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etc., including America, under different dates running back to April, 1908. That it was in good standing then is shown by its inclusion in a dictionary published in that year. An extended search would no doubt develop a prior appearance.

This is adequate proof that the word Usono, as a designation for these United States, has been in active service for more than ten years, so that to-day Esperantists throughout the world are entirely familiar with the term, which is tantamount to saying that it is already used and understood in every country of any importance upon the globe.





THE publication of the little book on "Military Geology and Topography" which has just been issued by the Yale University Press, furnishes a useful reader in the subject for classes of the student army training courses and represents still another change due to the war the introduction of the geologist as an integral part of a military organization.

The text, which has been prepared under the auspices of the Division of Geology and Geography of the National Research Council, is intended to give, as its title page states, a presentation of certain phases of the subjects as they are related to military purposes, and as such will prove useful in the classes for which it was prepared. It is not a text-book of geology in which the subject-matter is developed genetically as is customary in cultural or technical

giate courses, but is essentially an empirical résumé of certain geological phenomena for prospective army officers. For example, streams are treated from a hydrographic viewpoint apart from their influence in the development of land forms and the discussion of rocks is free from detailed tables of classification and extended descriptions of igneous rocks.

The manuscript represents the cooperative work of a number of different men, authorities

in their respective subjects, under the editorial supervision of Professor Herbert E. Gregory, who were called upon to prepare their respective contributions with utmost expedition in the midst of other distracting duties. Under such circumstances the product is highly creditable to both authors and editor though it is natural to expect evidence of hurried writing, lack of logical coherence, and overlapping of treatment-faults which have been eliminated with greater or less success by the self-sacrificing work of the editor.

The book includes chapters on Rocks and Other Earth Materials, Rock Weathering, Streams, Lakes and Swamps, Water Supply Land Forms, Map Reading, the Military Use of Minerals. It is well printed, indexed and generously illustrated.

On account of differing methods of treatment incident to the aims and composite authorship, teachers who use the book with S. A. T. C. classes, composed of students of widely different training, may find some difficulty in using it as a text-book for class-room work but students and teachers alike will find it very helpful in conjunction with lectures and laboratory exercises and as a compendium of illustrations of how geological and topographic knowledge is serviceable in military activities.

AN "Introductory Meteorology logy" planned with special reference to the needs of the Students' Army Training Units has just been issued under the auspices of the Division of Geology and Geography of the National Research Council. The manuscript was prepared by the staff of the U. S. Weather Bureau and the result is a compact and well-illustrated book of 150 pages. It is extremely elementary in character but appears to lay a satisfactory groundwork for the more advanced work at military camps or elsewhere to which it is designed to lead.

Seven pages are devoted to the sources from which data are to be obtained and the composition of the atmosphere. This is followed by twenty-one pages devoted to the instruments

used for measuring the meteorological elements, and while this is well written, it is a question if the space it occupies could not with advantage be utilized for a somewhat fuller discussion of other topics. The order of development of the subject proceeds from a discussion of temperatures, pressure, evaporation and condensation to a consideration of fogs and clouds. This is followed by a brief and purely descriptive account of mirage, rainbows, halos and coronas, the chapter being labelled Atmospheric Optics. Two chapters are devoted to Atmospheric Circulation followed by what seem to be unduly abbreviated chapters on Forecasting and Climates.

A well-selected list of reference works and the international symbols are given in appendices. M.

ments on the existence and non-existence of
indivisible lines, and on the possibility of con-
structing a line out of points, as well as those
exhibiting the interaction between physical
speculation about atoms and the philosophy of
geometry-arguments as they were presumably
presented in the most celebrated academy of
the most cultured city of antiquity. Who
can doubt that the divergence of views then
held and the perplexing paradoxes advanced
discouraged Greek mathematicians from openly
using in geometry the conceptions of the
infinitesimal and the infinite? Euclid was
about twenty years younger than Aristotle and
no doubt was familiar with the trend of phi-
losophic thought of his time. Rigor in geom-
etry demanded the exclusison of paradox and
mysticism. Notwithstanding Euclid's total
abstinence from controversial conceptions, it
is evident that the infinitesimal, the indivis-
ible and the infinite continued to command
the attention of some mathematicians, as well
as of philosophers, for more than two thou-
sand years. We need only mention the title
of Cavalieri's famous work, "Geometria in-
divisibilibus continuorum nova quadam ratione
promota," 1635.


THE development in recent years of the subject of transfinite numbers, of point sets, and theories of the continuum is directing the interest of mathematicians to kindred speculations among the Greeks. Recent historians of Greek mathematics have paid due attention to Zeno's arguments on motion as they are presented in Aristotle's "Physics," but thus far they have given no consideration to a kindred tract included among the works of Aristotle, namely, the "Indivisible Lines" or "De lineis insecabilibus." Perhaps the reason for this omission lies in the fact that the text as edited

The Aristotelean "De lineis insecabilibus " contains five arguments current among the Greeks in favor of the existence of indivisibles; these are followed by twenty-six arguments supporting the contrary view, and twenty-four arguments intended to establish the impossibility of composing a line out of

More recent collations of manuscripts, and the translation into English with careful annotations made by H. H. Joachim, of Oxford, render the tract of undoubted value in the history of mathematics.1 It reveals the argu

by Bekker was for the most part unintelligible. points. Some of these proofs are rigorous. Thus, it is argued that, if indivisible lines exist, they must be of equal length; an equilateral triangle each side of which is an indivisible line has an altitude less than the indivisible. If a straight line composed of an odd number of indivisibles is bisected, one of the indivisibles will be divided. The Greek failure to build a satisfactory theory of the linear continuum as composed of points is due to their application of metrical ideas; the addition of points could never yield length. Aristotle's failure to construct a satisfactory continuum by starting with a straight line


1 The Works of Aristotle translated into English under the editorship of J. A. Smith and W. D. Ross. Part 2: "De lineis insecabilibus, by H. H. Joachim, Oxford, 1908. We have not seen this tract used in any history of Greek mathematics, but H. Vogt referred to it in an article on the origin of irrational, printed in the Bibliotheca mathematica, 3s., Vol. 10, 1909-10, pp. 146, 153.

and postulating unlimited divisibility lay primarily in his rejection of actual infinity and acceptance only of potential infinity.

If it is one of the aims of mathematical history to set forth the successes and failures of leaders of mathematical thought, then the Aristotelean tract, "De lineis insecabilibus," is worthy of the attention of mathematicians. FLORIAN CAJORI



PRESERVED in the paleontological collections at Stanford University is a large block of white chert containing spore-cases of stonewort, a siliceous freshwater algae and moulds and casts of Lymnea ativuncula and L. consortis White, two pondsnails originally described from the Jura-Cretaceous red beds, variously called the Morrison formation or Atlantasaurus zone, at Garden Park, eight miles north of Cañon City Colorado.

The matrix consists of white siliceous material made up of compacted spicules of stonewort. The surface is rusty and roughened from exposure but shows no sign of stream attrition. The specimen is accompanied by a note by J. F. Newson, mining engineer and former Stanford professor, stating that it was one of two large blocks unlike any rock in place in the vicinity, picked up on the J. L. Van Winkle ranch, east section 6, township 5 north, range 16 west, near the Arkansas river opposite old Lewisburg, Arkansas.

If Dr. Newson is correct in supposing that no beds of similar rock outcrop nearby it is thought that the material was carried there or perhaps lost by one of the early exploring expeditions returning down the Arkansas river from Colorado. I have hoped to obtain information on the subject from the distribution of siliceous rocks derived from stonewort remains in this region but they appear to be of such rare occurrences as to have escaped notice.

1 White, C. A., Bull. 29 U. S. Geol. Sur., 1886, p. 20, Pl. IV., Fig. 8-9, consortis, 10-11, ativuncula.

With the exception of the nutlets the remains of the Estancia stonewort, Chara estanciana Hannibal, are desiccated beyond recognition. These resemble the nutlets of the Bear River stonewort, Chara stantoni Knowlton, but are nearly round and marked by six encircling spirals.

There are three groups of limneas found in North America, the Abysmal limneas including Lymnæa (Acella) haldemani Binney, the Moss limneas including Lymnæa (Galba) truncatula Müll., humilis Say (+ cubensis P fr.), humilis solida Lea, obrussa Say, and cooperi Hannibal and the Marsh limneas including Lymnæa (Lymnæa) stagnalis L., columella Say, auricularia L., palustus Mull. and the European glaber Müll. The Garden Park limnea, Lymnæa ativuncula White, and Cañon City limnea, Lymnæa consortis White, belong to the third group.

These species are the oldest true limneas known from North America. L. accelerata White of the Morrison beds is perhaps a Lioplax or other operculate while L. nitidula Meek of the Bear River Cretaceous is a problematic species that has been confused by White with some other Limnea, possibly the Eocene L. vetusta Meek.



2 Knowlton, F. H., Bot. Mag., XVIII., 1893, p. 141, text fig. 1-3; White, C. A., Bull. 128, U. S. Geol. Sur., 1895, pp. 63, 104, Pl. X., Figs. 14-16. 3 White, C. A., Bull. 128, U. S. Geol. Sur., 1895, Pl. VI., Figs. 1-2 doubtful, Fig. 3 nitidula.


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IN every field of endeavor it is from time to time advantageous to pause long enough in the ordinary pursuits of the day to take our bearing, trace the course traveled and adjust plans for the future. I have attempted to do this in the field of behavior and I shall present in brief the result of this attempt.

What I have to offer is in no sense a finished product. It should be looked upon rather as the opening of a discussion, a brief exposition of certain ideas which I hope will be criticized from various points of view.


Before the renaissance no practical problems in behavior were recognized. All activities in organisms, plants as well as animals, were held to be under the control of souls, agents not amenable to law and not subject to experimental analysis.

Descartes early in the seventeenth century came to the conclusion, partly from the results obtained in observations, partly on the basis of philosophic speculation, "that the bodies of animals and men act wholly like machines and move in accordance with purely mechanical laws." Under the inspiration of this idea, Borelli and others undertook to reduce certain reactions to purely physical and chemical or mechanical principles. Somewhat later Ray, Dodart, Du Hamel and others attempted to account for the movements in plants on the same basis. Thus the science of behavior had its origin, and, strange as it may seem, the fundamental problem before it in its youngest days was to reduce reactions to mechanical principles.

The investigators interested in this en1 An address delivered at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., July 15, 1918.

deavor were enthusiastic and numerous; socalled mechanical explanations were offered for all sorts of reactions, but these explanations were so extremely simple and crude that they soon came to be looked upon as worthless and the mechanistic concept of behavior fell into disrepute resulting in a period of stagnation.

Not until early in the nineteenth century was interest in the reactions of organism revived. During this period numerous observations and experiments were made on plants, all form a purely mechanistic point of view and very encouraging results were obtained. The work. on the behavior of animals consisted, however, almost entirely in superficial observations and the collection of anecdotes, mainly concerning reputed marvelous feats performed. The dog and the fox were favorite subjects, but all sorts of animals were dealt with. We have as a result of this work numerous volumes testifying to the interest in the subject. Menault's "Wonders of Animal Instinct," running through five editions, Jesse's "Anecdotes of Dogs," Swainson's "Habits and Instincts," Cough's "Instincts," etc. These anecdotes are all essentially the same in character. Let me illustrate by quoting one from Menault.

"The following has been related by one of our most eminent naturalists, who heard it from a person worthy of credit:

A young lady was sitting in a room adjoining a poultryyard, where chickens, ducks and geese were disporting themselves. A drake came in, approached the lady, seized the bottom of her dress with his beak, and pulled it vigorously. Feeling startled, she repulsed him with her hand. The bird still persisted. Somewhat astonished, she paid some attention to this unaccountable pantomine, and discovered that the drake wished to drag her out of doors. She got up, he waddled out quickly before her. More and more surprised, she followed him, and he conducted her to the side of pond where she perceived a duck with its head caught in the opening of the sluice. She hastened to release the poor creature and restored it to the drake, who, by loud quackings and beating of his wings, testified his joy at the deliverance of his companion."

It was generally assumed during this period that animals are endowed with mental faculties similar to those in man and the main incentive in all of this work was the inculcation of humane treatment of animals. The distribution and extent of pleasure and pain in the animal kingdom was the problem of the day. Menault says in his preface: "The marvels of animal intelligence claim now, more than ever, the attention of observers." "We believe that the lower animals possess, in a certain degree, the faculties of man," and Jesse says: "The better the character of the dog is known, the better his treatment is likely to be, and the stronger the sympathy exerted in his behalf."


The Origin of Species," which as you know appeared in 1859, opened a new field in behavior. Evolution came to dominate every phase of biology, and the evolution of reactions and psychic phenomena came to be the central problem in animal behavior. To the solution of this problem a number of able investigators devoted their energies (Darwin, Lubbock, Bert, Romanes, Preyer, Graber, et al.).

All of these men concluded on the basis of the results obtained that psychic phenomena extend well down in the animal kingdom and some of them even contended that there are indications of such phenomena in plants. Thus they maintained that all organisms are functionally and psychologically interrelated in the same way as they are structurally, and that the mental faculties of man originated in primitive forms.

Whatever view one may take regarding these conclusions, the fact remains that the experimental work of some of the investigators mentioned is of the highest order and the results obtained have been largely confirmed. I should like to refer particularly to Lubbock's ingenious and thorough work on light-reactions in Daphnia and color-vision in bees. Critics should always bear in mind that these investigators were interested in the origin and evolution of responses and of psychic phenomena, and not in the mechanics of reactions.

During the latter part of the nineteenth

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