« PreviousContinue »
STUDYING THE TSETSE FLY AND THE PARASITIC TRYPANOSOMES UNDER THE MICROSCOPE IN THE LABOR
ATORY OF THE AFRICAN COMMISSION. The head official of this Commission, Sir David Bruce, is
seated at the left.
velop in any tropical morass that may chance to be at hand.
Here and there in western Uganda far enough away from the death carrier's haunts to be free from the fly's visits are charnel houses whose dark walls shut off from view the tragic scenes produced by this curse to human beings. They are the detention camps where the “suspects” are herded after being brought in droves, sometimes at the bayonet's point, where they may be obstinate, to be placed where they cannot infect others. Before being placed in these thatched sheds, the surgeon's needle pierces each and fills the test tube with blood on which the lens of the microscope must pass judgment. If even a single parasite is detected the negro is condemned to confinement for life. He can go outside if able, walk or sit as he wishes. But there is a dead line where are posted black men in khaki and puttees, Uganda native guards, drilled to handle the rifle. If one of these prisoners for disease in his frenzy attempts to pass between those living statues he is seized and forced back. If he should get outside, the blacks obey their orders, but this death is a mercy if the victim had the intelligence to know it. Thus the spread of the disease has been checked, at least in Uganda,—though, nevertheless, thousands of lives have been lost,by separating the infected from the healthful. All the blacks have been taken
A PORTION OF THE LABORATORY SCREENED OFF BY
MOSQUITO NETTING, In the foreground is shown a box for hatching out tsetse
flies for experimental purposes.
FATAL PLAGUE THREATENS WHOLE WORLD
away from the swamp huts where the winged death might reach them and shelter given them on high and dry ground where the fly is unknown.
The captives in the detention camp, the monkey huts, the rat cages, the dog houses, provide means of studying sleeping sickness by which many of the facts known of its curse to human beings and animals have been revealed. Risking their lives the members of the fly expeditions search swamp and water shore where the rank tropical vegetation shelters their. prey. Provided with long handled nets, as a tsetse fly takes wing, the net is dropped over it and given a twist. If wanted dead, it is picked out with the gloved fingers and the head put into a bottle of poison, the fly put into a covered tin box for laboratory work. But the alert negro is quick enough to catch them alive in the bush, sometimes without a net, using one finger and the thumb to grasp the wings. These fly boys are at each detention camp and also wear the khaki and puttees, but go after the winged death carrier with faces and hands bare, laughing and jumping as if having a frolic. They know the habits of the fly as the American boy knows the bee, but ignorant of what a bite may mean. Several have been bitten but merely because they had become careless.
In this way collections of biting flies are procured from all parts of Uganda. As each package comes in, it is examined for tsetse fies. If the parcel contains man killers, a red disk is stuck on a large map over the locality from which the flies have been sent. If, on the other hand, no tsetse Aies were found, a blue disc is fixed over the spot. In the same way and at the same time a second map is pre
LABORATORY WHERE MONKEYS. RATS AND OTHER pared, to show the distribution of sleep
ANIMALS ARE PERMITTED TO BE BITTEN ing sickness. If a note accompanying the
This experimentation shows how the disease takes effect. collection of flies states that sleeping The monkeys are kept in the boxes on the posts. sickness is prevalent, then a red disc is placed over the locality, and if, on the fatal thing which it carries. The dead contrary, no cases of sleeping sickness go to a dissecting stand where the microare reported, a blue disc is affixed. Thus scope reveals the number of trypanothe two maps so prepared show at a somes each have in the mouth, if they glance whether the distribution of sleep- are infected. Larvae collected are hatched ing sickness and that of the tsetse corre- in a curious incubator and the changes spond or not, and the map warns against observed up to the time they become full the infected regions.
grown. To prove its ability to do its The tsetse, dead or alive, is made an murderous work, the fly developed is fed agent to aid in finding a cure for the on a drop of infected blood and placed
INCINERATOR FOR DESTROYING ALL REFUSE IN THR
BY TSETSE FLIES,
be num where these dead
wretches in the detention camp have been subjects for experiment. This on the face of it would appear to be a horrible cruelty, but it is necessary for the benefit of humanity. Tsetse flies, free from trypanosomes, are placed upon victims in various stages to
determine if they can absorb the parasites. After they have sucked human blood they are put in the cages and huts where the captive animals are confined. In nearly every instance the trypano
NATIVE UGANDIANS OUT
a monkey to bite him. Once is enough. Blood tests soon show the wriggler in the blood of the animal. BREEDING SPOT WHERE
LARVAE ARE DEPOSITED He can be counted BY THE FLIES. as dea d. Before dying, other flies are put into the monkey box to suck his blood, then taken to the dog house or the rat cage to discover if they are infected. The animal victims
SEARCHING FOR LARVAE ON A SANDY BEACH. may show no outward signs, but again the blood tests reveal the deadly truth that the tsetse can carry its invisible some is found to have performed its death-dealing parasite from an infected mission of death. animal as its source.
Sir David Bruce, who has made a life The rat may easily be a source of the monument to himself for his fight disease. While British surgeon's against this destroyer, utters these orderly was cutting open a rat that had words: “Can we by any means kill the been bitten, the point of his knife slipped, trypanosomes in the body of man, or merely scratching the skin of his wrist. render man immune to the attack of this The others rushed to his aid. A comrade parasite ? Can a drug be discovered put his mouth to the spot and sucked out which will cure man of this disease ? what blood he could, spitting it out in- Many attempts have been made, and are stantly and washing his mouth with an being made, to discover such a drug. As antiseptic. The surgeons cut the tiny long ago as the days of Livingstone, artery under the knife scratch and tied it arsenic was vaunted as a cure of the 'fly in two parts to check the movement of disease,' and up to the present time this the trypanosomes, then cauterized the drug has held its own as probably the wound. In a week the lens revealed them most useful one we have in this malady. in the blood test. In six months the man At first it was used in the form of was a corpse.
arsenious acid, dissolved in an alkaline Only by such near-death work is it solution, but later other preparations, possible to form any conclusion as to the such as atoxyl and orpiment, have been origin of sleeping sickness or nagana as experimented with. These experiments it is called when the horse or cow or have in many cases, been made on the antelope is attacked by the tsetse, and lower animals, and some have doubtless horrible
seem the poor been followed by a complete cure. But
FATAL PLAGUE THREATENS WHOLE WORLD
up to the present there is no single to cultivate the microbe from the blood instance of a cure effected in man, of infected animals in order to ascertain although thousands of cases have been whether the filtered blood of infected treated. Experiments have shown that animals is able to transmit the disease. these parasites seem to completely dis The biology and habits of the tsetse fly appear from the blood a few hours after as well as its distribution and relation a dose of one of these drugs; and the with the various trypanosomes are being effect of the treatment seems often mar studied in detail. velous, the patient regaining the appear Moreover the striking fact that some ance of health in a remarkably short species of animal are susceptible and time; but eventually the trypanosomes others immune is under investigation.
ONE WAY IN WHICH SLEEPING SICKNESS IS SPREAD.
from one town to another.
always return to the blood and the man According to Todd's theory the answer dies.
to this will be found in the enlarged “All attempts to render man immune glands. to the trypanosomes by some antitoxic Another point to be brought out is how serum or vaccine have up to the present far the mental diseases found among been fruitless, and there does not seem natives are cases of sleeping sickness. to be any likelihood of anything being Koch's hypothesis that sleeping sickness found out in that direction for a long can be transmitted also by contact, etc., time to come.
is to be examined most attentively. The program of work being carried on Atoxyl treatment as applied by Koch by the medical commission is so extensive (partly alternating with mercury and as to make it impossible to mention every antimony treatment) is being continued item. Special endeavors are being made and studied most carefully.
THE BLUE SKY LAW
HARRY F. KOHR
F the men who have been making a without said Kansan getting therefor full living, and something more, by and complete value in hand, to say nothswindling ignorant investors out of ing. of at least six per cent dividends inillions of dollars have noticed a thereon thereafter.
considerable falling off in business If you do not already know it, it will this year they can blame it all on “Joe" be written here that you may read, that Dolley of Kansas. Dolley, perhaps, is not Joseph N. Dolley is the state bank comso widely known as Coburn of Kansas missioner of Kansas, and the first man and never may overshadow the Premier who ever held the job that anybody outPress Agent of the Peerless Prairies of side the state ever heard of, becoming the Sunflower State, but he is rapidly thus widely known because he considered attaining a fame that, even if it doesn't he had other duties than those specifically dim the effulgence of the Coburn pros set down upon the statute books. He perity smile, at least, will not be dimmed held to the view that, if the law didn't by that same effulgence.
say so in so many words, it meant that Coburn's duty is to tell the populace of he was not only expected to protect the Kansas how to keep on making more people against dishonest or insecure money. Dolley's duty is to tell them how depositories for their money but also to to keep what they have and keep on protect them from those dishonest men keeping it. Coburn is the Eternal who sought to induce them to invest Boost personified and Dolley is the their savings in unsound and insecure Anvil Chorus. Not that Dolley
schemes of any character. doesn't do a whole lot of boosting
There are some 825 state banks for every time the banks of Kansas
in Kansas, which hold on an avershow a greater amount of
age of $125,000,000 in deposits, deposits than ever before he lets
nearly $100 for every man, out a whoop that's heard from
woman and child in the state. Portland, Me., to Portland, Ore.,
Many of these millions are sav—but his main job is to knock
ing accounts. There used to be anything that is likely to separate
rich picking for the stock swindthe Kansan from his money
lers in that $125,000,000, but