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etc., including America, under different dates

in their respective subjects, under the editorial running back to April, 1908. That it was in supervision of Professor Herbert E. Gregory, good standing then is shown by its inclusion who were called upon to prepare their respecin a dictionary published in that year. An ex- tive contributions with utmost expedition in tended search would no doubt develop a prior the midst of other distracting duties. Under appearance.

such circumstances the product is highly credThis is adequate proof that the word Usono, itable to both authors and editor though it is as a designation for these United States, has natural to expect evidence of hurried writing, been in active service for more than ten years, lack of logical coherence, and overlapping of so that to-day Esperantists throughout the

treatment-faults which have been eliminated world are entirely familiar with the term, with greater or less success by the self-sacrificwhich is tantamount to saying that it is al- ing work of the editor. ready used and understood in every country The book includes chapters on Rocks and of any importance upon the globe.

Other Earth Materials, Rock Weathering,

J. D. HAILMAN Streams, Lakes and Swamps, Water Supply PITTSBURGH, PA.

Land Forms, Map Reading, the Military Use

of Minerals. It is well printed, indexed and SCIENTIFIC BOOKS

generously illustrated. MILITARY GEOLOGY AND METEOROLOGY

On account of differing methods of treatTHE publication of the little book on Mili

ment incident to the aims and composite autary Geology and Topography” which has just thorship, teachers who use the book with S. A. been issued by the Yale University Press, fur

T. C. classes, composed of students of widely nishes a useful reader in the subject for

different training, may find some difficulty in classes of the student army training courses

using it as a text-book for class-room work but and represents still another change due to the

students and teachers alike will find it very war—the introduction of the geologist as an

helpful in conjunction with lectures and labintegral part of a military organization.

oratory exercises and as a compendium of illusThe text, which has been prepared under the

trations of how geological and topographic auspices of the Division of Geology and Geog- knowledge is serviceable in military activities. raphy of the National Research Council, is intended to give, as its title page states, a presen

‘Introductory Meteorology” planned tation of certain phases of the subjects as they

with special reference to the needs of the Stuare related to military purposes, and as such

dents' Army Training Units has just been will prove useful in the classes for which it was

issued under the auspices of the Division of prepared. It is not a text-book of geology in Geology and Geography of the National Rewhich the subject-matter is developed genetic

search Council. The manuscript was preally as is customary in cultural or technical pared by the staff of the U. S. Weather Bureau collegiate courses, but is essentially an empir- and the result is a compact and well-illusical résumé of certain geological phenomena

trated book of 150 pages. It is extremely for prospective army officers. For example, elementary in character but appears to lay a streams are treated from a hydrographic view- satisfactory groundwork for the more adpoint apart from their influence in the develop

vanced work at military camps or elsewhere ment of land forms and the discussion of rocks to which it is designed to lead. is free from detailed tables of classification Seven pages are devoted to the sources from and extended descriptions of igneous rocks.

which data are to be obtained and the compoThe manuscript represents the cooperative sition of the atmosphere. This is followed by work of a number of different men, authorities twenty-one pages devoted to the instruments

AN 6

sand years.

used for measuring the meteorological ele- ments on the existence and non-existence of ments, and while this is well written, it is a indivisible lines, and on the possibility of conquestion if the space it occupies could not structing a line out of points, as well as those with advantage be utilized for a somewhat exhibiting the interaction between physical fuller discussion of other topics. The order speculation about atoms and the philosophy of of development of the subject proceeds from geometry-arguments as they were presumably a discussion of temperatures, pressure, evap- presented in the most celebrated academy of oration and condensation to a consideration of the most cultured city of antiquity. Who fogs and clouds. This is followed by a brief can doubt that the divergence of views then and purely descriptive account of mirage, held and the perplexing paradoxes advanced rainbows, halos and coronas, the chapter being discouraged Greek mathematicians from openly labelled Atmospheric Optics. Two chapters using in geometry the conceptions of the are devoted to Atmospheric Circulation fol- infinitesimal and the infinite? Euclid was lowed by what seem to be unduly abbreviated about twenty years younger than Aristotle and chapters on Forecasting and Climates.

no doubt was familiar with the trend of phiA well-selected list of reference works and losophic thought of his time. Rigor in geomthe international symbols are given in ap- etry demanded the exclusison of paradox and pendices.

M. mysticism. Notwithstanding Euclid's total

abstinence from controversial conceptions, it

is evident that the infinitesimal, the indivisA GREEK TRACT ON INDIVISIBLE

ible and the infinite continued to command LINES The development in recent years of the sub

the attention of some mathematicians, as well ject of transfinite numbers, of point sets, and

as of philosophers, for more than two thoutheories of the continuum is directing the in

We need only mention the title terest of mathematicians to kindred specula

of Cavalieri's famous work, “ Geometria in

divisibilibus continuorum nova quadam ratione tions among the Greeks. Recent historians of Greek mathematics have paid due attention

promota," 1635. to Zeno's arguments on motion as they are pre

The Aristotelean “De lineis insecabilibus ” sented in Aristotle's “Physics," but thus far

contains five arguments current among the

Greeks in favor of the existence of indivisthey have given no consideration to a kindred tract included among the works of Aristotle,

ibles; these are followed by twenty-six argunamely, the “Indivisible Lines “ De lineis

ments supporting the contrary view, and insecabilibus." Perhaps the reason for this

twenty-four arguments intended to establish omission lies in the fact that the text as edited

the impossibility of composing a line out of by Bekker was for the most part unintelligible. points

. Some of these proofs are rigorous. More recent collations of manuscripts, and the

Thus, it is argued that, if indivisible lines translation into English with careful annota

exist, they must be of equal length; an equi

lateral triangle each side of which is an intions made by H. H. Joachim, of Oxford,

divisible line has an altitude less than the render the tract of undoubted value in the

indivisible. If a straight line composed of history of mathematics.1 It reveals the argu

an odd number of indivisibles is bisected, one 1 The Works of Aristotle translated into English of the indivisibles will be divided. The Greek under the editorship of J. A. Smith and W. D. Ross.

failure to build a satisfactory theory of the Part 2: “De lineis insecabilibus,” by H. H.

linear continuum as composed of points is Joachim, Oxford, 1908. We have not seen this tract used in any history of Greek mathematics,

due to their application of metrical ideas; the but H. Vogt referred to it in an article on the

addition of points could never yield length. origin of the irrational, printed in the Bibliotheca

Aristotle's failure to construct a satisfactory mathematica, 3s., Vol. 10, 1909–10, pp. 146, 153. continuum by starting with a straight line

or

or

and postulating unlimited divisibility lay pri- With the exception of the nutlets the remarily in his rejection of actual infinity and mains of the Estancia stonewort, Chara estanacceptance only of potential infinity.

ciana Hannibal, are desiccated beyond recogIf it is one of the aims of mathematical nition. These resemble the nutlets of the history to set forth the successes and failures Bear River stonewort, Chara stantoni Knowlof leaders of mathematical thought, then the ton, but are nearly round and marked by Aristotelean tract, “ De lineis insecabilibus," six encircling spirals. is worthy of the attention of mathematicians. There are three groups of limneas found in

FLORIAN CAJORI North America, the Abysmal limneas includUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

ing Lymnæa (Acella) haldemani Binney, the

Moss limneas including Lymnæ (Galba) SPECIAL ARTICLES

truncatula Müll., humilis Say (+ cubensis JURA-CRETACEOUS STONEWORT AND LIM- Pfr.), humilis solida Lea, obrussa Say, and

NEAS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM ARKANSAS cooperi Hannibal and the Marsh limneas inPRESERVED in the paleontological collections cluding Lymnæa (Lymnæa) stagnalis L., coluat Stanford University is a large block of mella Say, auricularia L., palustris Mull. and white chert containing spore-cases of stone- the European glaber Müll. The Garden Park wort, a siliceous freshwater algæ and moulds limnea, Lymnæa ativuncula White, and Canon and casts of Lymnea ativuncula and L. con

City limnea, Lymnæa consortis White, belong sortis White, two pondsnails originally de

to the third group. scribed from the Jura-Cretaceous red beds, va

These species are the oldest true limneas riously called the Morrison formation

known from North America. L. accelerata Atlantasaurus zone, at Garden Park, eight White of the Morrison beds is perhaps a miles north of Cañon City Colorado.

Lioplax or other operculate while L. nitidula The matrix consists of white siliceous mate

Meek of the Bear River Cretaceous is a probrial made up of compacted spicules of stone

lematic species that has been confused by wort. The surface is rusty and roughened

Whites with some other Limnea, possibly the from exposure but shows no sign of stream

Eocene L. vetusta Meek. attrition. The specimen is accompanied by a

HAROLD HANNIBAL note by J. F. Newson, mining engineer and

SAN JOSE, CAL. former Stanford professor, stating that it was one of two large blocks unlike any rock in 2 Knowlton, F. H., Bot. Mag., XVIII., 1893, p. place in the vicinity, picked up on the J. L. 141, text fig. 1-3; White, C. A., Bull. 128, U. S. Van Winkle ranch, east 1 section 6, township

Geol. Sur., 1895, pp. 63, 104, Pl. X., Figs. 14–16. 5 north range 16 west, near the Arkansas

3 White, C. A., Bull. 128, U. S. Geol. Sur., 1895, river opposite old Lewisburg, Arkansas.

Pl. VI., Figs. 1-2 doubtful, Fig. 3 nitidula. If Dr. Newson is correct in supposing that no beds of similar rock outcrop nearby it is

SCIENCE thought that the material was carried there or perhaps lost by one of the early exploring ex

A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of peditions returning down the Arkansas river

Science, publishing the official notices and pro

ceedings of the American Association for from Colorado. I have hoped to obtain in

the Advancement of Science formation on the subject from the distribution of siliceous rocks derived from stonewort re

Published every Friday by mains in this region but they appear to be of

THE SCIENCE PRESS such rare occurrences as to have escaped notice.

LANCASTER, PA.

GARRISON, N. Y. 1 White, C. A., Bull. 29 U. S. Geol. Sur., 1886,

NEW YORK, N. Y. p. 20, Pl. IV., Fig. 8–9, consortis, 10–11, ativuncula,

Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., us second class matter

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PROBLEMS, METHODS AND RESULTS

IN BEHAVIOR1

INTRODUCTION In every field of endeavor it is from time to time advantageous to pause long enough in the ordinary pursuits of the day to take our bearing, trace the course traveled and adjust plans for the future. I have attempted to do this in the field of behavior and I shall present in brief the result of this attempt.

What I have to offer is in no sense a finished product. It should be looked upon rather as the opening of a discussion, a brief exposition of certain ideas which I hope will be criticized from various points of view.

HISTORICAL REVIEW Before the renaissance no practical problems in behavior were recognized. All activities in organisms, plants as well as animals, were held to be under the control of souls, agents not amenable to law and not subject to experimental analysis.

Descartes early in the seventeenth century came to the conclusion, partly from the results obtained in observations, partly on the basis of philosophic speculation, that the bodies of animals and men act wholly like machines and move in accordance with purely mechanical laws.” Under the inspiration of this idea, Borelli and others undertook to reduce certain reactions to purely physical and chemical or mechanical principles. Somewhat later Ray, Dodart, Du Hamel and others attempted to account for the movements in plants on the same basis. Thus the science of behavior had its origin, and, strange as it may seem, the fundamental problem before it in its youngest days was to reduce reactions to mechanical principles.

The investigators interested in this en

1 An address delivered at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., July 15, 1918.

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deavor were enthusiastic and numerous; so It was generally assumed during this period called mechanical explanations were offered that animals are endowed with mental faculfor all sorts of reactions, but these explan ties similar to those in man and the main inations were so extremely simple and crude centive in all of this work was the inculcathat they soon came to be looked upon as tion of humane treatment of animals. The worthless and the mechanistic concept of be distribution and extent of pleasure and pain havior fell into disrepute resulting in a period in the animal kingdom was the problem of the of stagnation.

day. Menault says in his preface: “The marNot until early in the nineteenth century

vels of animal intelligence claim now, more was interest in the reactions of organism re than ever, the attention of observers.” “We vived. During this period numerous obser believe that the lower animals possess, in a vations and experiments were made on plants, certain degree, the faculties of man," and all form a purely mechanistic point of view Jesse

says:

The better the character of the and very encouraging results were obtained. dog is known, the better his treatment is The work, on the behavior of animals con likely to be, and the stronger the sympathy sisted, however, almost entirely in superficial exerted in his behalf.” observations and the collection of anecdotes, The Origin of Species," which as you mainly concerning reputed marvelous feats know appeared in 1859, opened a new field performed. The dog and the fox were fa in behavior. Evolution came to dominate vorite subjects, but all sorts of animals were every phase of biology, and the evolution of dealt with. We have as a result of this work reactions and psychic phenomena came to be numerous volumes testifying to the interest in the central problem in animal behavior. To the subject. Menault's “ Wonders of Animal the solution of this problem a number of able Instinct," running through five editions, investigators devoted their energies (Darwin, Jesse's Anecdotes of Dogs," Swainson's Lubbock, Bert, Romanes, Preyer, Graber, et “Habits and Instincts,” Cough's “Instincts," al.). etc. These anecdotes are all essentially the All of these men concluded on the basis of same in character. Let me illustrate by quot the results obtained that psychic phenomena ing one from Menault.

extend well down in the animal kingdom and “The following has been related by one of our

some of them even contended that there are most eminent naturalists, who heard it from a per

indications of such phenomena in plants. son worthy of credit:

Thus they maintained that all organisms are A young lady was sitting in a room adjoining functionally and psychologically interrelated a poultryyard, where chickens, ducks and geese in the same way as they are structurally, and were disporting themselves. A drake came in, ap

that the mental faculties of man originated in proached the lady, seized the bottom of her dress primitive forms. with his beak, and pulled it vigorously. Feeling Whatever view one may take regarding these startled, she repulsed him with her hand. The bird conclusions, the fact remains that the experistill persisted. Somewhat astonished, she paid mental work of some of the investigators mensome attention to this unaccountable pantomine,

tioned is of the highest order and the results and discovered that the drake wished to drag her

obtained have been largely confirmed. I out of doors. She got up, he waddled out quickly

should like to refer particularly to Lubbock's before her. More and more surprised, she fol

ingenious and thorough work on light-reactions lowed him, and he conducted her to the side of :

in Daphnia and color-vision in bees. Critics pond where she perceived a duck with its head caught in the opening of the sluice. She hastened

should always bear in mind that these investi. to release the poor creature and restored it to the

gators were interested in the origin and evoludrake, who, by loud quackings and beating of his

tion of responses and of psychic phenomena, wings, testified his joy at the deliverance of his

and not in the mechanics of reactions. companion."

During the latter part of the nineteenth

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