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the further a torpedo can run with a fair likelihood of success the wider apart ships must remain to avoid this menace—relying then upon gunfire to damage the foe.

An eight-inch armorpiercing shell at 2,000 yards would be able to perforate a battleship's casemate armor eight inches thick, but would not have enough velocity left to pierce the protective deck lying over the vitals. Two thousand yards is an improbably short battle range. Most of the next great sea fights will be settled virtually before the opponents get closer than 5,000 yards. On the other hand, the guntorpedo can reach its mark where the eight-inch rifle would be useless, and, once in touch with its target, could do untold damage. Instead of firing at the enemy at a distance, it is like placing a pistol against his temple before pulling the trigger.

Recent tests of the Davis gun-torpedo in the lower Chesapeake Bay have amply emphasized the possibilities of this invention. The first time, the torpedo sent its projectile through and through the target, the target representing the crosssection of a vessel with inner and outer bottom plating and three interposing bulkheads of tough steel. The shell exploded in the water on the far side of the target. The next test consisted in the torpedo assaulting the side of the target which had an outside protection of armor plate. The shell burst when it hit this plate and did not penetrate, but it wrecked the structure so much that the target sank shortly afterwards. Had the fuse been properly timed, the projectile would have passed through the armor and have burst inside the structure. The trials in the Chesapeake were governmental repetitions of private tests which had been carried out successfully some time previously.

The sea-going torpedo boat, or torpedo-boat destroyer as it is commonly

[graphic]

Cross Section Of A Modern Battlfship. Showing How A Davis

Torpedo Would Injure The Outer Bottom And Then

Send Its Kxplosive Shell Through The Coal

Blnkkrs And Into A Boiler Room Or

Other Vital Part Of The

Vessel.

called, and the submarine are the vessels designed purposely to use the torpedo as their prime instruments of offense. The destroyer counts upon her speed and the cover of darkness to get her close enough to strike her quarry—in the daytime she would invite, practically, certain destruction if she tried to reach the foe in the face of modern rapid-fire guns. Here is where the submarine comes in. This order of torpedo craft expects to do in broad daylight what the destroyer hopes to do under a cloak of fog or the gloom of night. In either case the Davis guntorpedo adds immeasurably to their potential powers of doing harm, giving the defense a heavier burden to bear and increasing the tax upon the nerves of the personnel.

This new weapon has robbed the enveloping water of a vast measure of its protective value, has made the submarine gun more dangerous than the biggest cannon now carried aboveboard, and completely upsets the prevailing schemes for under-vvater defense against the torpedo. Truly this is revolutionary; and well may we ask the question, What is coming next?

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Denver. Ground has already been broken and it is hoped the building may be constructed in time for next summer.

President Taft when apprised of the summer home plan, expressed the opinion that no locality could offer finer natural attractions for such a structure.

The proposed house will be unique in many ways and exceedingly attractive. The plans as prepared by Architect James B. Benedict call for a noble and massive structure of gray granite, contrasting with the natural setting for the building. The house will provide ample room for the President's attendants. Automobiles would bring the summer capital within forty minutes of Denver.

The view that the site of the building commands is its strongest feature, and it is this that was strongly urged in making a choice of sites. Among all the wonderful and beautiful scenic spots within a short distance of Denver, Mount Fal

con stands preeminent. Its magnificent rocks are softened by lichens. Night and morning on the mountain are like the beginning of creation; it is so different from the rest of the world that it seems as if one were in a fairyland of color. A hundred tiny lakelets of quicksilver come into view as the sun rises over the limitless plains to the east, and at evening these change to turquoise, or rose color, or emerald as the sky may reflect. From the north terrace of the mountain, upon which the drawing room and library will open, the steep mountain side, wooded with pines, drops down two thousand feet into the rushing waters of Bear Creek; to the south, seventy-five miles away, is Pike's Peak. Denver lies fifteen miles away to the northeast. When a passing cloud covers the city with its shadow, the plains seem barren of houses. Then suddenly the sunlight pierces through, and a great city stands revealed.

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By
FRANCIS B. ATKINSON

Secretary of the Committee on Organization

COMMITTEE ON ORGANIZATION.

Mrs. M. S. Grainger, President Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs; Arthur G. Graham, President Small Park and Play Ground Association, Evanston; Mrs. J. H. Jaffray, Vice President Cook County League of Women's Clubs; Dr. Rachel Mickey Carr, 4810 Lake Ave., Chicago; Mrs. Harriette T. Treadwcll, Chairman Social Committee Chicago Equal Suffrage League, formerly President Chicago Teachers' Federation; Francis B. Atkinson, Secretary; John Fitzpatrick, President of Chicago Federation of Labor; Mrs. Harry S. Hyman, Chairman Program Committee Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs; Mrs. George Vosbrink, Vice President for the First District, Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs; Mrs. Freeman Brown, President Cook County League of Women's Clubs; Miss Jennie F. W. Johnson, President South Side Equal Suffrage League; Mrs. M. S. Hartshorn, Chairman Woman's Party of Cook County; Mrs. C. E. Clifton, President Woman's Club of Evanston; E. R. Pritchard, Secretary Chicago Health Commission; Mrs. E. L. Bay, President, Mrs. H. R. Risinger, Recording Secretary, Woodlawn Woman's Club; Mrs. Thomas H. Hall, President Millard Avenue Woman's Club; Rev. A. E. Bartlctt, Church of the Redeemer, Chicago; Miss J. Macklin Beattic, President Canal Zone Federation of Women's Clubs, Ancon, Isthmus of Panama; Mrs. S. P. Johnson, President New Mexico Federation; Mrs. Julian Heath, Chairman Committee on Household Economics, City Federation of Women's Clubs and President Housewives' League, New York City; Mrs. L. G. Wheeler, Corresponding Secretary Wisconsin Federation.

MRS. JULIAN HEATH, President of the New York Housewives' League, is one of the new and enthusiastic members of the Federated Marketing Clubs. The league of which Mrs. Heath is the head was formed under the auspices of the Committee on Home Economics of the New York Federation of Marketing Clubs— which has 165,000 members.

The plans of the league are similar to those of the Federated Marketing Clubs, which Mrs. Heath so warmly endorses:

"Your papers have been carefully considered by me and also by our Central Council. All are enthusiastic in regard to your scheme. It is, I believe, a step beyond what we are undertaking and which our work will educate for. I want, now, to catch every buyer and make her realize her power and responsibility. I can help you here in the East and shall be glad to do so."

Since the relation of the Federated Clubs plan to the dealer is one of its most practical features, it is with satisfaction that this com

munication from the President of one of the State Federations of Women's Clubs is given:

"My husband is in the mercantile business and the proposed methods of distribution through local houses is of considerable personal interest to us. I shall be glad to assist in the establishment of such an organization and believe that it will be highly beneficial. If I can serve you on committee or otherwise, please command me."

Similar expressions of approval have been received from both wholesale and retail grocers and food manufacturers. The President of one of the trans-continental railroads, says:—

"Your plan is not only based on sound business principles, but it seems to me to be a great humanitarian movement. We believe that one of the most important functions of our own work is to teach the farmer how to make more profit by being a better business man. As I understand it, your plan proposes to accomplish the same object for the business of the household and I am sure that the farmers, as well as the Mrs. Julian Heath. railroads, will be with you."

[graphic]

THE FEDERATED MARKETING CLUBS

91

[graphic]
[graphic]

Beware Of The Wire

Nails In The

Bottom Of

The Scoop.

The Lump Of Putty Beneath The Pan Helps Tilt The Scale.

WAYS OF CHEATING AND
THE PENALTY.

IT is difficult for a man to
be an inspector without
looking the part. The re-
sult is that as soon as an in-
spector of weights and meas-
ures appears—which is not
often as there are few in-
spectors in proportion to the
ground to be covered—most
of the various instruments of decep-
tion can be readily removed until
he goes away. Moreover, few cities
have any weight and measure in-
spectors.

Even without such inspection, probably not one grocer in a thousand would cheat in his weights and measures if consumers, in any organized and systematic way, would protect the honest man against the competition of the dishonest. Under present conditions, one dishonest grocer in a neighborhood almost compels all the other grocers to practice similar dishonesty and to offer fictitious bargains based on these short weights and measures.

Wherever there is a sufficiently large group of buyers in a given district in any city or community to warrant the establishment of a local office, Marketing Club members will, in addition to reduction in prices and insurance of quality, be insured honest weights and measures in dealing with all grocers distributing for members. Scales and measures will be subject to inspection by inspectors employed by the Marketing Clubs. As an

additional check on dishonesty, all reports of short weights made to a local office will be immediately disseminated to all club members dealing with grocers in that district.

WILL THE FARMER STAND BY US?

The Secretary of a Chicago Labor Union writes: "When the Chicago Labor Unions ran a co-operative store, the commission men overbid them with the farmers and cut off their sources of supply. What are you going to do about that?"

To protect both the farmer and the consumer, it is necessary to enter into a written contract. This is the way the Middleman deals with the farmers, the creameries and other food product s and he is perfectly right in doing so. When it comes to standing by one another, isn't the consumer as much to blame as the producer; being always ready to desert a man who has reduced prices, for some large competitor who temporarily reduces them still more?

DETECTION OF BUTTER
SUBSTITUTES.

Place a sample of but

two or three times the

of a pea, on a large

spoon over an ordinary gas

amp or burner. Good fresh

butter will boil quickly and

quietly, producing a num

Reducinc Weights By Boring Holes In Them.

[graphic]
[graphic]

Butter Is Weighed In A Water-logged Wooden Plate.

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