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a face cap. These are
ate a suction over the the essentials.
connections which lead An iron cylinder
to the lungs, thereby 372 by 21 inches con
causing exhalation of tains the oxygen at a
the gases previously pressure of about two
forced upon the lungs. thousand pounds when
When a certain completely filled. This
vacuum is reached in life-sustaining gas
the lungs and bellows, also furnishes the en
the outer atmosphere ergy required to in
acts upon the latter, duce breathing in the
which, in turn, operfollowing manner:
ates the controlling The oxygen from
valve and again adthe tank flows through
mits the oxygen to the reducing valve,
the lungs. The frewhich at the outlet
quency of these reside maintains a pres
versals depends upon sure of about seventy
the size of the lung five pounds, and from
cavity, a larger space there to the controll
requiring greater time, ing valve. Initially,
while with smaller the passage to the
lung capacity the oplungs is open through SECTIONAL VIEW OF
eration is correspondingly more the controlling valve.
frequent. 1, oxygen tank: 2. The latter connects to pressure gage: 3. redu
This process is continued rubber tubes leading
cing valve: 4, inspira
until the patient shows signs of to a metallic face cap outlet sides of control
natural respiration. The pulling valve; 7, operating with a rubber rim that bellows: 8. dashpot bellows; 9. motor action is then discon
flexible tubing; 10. face cap. closely fits the pa
tinued and the patient is altiert's face. The face
lowed to breathe the pure oxycap on one side is provided with a rubber gen through the other small face cap conbag, which permits a pair of forceps to nected by a hose with the oxygen tank. protrude by means of which the patient's The action of the pulmotor is started tongue is held from obstructing the simply by the attachment of the instrupharynx. The oxygen then has free ac ment to the patient through the rubber cess to the lungs.
face cap and the turning on of a switch When the pressure in the lungs has that regulates the shutoff and shuton of reached a certain value, about normal, a the battery. The fact that its own batbellows interconnected with the lung tery is attached makes possible the use cavity through the rubber tubes actuates of the pulmotor anywhere. There is no the controlling valve. The pressure of need of an electric current in the house the oxygen is now directed so as to cre where the asphyxiation has occurred.
T has been proposed to mend Niagara been set directly in front, and at the same Falls, for its Beauty's sake. For level, it would have shown that the apex some years now the engineers have of the horse-shoe is V-shaped, to the been tinkering with Niagara in the disadvantage of its scenic effect.
interest of Industry and Power; but For many hundreds of years Niagara this newest scheme will involve some has been wearing back on its ledge of skill, not for business, but in the interest rock. It would, of course, be impossible of Nature's good looks.
that a low-water discharge of 168,700 The Horse-Shoe Fall, between Goat cubic feet per second could continue day Island and the Canadian shore, has long and night for centuries without some been admired for the circling contour as wear and tear on the rock that it tumbles well as for the grandeur of the cataract. over; and the precipice of the Falls is But it seems that there has been gradu- today seven miles up-stream from where ally a getting away from that shape. it began ages ago. The wearing process
The power works have had a contract is still going on, but there's a difference. ing influence and have tended to concen Seven miles of rock-eating went on with trate the force of the cataract upon its no one to see or care: a few feet of it center. There was always, to be sure, a nowadays brings observing men to attendency in this direction, but the engi- tention with an engineering scheme. neering liberties that have been taken That scheme is nothing less than filling have apparently added to it. The result up the V-shaped crevice and restoring the is that the Horse-Shoe Fall is now pour horse-shoe. Temporary towers to be ing with such force over the central part erected on the Canadian shore and Goat of the precipice that it is wearing away Island, and between these to be stretched the rock.
a double cableway; huge blocks of conThe photograph is taken from the crete then to be carried across this cablewater's edge on the Canadian side, just way, directly over the crevice, and dropwhere it tumbles over. One may see ped straight into it—that is the plan. how the outline of the waterfall is in There is no telling how much of this dented, running away back into the chan concrete stuffing would be required, for nel of the river. That is the spoiling of the depth of the erosion is unknown, but the horse-shoe. The photograph some it is believed that the crevice can be what exaggerates the indentation, per filled and the waterfall set forward again haps, and gives it too square a look, be to its original line. It is at this point cause the view is lateral and loses the that the greatest volume of water goes impression of width which gives the over, and the wearing-away is likely to circling shape: if the camera could have do further mischief unless arrested.
HINK of a three-fourths horse white lines, where its expansive power is
of your hand, then think of the a space is explained by the fact that there possibilities of such an engine built in are eighty thousand impacts or pressures large proportions. One can hardly real- against the gear teeth a minute, and the ize that such power lies dormant in a same number of expansions in the simple pair of spiral gears, yet they form grooves, one for each tooth passing the the active part of the most powerful point where the steam enters, the average turbine in the world for its size.
speed of the turbine being about two The engine is the invention of Mr. thousand revolutions per minute. John H. VanDeverter and is of a de As compared with electric motors the sign hitherto unheard of in engineering new turbine is smaller for the same horse practice.
power, and is from twenty to fifty per The entire plant consists of two gears,
cent more economical to operate than or rotors, as they are called, revolving in other turbines of the same size, chiefly a closely fitting double cylinder.
because of the great waste of energy Imagine these rotors turned over so through leakage in the fan type. that the pocket formed between the gears There are but two points exposed to at the point A faces downward under wear, the bearings and the contacts of the neath the machine. Each tooth of the gear teeth. In the former this difficulty is gears as it passes this point gets
almost entirely overcome by the the benefit of the impact force of
fact that each bearing acts as a the steam or, in other words, its
pump supplying itself with oil blowing pressure against the
from a reservoir and maintains a teeth.
film of oil over the bearing surAs the rotors turn past this
faces as long as the engine is point in the direction indicated
running. by the arrows, the steam just ad
In the case of the contact of mitted into the V-shaped groove
the gear teeth a film of steam is completely shut off and ex COMPARED WITH surrounds these at all times when
THE HAND. pands until it reaches the stage
in operation so that they are
Rotors of a % horseindicated by the ends of the outer power turbine, cushioned from each other.
THE MOTORCYCLE ON THE FARM
F. G. MOORHEAD
LONG with the interurban and doubtedly come about as a result of his
the automobile has come an discovery that the motorcycle is valuable
country, in revolutionizing farm dens. In many instances the motorcycle home conditions and in keeping the boys is being used to haul cans of cream, bags and girls on the farm. This new factor is of meal, poultry and small garden truck the motorcycle. One prominent manu from the farm to the city, the speed with facturer reports that he sold four thou which it is possible to travel over the sand motorcycles to farmers last year, ordinary country road being one of the with every prospect good for the number reasons for its growing adoption. The reaching the ten thousand mark this year. fact that most of the standard makes are Already, one farmer out of every eight equipped with carriers capable of holding in Indiana owns and uses a power-driven two hundred-pound load makes the bicycle, while throughout the entire motorcycle appeal to the farmer, who has Middle West the familiar chug and snort learned, by experience, that it is not alof the motorcycle, ridden by some farmer, ways economy to take the horses from is weekly becoming more common. the necessary work of the farm in order
The adoption of the motorcycle by the to make a trip to town. farmer, as a sort of compromise between In still another important respect is the Old Dobbin and the automobile, has un motorcycle coming to figure prominently