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rails across the wilderness called in Col- be as well to state that practically all of onel A. D. Davidson to aid them. David- the habitants of Mount Royal will be son is the father of the American inva- able to retire and live at their ease heresion of Canada, canny and wise in all after on the income derived from the matters of real estate. One of his trust- sale of their melon patches. One man, ed lieutenants is Thomas Darling, who for instance, was paid $117,000 for his speaks habitant French like a native. comparatively few acres. The largest Back on the other side of Mount Royal farm of all brought nearly $800,000. went Mr. Darling, visiting one after the Plans have been prepared for an other of the habitant farmers and secur- unique, model city, which is to be built ing from each an option on his holdings on the purchased farms. All the busiof fertile, melon land. Sturdy, simple ness houses will be confined to four minded, conscientious folk are these hab streets which run diagonally across the itants, slow to move and cautious in all site from corner to corner. There are of their dealings with strangers. It took restrictions which forbid the building of a diplomat to handle them, but once Jean apartment houses and no house to cost Francois had given his word, Mr. Dar- less than three thousand dollars will be ling knew that he could rely on it. It permitted. took almost two years to get all the With this great project out of the way, desired land under option. Then, the actual work of boring the tunnel one day, a few months ago, Mr. Darling through Mount Royal was begun on May put more than a million and a half dol-. 1st; a great gang of “hard-rock men” lars in cash into a hand satchel and went starting in at the same time on either back over the mountain again to pay for side of the mountain. The stone removed the farms he had agreed to buy. Other from the western opening will be used interests were in the field, and to have in grading and paving the streets of the checks flying around in the number and new city of Mount Royal and also in for the amounts that would have been ballasting Canadian Northern lines. necessary never would have done at all. The debris taken from the eastern end of The currency was relatively a small part the tunnel will be utilized in buildof the amount required to carry out the ing an elevated embank ment, over general plan, but it was large enough to which the tracks of the Canadian be unique in surburban land opera

Northern will run straight tions. Lest any one suppose that this is another case where a grasping corporation took shrewd advantage of the innocent farmer, it may







through the city of Montreal to the banks way is made. It is planned that the new of the St. Lawrence, where they will join town shall be organized under the Des the tracks of the Montreal Harbor Com- Moines commission plan of government, mission.

and in its construction advantage will be In its size and equipment, the Mount taken of every improvement which modRoyal tunnel will be very much like the ern methods can suggest. Pennsylvania tube under Manhattan Lying between the site of the new Island. Trains will be operated in the town and Mount Royal and the Riviere tunnel by electricity, and are expected. Des Prairies, there is still a considerable to run at the rate of fifty miles an tract of land. The projectors of the hour. The work of construction is in great Georgian Bay Canal project, who charge of S. P. Brown, the young en- hope to carry the wheat of western Cangineer who directed the Pennsylvania ada through a short loop to the Atlantic cross-town construction in New York. are planning to use this river as a link in The work begun at both ends, nearly two their chain. That will mean the buildmonths ago, will be pushed night and ing of great docks, warehouses, elevaday until the two bores meet in the heart tors and railway terminals along its of the mountain. It is estimated that banks. fifteen hundred men will be at work for Altogether, this great railroad project eighteen months.

means a new era of expansion and prosMeanwhile, on the slopes to the west, perity for Montreal. The most remarkthe town of Mount Royal is already be able fact about it is that so far as the ginning to rise. Like water long penned railroad is concerned, the whole tremenbehind a dam, the people of Montreal dous undertaking will practically pay for will rush through to fill it as soon as the itself.

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N a letter to Prof. William T. Horn- miles in almost every direction. This aday, dated September 21, 1887, Col- whole vast space was covered with bufonel I. R. Dodge gives some infor- falo, looking at a distance like one commation as to the almost incredible pact mass, the visual angle not permit

mass of bison he had met with near ting the ground to be seen. I have seen Fort Larned, on the Arkansas River, in such a sight a great number of times, but 1872. “The great herd on the Arkansas never on so large a scale.” In a report through which I passed could not have of the Smithsonian Institute Professor averaged, at best, over fifteen or twenty Hornaday estimates that "the actual individuals to the acre, but was, from my number of buffalo seen on that day by own observation, not less than twenty- Colonel Dodge was about 480,000, not five miles wide, and from reports of hunt counting the additional number taken in ers and others it was about five days in at the view from the top of Pawnee Rock, passing a given point, or not less than which would bring the total up to a round fifty miles deep. From the top of Paw- half million. If the advancing multitude nee Rock I could see from six to ten had been at all points fifty miles in




length—as it was known to have been in at his great ranch outside Pawnee, Oksome places at least—by twenty-five miles lahoma. Not long ago the Major was in width, and still averaged fifteen head instrumental in the preparation of a bill to the acre of ground, it would have con- introduced in Congress asking that imtained the enormous number of twelve mediate steps be taken to perpetuate this million head. But, judging from the gen- purely American animal. "When it is eral principles governing such migra known," he said to the writer recently, tions, it is almost certain that the moving "that only twenty per cent of the existmass advanced in the shape of a wedge, ing buffalo are cows, and that a buffalo which would make it necessary to deduct cow calves only every two years, the difabout two-thirds from the grand total, ficulty to be contended with in present which would leave four million as our day perpetuation is only too apparent. estimate of the actual number of buffa- The bill we prepared carried with it an loes in this great herd, which I believe appropriation for the purchase of pureis more likely to be below the truth than blooded buffalo, the purchasing of a great above it."

ranch far removed from civilization, the It seems difficult to realize that of the fencing of same, and an appropriation millions that once roamed our plains, for its maintenance. there are today less than one thousand "Buffalo will not thrive when surpure-blooded American buffaloes, a mere rounded by civilization. They multiply handful of an animal it was thought im- better when turned out winter and sumpossible to exterminate, and one which mer alike, as Nature intended they should the Indian firmly believed issued from be. A buffalo calf will survive a blizzard the earth continually, and was therefore that would mean death to the toughest inexhaustible. Yet today the death of a of ranch cattle, and buffalo will find food buffalo is such an important event that it in the deepest snow, through which ranch is immediately telegraphed all over the cattle would not be able to move. country. It was only about twenty-five “It is my intention to donate my herd years ago that the buffalo's extinction of pure-blooded buffalo to the Governwas first predicted, and since that time ment, and, from my experience with dozens of attempts to pass legislation to buffalo on my ranch at Pawnee, Okla., protect the buffalo have failed. 't is true I am convinced that by assembling all that the Federal Government maintains the majority of pure-blooded buffalo a small herd in Yellowstone Park, but it that their propagation can be secured and is not multiplying rapidly enough to en- the total extinction of the American bison sure the propagation of the buffalo with prevented.” any certainty; and the only hope for the Regarding the present value of the permanent preservation of the American buffalo to cattle growers, it has been bison lies in the united effort of the au- known for over two hundred years that thorities at Washington with the various the buffalo herds contentedly with doprivate owners of buffalo in the West. mestic cattle, and crosses readily with

No man living has done more to save them. the buffalo from utter extinction than Under present conditions the stockman Major Gordon W. Lillie, the white chief simply stakes his cattle against the winof the Pawnee Indians, who maintains ter elements and takes his chance on the

the largest herd of pure- results, which are governed by circum4 blooded buffaloes in existence stances wholly beyond his control.


LE had had both yellow fever and

1 cholera, and that fact was to be taken into account in considering his qualifications for the position of Sanitary Commissioner of Chicago when Dr. George B. Young received his appointment to that office from Mayor Harrison. On grounds other than that, however, the Mayor would be regarded as having made a wise appointment, for his talents and tastes and training—personal, professional and administrative-fitted him exactly for his new duties.

Dr. Young stepped into this position

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