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ing absent-minded philanthropists striving for the benefit of the human race. They still fail to see the connection between science and their industry. They are not aware that the whole vista opened out by modern chemistry lays bare hitherto unsuspected depths of complexity in the most insignificant things about us. It is ignorance pure and simple and truly a curse upon the nation's advance.

Another condition that must be remedied— the engineer with little knowledge or training in chemistry in charge of the design, erection and control of chemical plants and processes. Associated with him is a routine "analyst," entirely dependent upon him. Neither have any idea of the mechanism and interpretation of chemical processes involving mechanics, hydraulics, hydrostatics, thermodynamics, thermophysics, thermochemistry, physical chemistry and what not. Our pressing obligation, therefore is to train men more profoundly and thoroughly in the fundamental theories of the science in mathematical, in physical, in biological as well as in the chemical branches. The industrial world to-day demands this type of broadly-trained man.

" The unfounded popular craze and cry of intellectual people is for "applied science," failing to realize that there is no applied science until you have science to apply. Pasteur propounded the wonders in bacteriology by attempting to disprove the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Helmholtz never thought of preventing eye diseases when he introduced the ophthalmoscope. Cavendish never dreamed of the double purpose of his idea of "fixing nitrogen" appearing like Brahma in two aspects-Vishna the Preserver and Siva the Destroyer. The world triumphs are indebted to pure science.

THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY IN THE SERVICE OF PROGRESS

Such being the case, our chemical associations should welcome more papers on theoretical than on "dollar" chemistry-of mutual benefit to all its members-teaching, research and technical chemists.

The American Chemical Society, the great

growing body of American chemical genius should organize a central research clearing house to receive problems for research from all conceivable sources in the country-industries, schools, research laboratories. These may be published in the journals for interested members to attack.

Then too, the question of handbooks must be settled. It is useless to continue to discuss the matter. Discussions evolve more heat than light. This is no time for talk but for action. We must have our own handbooks in English. We must stop relying on any one for anything. The time has come for independence in educational and scientific materials in this country. There is no greater body than the American Chemical Society to foster by united action this wholesome spirit of scientific independence.

THE GOVERNMENT'S ROLE IN OUR CHEMICAL INDEPENDENCE

Another vitally important rôle in the establishment of chemical independence in our country must be played by our government.

To stop depending upon foreign sources of supply, our government should utilize and extend its surveys of national resources; enforce their conservation; transform sleeping villages into great centers for industrial activity; enact wise legislation for protective duties which will aid in the improvement of essential industries for daily needs; encourage the use of "Made-in-U. S." materials; carefully consider patent legislation; establish more official experimental stations for theoretical and industrial research; build central scientific research reference libraries indispensable in research in growing industrial centers; continue through "scientific statesmen" to stimulate and encourage research; and give the chemist, the scientist his entitling share to a highly responsible position in national life and in the councils of those directing our national policies. "To him that hath shall be given."

In the midst of all our great chemical progress, our government should concern itself with a feature of dire import-the standardization of the title "chemist." A bottle

washer, a laboratory assistant, an "analyst " hanging on to the coat-tails of a chemical engineer, a technician "analyzing" urine from morn to midnight, a drug clerk handling chemicals, a coffee or tea "nose" specialist all cogs in the chemical wheel are to-day classed as chemists together with the professor of chemistry, research and industrial chemists. The title "chemist" must be standardized. Those who by right of training and occupation deserve this name should urge upon our government to lay down definite standards for the profession and place it in the same plane with medicine or law. An institution's diploma or an association's membership or whatever else may be feasible in the national standardization, should represent the chemist's license. Partial action in this direction has been inaugurated by the Chemical Warfare Service Section in classing men as "analysts" who received sufficient training in chemistry to enable them to carry on routine analyses under direction and as chemists" who have special training in any of the branches of chemistry. This classification is a step in the right direction. It was for the war program. Now let there be a complete classification for the peace program.

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To conclude chemistry has proven to be America's bulwark of defense. In return, America must recognize all the more the indispensable service of the scholar, the thinker, the investigator of science, in national preservation. May our new democratic age stimulate scientists in their search of truth not only for truth's sake but for humanity's sake in our universal brotherhood of man.

I. NEWTON KUGELMASS

HOWARD UNIVERSITY

CHARLES RICHARD VAN HISE THE following minute has been voted by the board of regents of the University of Wisconsin:

Dr. Charles Richard Van Hise, the president of the University of Wisconsin, departed this life November 19, 1918, after an unbroken connection of forty-four years with the institution, as under

graduate, through all grades of the faculty, and as president for the past fifteen years.

Nearly every living alumnus, every faculty member and executive officer has come into intimate

personal contact with him during the long period of his connection with the university, and to know him was to love him, to serve with him a privilege, and to serve under him a benediction.

Recognition of his genius, as a scientist, as an educator, and as an executive, comes to us from every quarter of the nation and civilized world. We would not here catalogue his virtues, his excellences, nor his achievements in his many fields of intellectual and personal activity. We knew him as a friend, co-laborer and associate. The many hours we have spent with him are a priceless asset; his activities and his accomplishments are an inspiration to us and a call to better things. We shall miss him as a friend, counsellor and brother; we shall strive to be better for having known him. We mourn with the family, with the university, with the nation, and with the world over his untimely passing. We deplore our loss, but we know that the world is richer for his having lived and served.

The faculty of the University of Wisconsin has drawn up the following memorial resolution in honor of President Van Hise:

We, the faculty of the university, would pay our tribute of respect and love to our departed leader, President Charles R. Van Hise. His death has afflicted us with the deepe sense of public and personal loss. We rejoice, however, in the service that he rendered to his fellow men. He preached the gospel of service, and he practised it with insight and energy. His service was not the condescension of the great to the humble, but the solicitude of the elder brother for his brethren. To him the great object in life was to release the capacities of men, to help them learn how to help themselves.

His broad conception of the part that the university should have in this work of spiritual liberation was firmly grounded in respect for pure scholarship, and his success in securing its fuller realization is one of his titles to grateful remembrance. He had a democrat's faith in the ability of the people of Wisconsin to recognize the worth of university training. No opposition, no doubts or fears, could shake his confidence in their unfaltering and full support of the university which sought to open to all a door to richer and nobler living.

He was truly a democratic leader. He was

simple in his tastes, delighting in the curling smoke of the campfire and the small, still voices of the wild woods. He was accessible to every one and sought advice from all who would offer it; he respected honest opponents and worked with them as harmoniously after a conflict as before; he endured even malicious personal criticism with serenity. His tolerance was indeed amazing, and it sprang, not from indifference or disdain, but from singlehearted devotion to the larger, benign purposes that he cherished for men, and from the concentration of his strength upon the effort to realize them.

It was characteristic of the steady and consistent broadening of his interests that he passed from the study of the forces which have knit the outer fabric of the earth to the investigation of some of the potent influences which make or mar the welfare of men. The well-being of the people of Wisconsin, of the people of the nation, engaged the productive energies of his mature manhood. When the great war came and threatened the destruction of western civilization, he bent all the powers of his mind and heart to the great problem of gaining the victory for liberty and justice, and then, in these later, stupendous weeks, to a greater problem of making that victory secure through the organization of a brotherhood of free nations. The leader who began his presidency with the noble ideal of freeing human capacity throughout the commonwealth of Wisconsin fittingly crowned his too brief days, in the fulness of his powers, with well-wrought plans for ensuring to national and to individual capacity a free opportunity throughout a liberated world.

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SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

THE PRODUCTION OF MARBLE IN 1917 THE value of marble sold in the United States in 1917, according to reports made by the producers to G. F. Loughlin, United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, was $6,330,387, a decrease of 10 per cent. ($702,784) from the value in 1916 and the lowest annual value for our marble output since 1904. The quantity produced in 1917 was about 3,627,750 cubic feet (310,130 tons), as against about 4,795,000 cubic feet (409,970 tons) in 1916-a decrease of 24 per cent. The

quantity produced in 1917 included a small proportion of serpentine, as shown in a later paragraph, but no "onyx marble."

Of the marble sold in 1917, 2,156,351 cubic feet (about 184,370 tons), valued at $6,100,280, was building and monumental marble-a decrease of 33 per cent. in quantity and 11 per cent. in value compared with 1916. The average price of this stone per cubic foot was $2.83 in 1917 and $2.13 in 1916.

The marble sold for use as flux, terrazzo and mosaic work, and ornamental stone, and the pulverized marble sold for use in agriculture and in manufactures amounted to 125,764 tons, valued at $230,107. The marble sold for these purposes in 1916 amounted to 136,217 short tons valued at $209,155.

The total value of marble sold in 1917 for use as building stone (3,702,563) was 22 per cent. less than that sold in 1916, and the total quantity (1,470,793 cubic feet) was 35 per cent. less. Exterior building stone, which represented 36 per cent. of the total quantity of building stone, decreased 37 per cent. in quantity and 25 per cent. in value; stone for interior work, which represented 64 per cent. of the total quantity, decreased 34 per cent. in quantity and 20 per cent. in value. Marble sold dressed for use in the exterior of buildings was the only building stone product that showed increase in quantity (13,549 cubic feet) in 1917; but the value of this product decreased $38,328 (4.7 per cent.). The general average price of marble sold as building stone (rough and dressed) in 1917 was $2.52 per cubic foot; the average value of exterior stone was $2.05 and of interior stone $2.77. Vermont and Tennessee produced over 56 per cent. of the quantity of marble quarried for as building stone, each state reporting over 390,000 cubic feet. Vermont's output was nearly equally divided between exterior and interior stone, whereas 97 per cent. of Tennessee's product was interior building stone. About 37 per cent. of the Vermont and over 50 per cent. of the Tennessee marble was sold as rough stone. Georgia and Missouri were the next largest producers of building marble,

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the quantity produced in each state exceeding 100,000 cubic feet.

The value of the marble produced for monumental use in 1917, including rough and dressed stone, increased $318,307 (15 per cent.) over that in 1916. The quantity, however, decreased 255,230 cubic feet (27 per cent.). The average price per cubic foot was $3.50 in 1917, which was $1.29 more than in 1916. There was a large increase in the quantity of dressed monumental stone sold in 1917-107,403 cubic feet (54 per cent.), but a decrease of 362,926 cubic feet (49 per cent.) in the quantity of rough stone. Vermont produced more than 55 per cent. (377,418 cubic feet), and Georgia more than 25 per cent. of the country's output of monumental marble. Missouri, New York and Tennessee rank next in this product.

Marble for ornamental and "other uses " declined in quantity but increased in value in 1917, as it did in 1916. Marble for "other uses" includes rough stone sold to lime burners, to carbonic acid factories, to pulp mills and to blast furnaces; crushed stone for road metal and terrazzo; small cubes for mosaics; and finished stone for electrical apparatus and ornamental purposes. The stone sold for flux to blast furnaces amounted to 21,194 long tons, valued at $24,899, and for terrazzo to 17,551 short tons, valued at $51,218. In 1916 the stone sold for terrazzo was 24,340 short tons, valued at $83,466.

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SCIENTIFIC WORKERS1

THE first general meeting of the National Union of Scientific Workers was held on October 27, and was attended by representatives of eleven branches with more than five hundred members. The constitution of the union was determined, subject to slight alterations in redrafting the rules. It was agreed upon by the meeting that the objects of the union should include:-(1) To advance the interests of science-pure and applied-as an essential element in the national life; (2) to regulate the conditions of employment of persons with adequate scientific training and knowledge and (3) to secure in the interests 1 From Nature.

of national efficiency that all scientific and technical departments in the public service, and all industrial posts involving scientific knowledge, shall be under the direct control of persons having adequate scientific training and knowledge. Special objects deal with obtaining adequate endowment for research and advising, as to the administration of such endowment, setting up an employment bureau and a register of trained scientific workers, and obtaining representation on the Whitley industrial councils. An applicant is qualified for membership if he or she has passed the examination leading to a university degree in science, technology, or mathematics, and is engaged at the time of application on work of a required standard, though certain other qualifications are regarded as equivalent to university degrees and admitted in lieu thereof. A resolution was carried unanimously that a special advisory committee should be appointed to deal with questions arising in connection with the promotion of research. At the close of the meeting the officers for the ensuing year were appointed as follows: President: Dr. O. L. Brady (Woolwich). Secretary: Mr. H. M. Langton (miscellaneous). Treasurer: Mr. T. Smith (National Physical Laboratory). Executive: Mr. G. S. Baker, Dr. N. R. Campbell, Dr. C. C. Paterson (N.P.L.), Mr. R. Lobb, Mr. J. W. Whitaker (Woolwich), Dr. H. Jeffreys, Dr. F. Kidd (Cambridge), Dr. C. West (Imperial College), and Dr. A. A. Griffith (Royal Aircraft Establishment). The address of the secretary is Universal Oil Co., Kynochtown, Stanford-le-Hope, Essex.

THE DE LAMAR BEQUESTS FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH

THE will of Captain Joseph Raphael De Lamar, mine owner and director in many large enterprises, leaves nearly half of his estate, estimated at $20,000,000, to the Harvard University Medical School, Johns Hopkins University and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University for medical reseach into the cause of disease and into the principles of correct living. The

bequests to these institutions in equal shares consist of his residuary estate, estimated at about $10,000,000. He gave a trust fund of $10,000,000 to his only child, Alice Antoinette De Lamar, with the provision that if she dies without issue the principal of this fund also goes to the institutions named. The clause setting aside the residuary estate requests that the fund be used as follows:

For the study and teaching of the origin of human disease and the prevention thereof; for the study and teaching of dietetics and of the effect of different food and diets on the human system, and how to conserve health by proper food and diet and in connection with the foregoing purposes to establish and maintain fellowships, instructorships, scholarships and professorships; to construct, maintain and equip laboratories, clinics, dispensaries and other places for such study and research and to provide proper housing of same; to publish and disseminate the results of such study and research, not only in scientific journals and for physicians and scientists, but also, and this I especially enjoin on the legatees, by popular publications, public lectures and other appropriate methods to give to the people of the United States generally the knowledge concerning the prevention of sickness and disease, and also concerning the conservation of health by proper food and diet.

The will suggests that the legatees use any means they deem expedient for the purposes named, and requests that the fund be kept intact.

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS

THE Royal Society has awarded its Darwin medal to Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the American Museum of Natural History, in recognition of his research work in vertebrate morphology and paleontology. The Copley medal goes to Professor H. A. Lorentz, late professor of physics in the University of Leyden, For. Mem. R.S., for his researches in mathematical physics; the Davy medal to Professor F. S. Kipping, F.R.S., professor of chemistry, University College, Nottingham, for his studies in the camphor group and among organic derivatives of nitrogen and silicon; a Royal medal to Professor F. G. Hopkins, F.R.S., professor of bio-chemistry in

the University of Cambridge, for his researches in chemical physiology.

SIR J. J. THOMSON was reelected president of the Royal Society at the anniversary meeting on November 30. The other officers are: Treasurer: Sir Alfred Kempe. Secretaries: Professor Arthur Schuster and Mr. W. B. Hardy. Foreign Secretary: Professor W. A. Herdman. Other Members of the Council: Sir George B. Beilby, Profesor V. H. Blackman, Mr. C. V. Boys, Sir James J. Dobbie, Sir Frank W. Dyson, Dr. M. O. Forster, Professor F. W. Gamble, Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Sir Richard Glazebrook, Sir Alfred D. Hall, Sir William Leishman, Professor W. J. Pope, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Professor E. H. Starling, Mr. J. Swinburne and Professor W. W. Watts.

THE Swedish Academy has awarded the Nobel prize for physics for the year 1917, to Professor C. G. Barkla, professor of natural philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, for his work on X-rays and secondary rays. The prize in physics for 1918 and that in chemistry for 1917 and 1918 have been reserved.

DR. PIERRE Roux, director of the Pasteur Institute of Paris for many years, will retire from that post. He will be succeeded by Dr. A. C. Calmette, director of the Pasteur Institute of Lille.

THE Salters' Company has appointed Dr. M. O. Forster F.R.S., to be the first director of the newly established Salters' Institute of Industrial Chemistry.

DR. GEORGE DAVID STEWART has been elected president of the New York Academy of Medicine.

MR. F. K. BEZZENBERGER, of Harvard University, has been commissioned captain, and is stationed at Cleveland as gas chemist in the Chemical Warfare Service.

DR. ROBERT P. FISCHELIS, director of the control department of the H. K. Mulford Co., has entered the Chemical Warfare Service and has been stationed at the control lab

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