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squabs or bees, instead of hens, to their stock for commercial return. Allowances fruit and garden as stock managed to are made for individualism. Mr. Littleclear about the same sum during the field happens scientifically to have studied second year, which sum they have in- agriculture and is, therefore, able to excreased annually. This is a particularly tract the utmost radish and squash from good showing in consideration of the his acre. Chiefly, however, he is a printer. fact that living expenses are much lower He has built a print-shop alongside his in Westwood than in the city. Less ex home, where he gets out a monthly magpensive clothes are the rule, car-fares and azine and job-work. He furnishes employsimilar city expenses are reduced to a ment, on an inside co-operative basis, to minimum, and all the food, with the ex- a printer (a single member who built his ception of meat and fish, is practically house out of two packing cases at a grown on the acreage at a nominal cost, cost of $16.00); to a lithographer, Arand social and other demands upon cash thur Siebelist, who has the honor of beare not excessive.
ing father of the first baby born on the The community, however, is not en- Farm; and to Frances Lyons, an illustirely hard-working. The members have trator. leisure enough to carry on several clubs Miss Lyons is a student of arts and
-musical, art, educational, sociological crafts as well. She camped in a tent and merely social. The founder of the while she built her home, “Studio Association, George Elmer Littlefield, House,” almost entirely by herself, havhas the largest house, at the entrance to ing help only with the heavy timbers. the Farm and facing the Lake ; it is there This allowance for individuality has that most of the social gatherings are evolved several inside co-operative plans, held as well as the quarterly business quite apart from those of the Associameetings, at which the accounts are aud- tion. A retired school teacher, who had ited, dividends paid and improvements a pretty single-room house built with suggested.
some of her savings, is not strong enough The manner of life that Mr. Littlefield for outdoor work. She buys the supplies leads illustrates the one principle of Fel- and does the cooking and housekeeping lowship Farm which is considered by the for three single members, who cultivate members and outside students of the and care for her acre in return. Also, plan, as its saving grace. This principle the egg-raising members have combined maintains that every member, willy-nilly, and employ a member with more of a ought not to be expected to dig in the business than an agricultural bent to dirt to a livelihood extent or to rear market their output.
WINTER TRAIL FROM CHITINA TO FAIRBANKS, OVER WHICH MOST OF THE TRAFFIC
WITH INTERIOR ALASKA PASSES.
WILLIAM THORNTON PROSSER
ON'T blame anything buttered through last summer in temperathe storm centers. They tures not before reached in years, and are the cause of agitation then a few months later suffered the rigthroughout the greater part ors of a record-breaking winter. That's
of both the Eastern and why Europe was visited by an inferno, Western hemispheres. In their playful week after week, during the summer seagyrations they have gotten off their ac- son of 1911; and the storm centers excustomed track, and have disturbed the plain a most remarkable phenomenon in climate of the globe.
Northwest North America. That's the answer in a nutshell. That's Alaska's climate has been revolutionwhy the Eastern and Middle States swel- ized. Winter cold has given away to a
moderate season that is equivalent to assisted by daily wireless reports from bringing the entire country southward every ship upon the sea. from ten to twenty degrees of latitude. Present facilities are inadequate in
Climatologists of note both in Europe tracing the rise and progress of those and America affirm that this derange troublesome storm centers. North Amerment of meteorological conditions, affect ica is particularly concerned in the storm ing the southern as well as the northern centers that originate somewhere in the side of the Equator, is working in a cycle, Orient-probably as overgrown typhoons which promises to reach its maximum -sweep around the northern border of through this year. Therefore, we may the Pacific, across Western Canada, and expect another torrid summer, followed exhaust themselves in the vicinity of the by perhaps as cold a winter as shivered Great Lakes. This, at least, is their nor
DOES THIS SUGGEST ALASKA?
so many million timbers east of the Rocky mal path. But just lately some cosmic or Mountains in 1911-12.
extra-cosmic force has thrown them far Year by year the meteorologists are to the northward, and at the same timecoming to have a larger grasp upon undoubtedly the conditions are relatedworld weather. Long ago they learned has brought northward and expanded the that weather cannot be studied locally, normal high-pressure atmospheric zone but that a broad sweep of a continent, at that should center in the Atlantic Ocean least, is necessary for intelligent observa- off the coast of the South Atlantic States. tion. Yet even this is insufficient, and the “The shifting of the storm centers next generation will see all the important northward gives Alaska a warm winter, points of the globe linked together in an and the variation in the high pressure international weather bureau that will be belt gives the Eastern States a super
heated summer," the weather bureau of- and have struck the American continent ficials explain.
in the vicinity of Nome, taking an inside Then there's another high pressure route and sweeping down through the area that ordinarily maintains its habitat Canadian provinces. They carry with somewhere around the Azores. Last them as they come southward the verisummer this belt became loosed from its table breath of the Arctic, chilling to the moorings, and shifted “twelve degrees marrow everything in their path, far farther north and fifteen degrees farther down into the States. east than in 1910," as H. E. Rawson ex- It may seem hard to understand why plains in the Journal of the Royal Meteor- the erratic storm centers should bring ological Society; with the result that the spring to Alaska, and ice to the interior British Isles and all Europe suffered regions farther south, but the weather from immoderate heat.
man has an explanation right at hand. Usually the storm centers, as they cross Passing inland through Alaska each the Pacific, follow the “Great Circle” storm center draws toward its swirling course of the trans-Pacific liners, and vortex both the warm air of the south many a steamship out from Yokohama and the frigid atmosphere of the Arctic. for Puget Sound or Vancouver, has been This warm air is drawn in from the Paattended for days by a tempest that cific across the coasts of Alaska, as the would scarcely have been felt a few storm sweeps eastward, but as the cenleagues north or south. Frequently the ter goes inland it gains less and less of atmospheric disturbances and the liners the temperate breezes of the Pacific, and travel at the same speed. This Great more and more of the Arctic blizzard. Circle route swings so far to the north- Not only are the coasts of Alaska ward, in taking advantage of the earth's warmed to an unusual degree, but the curvature, that it comes within two or procession of storm centers introduces a three hundred miles of the Aleutian continual inflow of balmy atmosphere Islands, fringing Bering Sea.
into the interior regions, producing in The last year, however, the steamships 1911-12 in the Yukon Valley the mildest have been left alone by the storm centers, winter in its history. for instead of skirting the margin of the “But Alaska's normal temperature Pacific, the low pressure areas have isn't severe,” insists J. L. McPherson, leaped across the divide into Bering Sea, secretary of the Alaska Bureau of the
New Chamber of Commerce, Seattle. liam Sound, had retreated three miles “The latest and most accurate isothermal since it had been explored and mapped maps of North America show that the in 1899 by the E. H. Harriman Scientific isothermal line of thirty degrees passes expedition. through Seward, Valdez, Juneau and In 1911 another movement was apparother towns along the Alaska coast, ent in most of the glaciers of the Alaskan swings far to the southward, hugging the coast, and the climatic conditions of the coast, passes through New Mexico, and last winter may determine the question on out through New York City.
perplexing geographers whether the ad"New Yorkers would find it hard to vance and retreat of glaciers is due to believe that their climate averages up climatic effects, or to some other cause, with the Alaska coast.
possibly earthquakes. "The isothermal line of Nome and the The theory of the storm centers as Yukon Valley runs down into the Da- changing the climate of Alaska and the kotas.”
North Pacific Coast--for British ColumLittle or no snow fell along the Alaska bia, Washington, Oregon and California Gulf coast up to the first of January, 1912, have also had an unusually pleasant winand in early March the official spring ter—does not altogether satisfy all the clean-up of Juneau was in progress, it navigators and local observers. Their being the custom of the Alaskan capital theory is that volcanic action, perhaps to wash down the sidewalks with the fire coincident with the earthquake shocks hose each year as soon as the snow has just mentioned, disturbed the currents of melted. By the latter part of March the the sea, shifting the warm Japan current winter trail was breaking up between more directly to the eastward, and intenChitina, on the Copper River & North- sifying its temperate influence upon the western Railway, and Fairbanks, strand- American shore. Shipmasters in steaming large shipments of supplies that were ing from Seattle to the vicinity of Cape going over the snow on sleds.
St. Elias, steering by dead reckoning all February in Dawson was so mild that the way, found themselves fifty miles the oldest inhabitant didn't have courage ahead of their log, and observed that the to open his mouth with stories of the water was warmer than usual. past. By the beginning of March the But the weather bureau officials do not happy Dawsonites were bringing in gar- put much stock in this supposition, for, lands of pussy-willows. An open air they say, "the old physical geographies dance was given on the fifteenth of were wrong in indicating the Japan curMarch.
rent as sweeping around the northern Even last year the climatic change was border of the Pacific, and warming all beginning to be felt on Bering Sea, for the adjacent shore; the truth of the matthe ice was thinner and went out several ter is that the Japan current does nothweeks earlier than usual; this year navi- ing of the kind. It disappears three or gation on Bering Sea was open fully four hundred miles after it leaves the two months in advance of the average coast of Japan, just as the Gulf Stream for the last decade.
disappears a short distance after it passes Another strange feature of Alaskan beyond Newfoundland, though it was conditions is the fact that glaciers that once supposed to cross the Atlantic, and have been quiescent for long periods of warm the British Isles. years—perhaps half a century-are wak- "The temperate climate of the upper ening into life, and are moving at sur- Pacific Coast is due to the winds which prising speed into the sea. The year of blow in from the Pacific Ocean, which is 1910 was marked as the beginning of this warmer than the land. The chill winter era of motion, and some most interest- climate of New England is not due to ing observations were made during that the so-called Labrador current, but to season by Professor Lawrence Martin, the prevailing land winds. England's leader of an expedition sent out by the mild climate is not attributable to any National Geographic Society.
ocean current, but again to the prevailThe Martin expedition found that ing southerly winds from the warmer Barry Glacier, in an arm of Prince Wil- ocean."