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Much of Bering Sea's floor is a great level stretch only a few fathoms down,

PALAŠKA and constantly approaching


DOMINIOM the water level. Scientists and members of the United


CANADA States geodetic survey at ASIA tribute the upheaval be



EZUTLAH 150 neath the sea to the same subterranean convulsions CHINESE

UNITED EMPIRE that blow a fiery breath


STATES through the nostrils of so

-OCEAN many volcanoes. Assisting this action in making Bering Sea a pond preliminary,


EVENTUALLY, AND LINK NORTH AMERICA TO ASIA. perhaps, to obliterating it altogether, are the rivers of Alaska, ical accuracy to data relating to various which bring down annually vast sedimen- eruptions, and Admiral Bogoslof, in the tary deposits of alluvial matter that are service of the Czar, was the first, late in scattered far out toward the Siberian the eighteenth century, to discover the shore.

Bogoslof Islands. In still later times— A great earth giant, lying prone be within the last half-dozen years—plenty neath both sea and earth, and struggling of support has been given to the theory to arise, might be imagined gasping for that a continent is in the labor of birth, breath, kicking his feet in the Alaskan and soon may emerge to the light of day. gulf, elevating his forehead in Bering A dozen volcanoes, some apparently Sea, puffing through the volcanic rim of dead and others at intervals showing deisles that form his mouth, and protrud- cided signs of life, dot the west shore of ing his tongue and drawing it back again Cook Inlet, and the Alaska Peninsula, where the Bogoslofs hysterically bob up which separates Bering Sea from the and down. Indeed, the natives of all that Alaska Gulf. No fewer than forty-two region believe that demons and super- volcanoes have been counted on the natural agencies are making themselves Aleutians, stretching eastward from the felt by these sometimes terrible disturb mainland. Some of these are so remote ances that rack the islands and adjacent from the lines of travel that they are mainland.

only seldom seen, while others in the In later times the Russians gave histor- vicinity of the ship-channel through

Unimak Pass are within
the visual range of al-
most every voyager
into Bering Sea. For
five years J. E.
Thwaites, purser of the
little mail steamer
Dora, plying out to the


tremendous volcanic
manifestations years
ago, and evidence in


[graphic][merged small]


westward from Seward, Alaska, has been most active mountain chimneys above the endeavoring to catch on his camera film subterranean fires. Early in 1911 THE direct evidence of this activity, and only TECHNICAL WORLD presented remarkable lately has he succeeded in presenting pic- photographs of an eruption at the Bogostures of a group of smoking volcanoes lof Islands, when a new island sprang such as may be considered unique like Venus from the sea. These were throughout the world.

obtained from the deck of the United Not only were points of vantage diffi States revenue cutter Tahoma, one of cult for Mr. Thwaites to attain, at times those guardians of the northern seas. when the volcanoes were executing their Indians of the Cook Inlet district rebest performance, but he had as well to late a mythical tale, as picturesque as a contend with atmospheric conditions that fragment of Greek mythology, how the rendered his task all the more difficult warring gods of fire and water drove and uncertain. Yet he succeeded in ob them from their ancestral home on Autaining photographs of almost all these gustine Island, which stands at the en




trance to the Inlet. On the island stands Chernaboro volcano, with half its summit torn away, and still emitting steam and smoke. The island had been chosen as a home by the natives because of the advantages it offered for otter hunting, and they had no fear of the mountain towering above them.

The violent outbreak of Chernaboro, coming almost without warning, destroyed the native


GREAT TORCH OF THE ARCTIC. Indians in panic to the mainland.

Fire spouting from its crater was visible one hundred miles away. They never again dared to go back to live beneath the treacherous mountain. The date of this eruption is placed at about seventy-five years ago. Russian annals, as far as known, make no reference to it, but the Muscovite charts of 1825 show a channel between Augustine Island and the Alaska peninsula, where now there is only shallow water.

A new crater was revealed with the battle between the gods of fire and water, and the sulphurous vapor which Chernaboro gives off has rimmed the summit of the mountain with bleaching skeletons of birds that ventured too near its heated cone. Yet even if the volcano should never again evince vio

AKUTAN VOLCANO IN ACTION. lent tendencies the natives would Often at Unalaska can be heard booming this peace disturber of the

Aleutian solitudes. not return to the island, for they believe it was their residence upon its shores which angered their ele Arctic; fire spouting from its crater was mental deities.

visible one hundred miles away. The volcano most commonly seen by This crater of Shishaldin's is 1,000 voyagers into Bering Sea is Shishaldin,

feet across. In spite of the noxious standing on Unimak Island, not far from vapors one may take advantage of the Dutch Harbor, which is the coaling wind, climb to the summit, and stand on station of the Aleutians. Coincident the very edge of the crater, looking down with the 1910 upheaval in the Bog- into the seething depths. All down the oslofs, Shishaldin awakened into erup sides of the 10,000-foot mountain are tion, and on previous occasions synchron streams of lava; in fact the outpourings ous activity had been noticed. Shishaldin of molten rock have made Shishaldin one spread smoke and ash in every direction of the most symmetrical of mountains, Vessels reached Nome with their decks a veritable sugar-loaf. Adventurous covered with volcanic deposits. One spirits who make the ascent find its sides seemingly fabulous story related that the punctured with pot-holes or springs that ash assayed showed particles of gold- emit boiling sulphur streams. yet why not? Seven or eight years ago When the wind goes down Shishaldin's Shishaldin became a great torch of the thin stream of black smoke rises to a



This photo was taken from the deck of the mail steamer Dora.

height of miles in the air, and produces into the air, dissipating itself a few an impressive spectacle. Occasionally moments later among the clouds of the the mountain will belch forth a ball of upper atmosphere. Navigators who have smoke that hovers for an instant above passed Akutan while in action say the the snow-covered summit; then rises like spectacle is most entrancing when the a balloon into the air and dissolves at mountain is partly hidden by the fog great height.

that is so prevalent in Bering Sea. Says Not far from this volcano, on Unimak Mr. Thwaites: Island, is Pogromno, whose crater has “With a tremor of the mountain, and been shattered by the forces of nature. then a crash comes the first of the twin Yet from its summit there curls almost explosions, and the puff of smoke shoots continuously a wisp of smoke, streaming up from the crater, tearing a hole in the off lazily with the wind.

thick fog blanket that engulfs the sumThe “Noise-Maker of the North" is mit of the peak. The larger report and the soubriquet given Akutan volcano, puff of smoke follows, spreading the mist situated forty miles from the settlement even wider, and disclosing for an instant of Unalaska, on the island which bears the peak of the noise-making mountain. its name. Often at Unalaska can be The fogs then settle slowly, shutting out heard the booming of this peace dis- all sight of the mountain top until the turber of the Aleutian solitudes. Sudden next explosion. These demonstrations and violent are its explosions, like the occur with precision, and sometimes exdetonations of huge quantities of explo- tend over a period of days, accompanied sive far down in the earth. In more by earthquake shocks of greater or less ways than one does the action of Akutan duration.” resemble the discharge of great cannon. “Pop-off” has come to be the nickname Perhaps in the volcano's heart large vol- of Pavlof volcano, situated on the lower umes of gas come in contact with tre- end of the Alaskan peninsula. The photomendous heat.

graph of Pavlof in action shows not only Akutan's guns are fired in pairs; first a the smoke iss iing from the crater of the short, sharp bang, and then a louder, mountain, but also the slopes blackened longer report. At each explosion a puff by the volcanic ash. Pavlof's eruptions of smoke is forced from the crater high are usually concurrent with those of



The ash upon

Shishaldin, and disturbances in the Bog- lies in the center of a field of glacial ice. oslofs. Shumagin Islands, sixty miles Smoke and steam rise through the crevaway were covered to a depth of half an asses in a hundred different places. With inch with the Pavlof effluvia, in 1910, and these crevasses covering a wide area it at the period of greatest activity Pavlof has been virtually impossible to explore sent cannonading thunders through a the exact center of Kupreanoff. circle 100 miles across.

Redoubt Peak and Becharoff are well the surface of the sea is whipped into up the peninsula; both are rather difficult snowballs that finally are heaped upon of access, and neither has been thorthe beach.

oughly explored. To the north and east Pay a native fifty dollars a day and he of Becharoff is Iliamna, towering above will lead you to the top of Makushin the 12,000-foot level, and having three peak, which is plainly visible from Dutch distinct craters. Douglas, looking as if Harbor. Usually Makushin is smoking, a huge octopus gripped its vitals, stands but occasionally it gets much more vio up sheer and bold above Cook Inlet, not lent in its demonstrations. Those who far from Chernaboro volcano, on Augushave braved its dangers assert that near tine island. This likeness to an octopus the crater iron rods stuck into the ground is produced by the chilled streams of lava will be melted by the intense heat. Hun that streak down from the summit of the dreds of boiling springs have created peak, vividly suggesting tentacles. Farsnow and ice caves on the mountain side. ther inland the Alaskan range has other Near the crater rim are large deposits peaks that occasionally give forth eviof sulphurous materials that have been dences of life, while in addition to the prospected and before long probably will active volcanoes there are hundreds of be mined.

dead craters in the mountain chain that But the list so far includes only a few buries itself in the sea in a seemingly of the better known volcanoes of this dis vain endeavor to reach the Asiatic shore. turbed region, some of them marked by Alaska is becoming a better known the Indian designation, rendered into land every year, and the time will come English spelling as nearly as possible, when all her mountain ranges, her valleys and others bear the names given them and her plains will be thoroughly exby Russian explorers and geographers plored, but it is no exaggeration to say years before the United States came into that the Russians knew as much about possession of Alaska. Besides those her coast line as we have learned in the given there is Kupreanoff, standing at last half-century. Controller Bay, of rethe head of Stepakof Bay, on the main cent notoriety, was discovered before Adland, which is unique in that its crater miral Vancouver found Puget Sound !

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