been overseas on military duty.
MR. Wm. B. BRIERLEY, of the pathological laboratory, Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, and formerly lecturer in economic botany to Manchester University, has accepted the appoint
ment of mycologist to the new Institute of Phytopathological Research, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden.
AT Cambridge the Gedge prize for original observations in physiology has been awarded to Mr. Thomas Richard Parsons, B.A., of Sidney Sussex College, formerly of Birkbeck College, for an essay on "The reaction of blood in the body."
DURING his stay in England as the representative of the United States Public Health Service, Professor Frederic S. Lee has been asked to sit on the industrial fatigue research board, a newly organized body under the chairmanship of Professor Sherrington. The board will continue in part the activities begun by the health of munition workers committee, which has ceased to exist.
PROFESSOR ANTON JULIUS CARLSON, chairman of the department of physiology at the University of Chicago, now captain in the Sanitary Corps, is reported to have landed in France at the end of October, after several months of service in connection with the rationing of American troops at the rest camps and in the aviation squadrons throughout England.
PROFESSORS James F. Kemp, Waldemar Lindgren, Joseph Barrell and A. C. Lawson, have been at Bingham, Utah, preparing evidence in connection with mining litigation.
PROFESSOR J. H. LAHEE has resigned from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to become geologist for the Sun Oil Company in Dallas, Texas.
H. W. TURNER has recently made a geological reconnaissance of the Peace River oil field in northern Alberta.
MISS MARY J. HOGUE, formerly a member of the zoological staff of Wellesley College, is working in the laboratory of the Base Hospital at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
MR. GEORGE W. MOREY, of the geophysical laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, has been given a year's leave of absence and is in charge of the optical glass plant of the Spencer Lens Company at Hamburg, New York.
PROFESSOR BAILEY WILLIS, of Stanford University, recently addressed the New York Academy of Sciences on The physical basis of national development."
PROFESSOR HENRY C. SHERMAN, of Columbia University, lectured before the New Brunswick Scientific Society, on November 25, on "Permanent gains from the food conservation movement."
A JOINT meeting of the New York Section of the American Chemical Society, the New York Section of the American Electro-chemical Society, the Society of Chemical Industry and the Société de Chimie Industrielle was held on Friday evening, December 6, in Rumford Hall. The program of the evening consisted of the following addresses, accompanied by lantern slides: Colonel William H. Walker,