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New demand of a reply by envoys-New requisitions of money by France

-Volney, messenger from Jefferson, sails for France-Mission of

Logan by Jefferson-His conferences in Europe-His memorial to

Talleyrand-Continued exactions by France-Commercial intercourse

with her suspended, and treaties with her declared void-Proposal to

issue letters of marque rejected-Presents of armed vessels to the

United States accepted-Merchant vessels authorized to defend them-

selves and capture their assailants-Supplementary Naturalization

Act-Proposed amendment of Constitution, eligibility of public

officers-Hamilton's more liberal view-New indignities by France-

Marshall returns-Public honors paid him-Talleyrand's specification

of injuries of the United States toward France-Disproofs thereof-

Disposition of France to treat with one of the envoys deemed most

friendly to France—Answer of envoys-Gerry remains in Paris after

Marshall's and Pinckney's departure-Livingston's resolution for an

address requesting President to instruct Gerry to negotiate and con-

clude a treaty with France, rejected-Addresses to and indiscreet re-

plies of President-The black cockade-Correspondence from France

with leading Democrats-Violent schism between envoys at Paris-

Foreign emigrants devoted to Jefferson-Irish emigrants, their

character-American Society of United Irishmen-Act concerning

aliens-Moderate view of Hamilton, and Alien Law modified-Collot

sails for France Incendiary presses conducted by foreigners-

Adams' prompt measure against them, and Sedition Act passed—

Hamilton objects to its severity and deprecates its impolicy-Sedi-

tion Act modified, limiting punishment and authorizing truth to be

given in evidence in prosecutions for libels-Tax plan of Wolcott-

Direct tax and tax upon slaves-Loans authorized-Provisional

army authorized-Its general staff—Volunteers to be accepted,

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CHAPTER CXLIII.

Hamilton early proposes a Federal navy-Policy of Cabinet-Wayward-
ness of Adams-Jealousy of Washington-Declares against further
attempts at negotiation-Hamilton's comment upon him-His fluctu-
ating conduct-Hamilton intimates to Washington a journey through
Virginia and North Carolina to stay the apprehended influence of
Democrats, suggesting his taking command of army-Washington's

CHAPTER CXLIV.

Adams' conduct as to general staff appointments-Action of Senate-
Hamilton to Washington; is willing to submit his pretensions to
rank, and waive the preference-Adams leaves Philadelphia with-
out informing his Cabinet-Declines calling the generals into service
until rank is settled; unless Knox and Pinckney precede Hamilton
-Opinions of Washington by Adams and Jefferson-Washington to
Knox; his opinion of Hamilton-Knox claims preferential rank—
Washington to Hamilton, who avows readiness to facilitate any ar-
rangement-Adams insists upon right to rank according to antece-
dent services, thus placing Hamilton lowest-Self-contradiction by
him-Objects to a reference to Washington, and imputes intrigue-
Hamilton's delicate conduct-Secretaries of War and State to Wash-
ington, averring public preference of Hamilton-Adams' obstinacy-
Wolcott to Adams, as to Hamilton's priority of rank-Similar view
presented by Cabot-Washington's determination avowed to Secre-

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Bonaparte sails for Toulon-Anxiety of Europe-Various opinions as to

his purposes-Insurrection of Ireland premature-Conferences at

Rastadt-Austria's alliance with Russia-Continued hostility of

France toward United States-Corps of consuls in their ports an-

nounced-Negotiations with Gerry, who favors a loan to France-

Pinckney's opinion of Gerry-Conferences with him terminated by a

peremptory order for his return to United States-France recedes

from her pretensions-Revokes decree for capture of American vessels,

and also her embargo-King to Hamilton, stating the subtle policy of

France-Hamilton as to public mind and the character of Adams-

Hamilton's view of policy of United States-Looks to conquest of Lou-

isiana and liberation of colonies of Spain-His resolution as to navi-

gation of Mississippi-Essential to the unity of empire-Dangers

of British acquisition of Louisiana and Floridas-Washington regards

as sole motive of war by France the acquisition of Louisiana-

Hamilton regards the acquisition of Louisiana and the Floridas as

essential to the permanency of the Union-Miranda discloses to

Hamilton his views as to liberation of South America-Hamilton

points to an ascendant of United States in American affairs-Miran-

da and Pitt as to South America-Montaigne, Montesquieu, and

Brissot look to liberation of South America-Miranda proceeds to

London and meets commissioners from Southern America-Plan

proposed by them, embracing cession of Louisiana and Floridas to

United States-Terms arranged with Pitt-Miranda addresses

Adams, and also Hamilton and King-King announces the purpose

of England-Hamilton again, in an official station, approves the

plan-Hostile position of Spain toward United States-Hamilton

incloses, through King, a letter to Miranda, stating his participation

must be patronized by the Government-States his plan of coopera-

tion with Great Britain-His plan approved by England—Adams'

jealousy-Discountenances the projected measures,

CHAPTER CXLVI.

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Hamilton as to defence of New York-Meeting of Washington, Hamil-
ton, and Pinckney, at Philadelphia-Questions propounded by Wash-
ington-Answers drawn by Hamilton-Topics stated-Hamilton's
papers embrace a large view of military administration-Fluc-
tuations of Adams-Asks advice of Cabinet as to his speech-Is
a declaration of war against France expedient? Shall he state his
intention to receive a minister from France ?-Knox as to probable
invasion by France-Jay apprehends her domination comprehends
America, North and South-Hamilton elated with public firmness
and union-Nearer view of temper of Adams-His vanity and ca-
price-Urges obliteration by Pickering of censure of Gerry-Offend-
ed honesty of Pickering-Adams to Gerry-Murray to Adams,
announcing wish of Talleyrand a new envoy be sent to France-
Secretary at War urges Adams' presence at Philadelphia, who pleads
the indisposition of his wife-Gerry and Logan repair to him—
Adams convenes his Cabinet-His speech-Firm tone of replies by
Congress-Senate remarks indignity of Directory, passing by agents
of Government and impeaching its integrity through unauthorized
agents-Adams' undignified answer-His note to Pickering-The
speech chiefly in language of Hamilton-Madison's and Jefferson's
comments-Bill punishing citizens of United States usurping office
of treating with foreign countries-Law suspending commercial in-
tercourse with France reenacted, with provisional authority to re-
open it-Great Britain recognizes people of Hayti as an independent
nation-Discretionary power to reopen intercourse opposed by Nicho-
las and Gallatin; defended by Otis and by Pinckney-Edict of
Directory, a pirate every person forming part of a British crew
voluntarily or by impressment-Retaliatory bill passed-Bill grant.
ing bounty on French vessels captured by private armed vessels of
United States defeated-Gallatin opposes a navy-Hamilton to Gunn;
reply-Hamilton advises postponement of actual augmentation of
regular army, except of two troops-Increase of cannon authorized;
increase of provisional army; provision for clothing the militia, and
a loan-No reduction of existing force-Suppression of internal dis-
orders-Revival of act authorizing 80,000 militia; fortification of a
few cardinal points,

. 221

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