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throughout. Some of the material from Europe, such, for example, as the complete texts of important treaties signed since the beginning of the war, has never been made public.

Primarily, "The Inquiry" has been a fact study, conducted in a scientific spirit by specialists and scholars, both American and from various European countries affected by the war. In order to give high value to any statement of fact, the inquiry has been entirely independent of any political hypothesis.

"The Inquiry" has had a personnel of about 150 people. Among them are:

Director, Dr. S. E. Mezes, president of the College of the City of New York.

Chief Territorial Specialist, Dr. Isaiah Bowman, director of the American Geographical Society. Specialist on Economic Resources, Allyn A. Young, head of the department of economics at Cornell University.

Charles H. Haskins, dean of the graduate school of Harvard University, specialist on Alsace-Lorraine and Belgium.

Clive Day, head of economics department at Yale, specialist on the Balkans.

W. E. Lunt, professor of history, Haverford College, specialist on northern Italy.

R. H. Lord, professor of history at Harvard, specialist on Russia and Poland.

Charles Seymour, professor of history at Yale, specialist on Austria-Hungary.

W. L. Westermann, professor of history at the
University of Wisconsin, specialist on Turkey.
G. L. Beer, formerly of Columbia University, spe-
cialist on colonial history.

Cartographer, Mark Jefferson, professor of geography, Michigan State Normal College. Roland B. Dixon, professor of ethnography at Harvard.

In addition there are eleven assistants and four commissioned officers of the Military Intelligence Division assigned to the inquiry for special problems on strategy, economics and ethnography. These officers are:

Major D. W. Johnson, Columbia University.
Major Lawrence Martin, University of Wisconsin.
Captain W. C. Farabee, the University Museum,
Philadelphia.

Captain Stanley Hornbeck, author of "Contemporary Politics in the Far East."

The above named, together with map makers

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the State Department. Part of the force in international law are already in Europe, including David H. Miller, chairman of the law committee of the State Department.

Every important nationality of Europe and western Asia has had representatives here for conference with "The Inquiry." Authorities native to the affected countries in Europe have lent their aid and have placed at the disposal of the "Inquiry" all sources of information in their native languages. These, together with numerous secret documents and much information hitherto unavailable to scholars, has resulted in a bibliographic collection altogether unique and valuable. It will become part of the records of the State Department.

The cartographic force of the American Geographical Society, greatly augmented by government aid, began a map-making program hitherto without precedent in this country, all work being carefully drawn from the latest and best sources. Maps have been made to visualize not only all manner of territorial boundaries, but distribution of peoples, number and local densities of population, religions, economic activities, distribution of material resources, trade routes, both historic and potential strategic points.

A series of base maps and block diagrams, the most nearly complete series existing, has been prepared by the American Geographical Society, bearing upon all the geographical problems both of the war and the peace which is to follow. This series has been adopted by the War Department and prescribed by its Committee on Education and Special Training for use in all colleges and other centers where units of the Students' Army Training Corps are located, and for use by chairmen of the War Issues Course Groups. Many of these base maps and block diagrams have already been procured by colleges and universities.

Upon these base maps the Peace Commissioners, or others, by use of colored lines, may immediately have a map showing new state lines, ethnic boundaries, a rectified frontier, or a distribution of any sort, and at the signing

of the treaty of peace, a complete record of the new map of Europe.

All information gathered by "The Inquiry" has been so carefully classified, indexed and subdivided that it will be instantly available.

The library for the commissioners will also include hundreds of maps and books from the American Geographical Society, from Harvard, Princeton, Haverford College, the Library of Congress and the New York Public Library. These, with the data gathered by the inquiry have been constantly under guard.

The American Geographical Society will prepare, under the supervision of its director, Dr. Isaiah Bowman, a complete history of the work of "The Inquiry." A history of it will also be prepared for the History Board of the War Plans Division of the General Staff of the War Department.

President Wilson visited the headquarters of "The Inquiry" on October 12, on which occasion he registered his name on the wall in the office of the director of the American Geographical Society. Immediately under it are the names of Secretary Lansing, who visited the "Inquiry" on two occasions, and of Colonel House.

During the year there were a large number of other distinguished visitors, including Secretary Houston, Governor McCall and Major Requin, for a time General Foch's Chief of Staff. The last-named, at the time of his visit, constructed a blackboard sketch of the first battle of the Marne, and this, now carefully preserved, has great historical interest.

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

THE SALTERS' INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY1

THE Salters' Company has during many years given evidence of its interest in the promotion of scientific education and research by the provision of fellowships tenable by postgraduate workers. It has now taken a further very important step in announcing a scheme for the establishment of an institute to be called "The Salters' Institute of Industrial

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Chemistry." The offices of the institute will be for the present at the Salters' Hall, and the scheme will be administered by a director, who will be selected on the ground of qualifications based on a distinguished academic career in chemistry coupled with extensive technical experience. An Advisory Board composed of representatives of the Salters' Company, the universities, and the Association of British Chemical Manufacturers is also under consideration.

The Company proposes to establish two types of fellowship, for which post-graduate students of British nationality will be eligible whether graduates of a British university or of a university in the United States or elsewhere. They are to be (1) fellowships to enable postgraduate students to continue their studies at an approved university or other institution under the general supervision of the director of the institute, and (2) industrial fellowships to enable suitably equipped chemists to carry on research for any manufacturer under an agreement entered into jointly by the institute, the manufacturer, and the fellow.

It will be observed that the Company does not at present contemplate the erection of any building or the equipment of any laboratory. Its aim is, therefore, somewhat different from that of the founders of such estalishments as the Davy-Faraday Laboratory attached to the Royal Institution in London, or the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute opened in 1912 near Berlin. The intention is to add to the number of firstrate chemical technologists available for the service of industry in this country, a class of men which at present scarcely exists and is sorely needed. It is hoped to offer such attractions to some of the best students that on completing their university course they will seek to apply their knowledge to manufacture and industry generally, and that employers will recognize promptly the necessity for such assistance so that openings for such men with suitable remuneration will be provided concurrently with the supply. Hitherto almost the only career available for the honors graduate in chemistry has been in connection with the teaching profession. Probably in future

such men will be divided into two classes according to their personal predilections, some going to the works, while others will prefer teaching. In both directions the opportunities provided have been insufficient in number and inadequate in remuneration, so that many cases have occurred in which a man with distinct scientific gifts has been forced by circumstances to seek employment in other directions, and science has been consequently the

poorer.

The fundamental idea which has inspired the Salters' Company may be illustrated by one or two examples. Suppose a man to have taken his degree with distinction in chemistry, and in physiology as a second subject. Elected to a Salters' fellowship, he may undertake a research on some subject of a biochemical nature. This may be carried on at his own university or at any other possessing a special school for this class of work in England or some other country. In due time arrangements may be made by the director for the fellow to take a course of chemical engineering, perhaps in America, and afterwards to obtain technical and industrial experience. In a very short time a man so trained and experienced will be in a position to demand, and will certainly be worth, a very high salary. It would be easy to provide a similar course with the necessary modifications adapted to the case of a man whose original bent is in the direction of physical chemistry or pure organic or metallurgical chemistry. The printed scheme issued by the Salters' Company gives no information as to the pecuniary value of the proposed fellowships. In estimating the annual amount which should be assigned to each fellowship, it must be remembered that the holder, while required to live simply and carefully, must be free from difficulties about books, traveling expenses and laboratory outlay. Probably £300 a year under present conditions and for some time to come will not be found too much, though perhaps expenses will depend to some extent on whether the student remains at home or is required to reside at a foreign university or center. When operations are to commence at the institute will depend

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THE RETUrn of cheMISTS TO THE INDUSTRIES WHEN the United States entered the European war one of the first problems to be considered was the effect of the draft upon our essential industries. It was early appreciated that in order to maintain our full efficiency it would be necessary to conserve as far as possible our skilled workers and men with technical training. In order that we might not suffer from the depletion of our ranks, steps were taken to secure deferred classification, and later on provision was made to furlough back to industry. This arrangement made it possible for chemical industries to maintain their efficiency and has contributed largely to the effectiveness of our forces in the field.

Up to the time of cessation of hostilities the Industrial Relations Branch of the Chemical Warfare Service had recommended for deferred classification 641 chemists and skilled workers. These recommendations were favorably considered, as a rule, by the local boards, and as a result about 90 per cent. of the men so recommended were put in a deferred class.

Many cases, however, were not brought to the attention of this branch until the men had actually been called into service. Such chemists or skilled workers as were essential to industry were then furloughed in order that the production of war materials might not be retarded. Through this method 156 men had been returned to industry, and at the time of the signing of the armistice 120 more cases were pending in the Adjutant General's office.

As hostilities cease we naturally must again turn to peace-time conditions and look forward to the future development of chemical industry in America. The problem now before the Industrial Relations Branch of the Chemical Warfare Service is to assist chemists in service to secure positions where their training and experience can be used to the best interests of the government. This enormous readjustment is rendered possible through the information gathered by Dr. Charles L. Parsons, secretary of the American Chemical Society, and through the questionnaires sent out by Major

F. E. Breithut, of the Personnel Division of the Chemical Warfare Service.

In order to accomplish results the chemists now in military service who desire to return to chemical industry are being requested to inform the chief of the Industrial Relations Branch concerning their future prospects, while the manufacturers are being asked to designate their requirements for chemists. The administration of this work will be carried out by the Industrial Relations Branch. Any information desired may be obtained by writing to Major Allen Rogers, Chief, Industrial Relations Branch, Chemical Warfare Service, 7th and B Streets, N.W., Washington, D. C.

THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

AFTER the signing of the armistice, the council reconsidered its vote not to have a meeting this year. It has been definitely decided to hold a brief and somewhat informal meeting at Baltimore. The Baltimore meeting will be held on Friday and Saturday, December 27 and 28. The sessions will take place in Gilman Hall, Homewood, Johns Hopkins University. Sections H and L of the A. A. A. S. will meet in rooms in the same building.

The program has been limited to papers upon psychological work in connection with the war. Owing to the short time at the committee's disposal, it has asked a number of members in service to present papers, instead of following its usual custom of sending a general notice to the members of the association. A number

of members have already consented to read papers, and the meeting promises to be an interesting one. The general scheme for the program is as follows: Friday, December 27, at 10 A.M.-a parallel session with Sections H and L; Friday afternoon-a joint session with Sections H and L; Friday at 6:33-the annual dinner followed by a business meeting and smoker; Saturday morning at 9:30-a joint session with Section H; Saturday afternoona symposium upon "The future of pure and applied psychology." Friday at 4:30 P.M., Professor E. L. Thorndike, the retiring vicepresident of Section H, A. A. A. S., will deliver an address entitled, "Scientific personnel

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work in the U. S. army." At 7:30 P.M., Professor E. F. Buchner, the retiring vice-president of Section L, will deliver an address entitled, Scientific contributions of the Educational Survey." Among others, will be papers upon the work of the psychological examiners, upon the methods of the Committee on Classification of personnel including the trade tests, upon the work of reconstruction and upon the investigations in connection with aviation. It will not be possible this year to send a complete program to the members before the date of the meeting. All members are invited to attend the smoker, whether they are present at the dinner or not.

HARVARD UNIVERSITY, December 4, 1918

H. S. LANGFeld, Secretary

THE YELLOW FEVER EXPEDITION OF THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

DR. GEORGE R. VINCENT, president of the Rockefeller Foundation, announces that with the cessation of hostilities in France the foundation is prepared to direct its activities, largely diverted into war channels, back into ways of peace. Its international health board, he said, would renew at once in cooperation with local authorities in South and Central America its combat against yellow fever.

Dr. William C. Gorgas, retired from the post of surgeon general on account of age, soon will sail, to take charge of the foundation's fight against yellow fever. The position of director of yellow fever work, which General Gorgas now occupies, he held until the war compelled him to relinquish it and the foundation to suspend its efforts. Dr. Vincent's statement continues:

Dr. Gorgas will sail within a short time for Central and South America. Dr. N. E. Connor has already preceded him to Guayaquil, on invitation of the government of Ecuador. He will guide the local operations, which will be done by men appointed by the local authorities.

The program which General Gorgas will now actively develop, results from a study of the yellow fever problem by the International Health board, which began its labors in July, 1914.

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