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suit case—such an arrangement as bushels of coal. There can be no doubt shown by an accompanying photo that for every barrel of oil taken from graph, having already been
the earth there has been wasted more devised.
than ten times its equivalent in heating The liquid gas being
power, or weight even, of this best of all actually cheaper than ordinary
fuels." illuminating gas, anybody can af
Says Mr. Snelling: “These gases ford to use it. When it comes to
from oil wells, which have up to be manufactured in immense quan
now been the most difficult to utiltities, as is likely to be the case be
ize in pipe-lines or otherwise, are fore long, it will doubtless be
the very ones that are best adapted cheaper yet. Country hotels and
for the production of liquid gas. rural estates will probably find it
The new discovery opens to the use particularly useful — delivered in
of the world the enormous volumes bottles at regular intervals, in what
of oil-well gas now so generally ever quantities may be desired. The
wasted, and derives from this refvery simplicity of its use recom
use material a product which gives mends it. All one has to do is to
to the country home all of the conturn the stop-cock and the gas is on.
veniences of gas for lighting and It is exceedingly fortunate that
cooking, thus bestowing upon the a means should have been discov
farm advantages which up to now ered whereby part of the waste of
have been available only in thickly natural gas in this country can be
populated districts.” turned to useful account. Dr. I. C.
The following table shows the White, State Geologist of West
amount of light produced by the Virginia, recently said:
new gas for ten cents, as com“At this very minute, natural
pared with electricity, city gas, gas, the purest form of fuel,
etc.—the term “candle power ideal in every respect, is passing A bottle contains
hour” representing one candleinto the air from uncontrolled 1.200 cubic feet of power for one hour: gas wells, from oil wells, from ing stuff.
Liquid gas, 2,200 candle power giant flambeaus, from leaking
hours. pipe-lines, and many other methods of City gas, 1,600 candle power hours. waste at not less than one billion cubic Electricity (Tungsten), 790 candle feet daily and probably much more. The power hours. record of waste of this best and purest Acetylene, 640 candle power hours. fuel is a national disgrace. The heating Kerosene, 465 candle power hours. value of a billion cubic feet of natural Certainly liquid gas should be welgas is equivalent to that of one million comed by the householder.
A WATER RAIL WAY
MPORTANT experiments have re- sion on the rails, the water railway, in cently been made on the Dortmund- the absence of adhesive friction, requires Ems Canal with a new towing artificial friction. This is produced in a scheme, which may revolutionize the most ingenious manner by causing the
service on inland water-ways. The wheels fixed to the bottom of the tuginventor of this system is Baurat Koss. boat to lift, for a distance of from twenty The Koss system, or water railway, as it to forty inches, an iron rail lying at the is called, adapts itself in every respect to water bottom. The moorings of this rail the railway insuring a similarly econom- are such as to allow of its being readily ical service just as an ordinary railway lifted beyond the surface of the watermay be defined as a train of carriages for the sake of revision and repair-withthe wheels of which are compelled to out loosening any joint. On the other travel on rails, so the water railway is a hand, they prevent any displacement in a series of barges with wheels, compelled horizontal direction. On account of the to move on a rail.
stable equilibrium of the tug-boat, the Of course, there is some essential dif- water railway, in opposition to ordinary ference between the wheels of the ordi- land railways, obviously requires only a nary and the water railway. While the single rail supporting the four wheels driving wheels of a railway train are in- fixed below the bottom of the tug-boat. tended to propel the train by the friction These wheels, actuated from the latter, due to its weight and the resulting adhe- draw the rail along between them, like
the rolls of a rolling mill. In fact, the lifted to a height of twenty to forty rail, as it were, is threaded into the inches by comparatively moderate forces, wheels, and on the
and comprehensive passage of the tug
preliminary tests boat, performs an
were required to undulating motion,
show the correctits adhesion to the
ness of the invenwheels setting the
tor's views. train of barges in
The experimenmotion, like an or
tal tug-boat is ardinary railway pro
ranged for electric pelled by its driv
propulsion and deing wheels. This
rives its motive propulsion along
force provisionally side a substantial
through a cable, rail-in lieu of a
from the powerscrew action in so
boat of the canal mobile a medium
equipped with a as water — utilizes
dynamo, which three - quarters of
forms part of the the energy ex
tugging train. pended.
However, the serThe water rail
vice may eventuway thus is based
ally be done by on an entirely
means of a trolley novel principle,
system, similar to namely, the lifting
those of electric of a rail. Like so
railways. In fact, many other pio
part of the experineers, the inventor
mental section of had at first to con
the canal was fitted tend against much
with a trolley wire prejudice. Nobody
stretched out at was inclined to be
convenient height lieve that heavy A VIEW OF THE SUSPENDED Tug-BOAT SHOWING THE above the surface iron rails could be
of the water.
AUSTRALIA NOW HAS FACILITIES FOR LAYING DOWN CRUISERS.
The ship works near Sydney, New South Wales.
FREDERICK J. COLEMAN
USTRALIA, having determined proximity to the big dock at Cockatoo,
upon possessing a navy of her the naval dockyard and depot at Garden own, has not been content with Island, whereon are the necessary maplacing orders for construction chinery, storehouses, and all accessories
in England. She has started and facilities indispensible for the mainbuilding what is now possible, and is tenance of a fleet in a state of efficiency. preparing to do bigger things.
Spectacle Island as a naval ordnance The first Commonwealth naval unit is store, and King Edward Victualling · so designed as to form the foundation for Yard as a depot for supplies, are close
a large navy in the future. In its first at hand. And, the Imperial Government stage the Royal Australian Navy will being willing to place the whole of these consist of eighteen vessels: one battle- buildings and valuable plant at the disship, now being built in Great Britain, posal of the Commonwealth, in trust, on three protected cruisers, one small crui- condition that they are not diverted from ser, two gunboats, six torpedo boat de- their original use, Australia becomes the stroyers, two torpedo boats, two subma- possessor of the basis of a navy with rines, one training ship.
up-to-date organization. The cradle of the Australian navy is at Cockatoo Island is an ideal spot for a Cockatoo Island, in Port Jackson, which, naval dockyard and workshops. It lies if it is not the finest harbor in the world, well back in a superbly locked harbor, runs no less than a dead heat with any which has fine headlands at the mouth other competitor. To qualify Port Jack- capable of being fortified to repulse any son as a naval base, there are, in close attempt to enter. The offices and work
shops in connection with the Government be able to build a second class cruidockyard on the island number between ser outright, with the exception of certhirty and forty, and all are well equipped tain auxiliary machinery which can be with the latest and best machinery. The obtained only through the makers. And machine shops occupy nine buildings. the cost of production, compared with The others are used by the boiler mak the imported article, will, the superiners, pattern makers, moulders, engineers, tendent of the yard declares, be infinitely etc., while in one large building is erected cheaper. the electric, hydraulic, and air-compress- Since as at critical times there might ing plant. In another block the ship- be some difficulty in obtaining supplies wrights, carpenters, and joiners find ac- of raw material from the other lands, commodation; and outside is the ship- the great importance of the development yard.
of Australia's iron and steel industry is There are two building slips, one 550 being recognized. The time when the feet long and the second 350 feet. On building of a battleship may be underthis latter the keel
taken is already of the torpedo boat
anticipated. destroyer Warrego
There has been so was laid, and from
much delay in esit the launch was
tablishing nav a 1 most successfully
schools in the Commade.
monwealth, that Most of the ma
the Naval Board chinery at the yard
has had to draw was made on the
upon Great Brispot. With the
tain for trained ofnecessary plant for
ficers and men. building turbines—
More than a thouthe machinery for
sand men will come which is already
out to Australia for being negotiated
from three to five for—the yard will