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ber of small foamy bubbles. Imitation butter will crackle and sputter, making a noise very similar to that caused by the placing of a green stick on a hot fire.

FOODS TESTED AT WESTFIELD.

In this department, in the February issue, was published a list of foods tested and found pure by Professor Allyn and his pupils at the State Normal School, Westfield, Mass. Following is a list of additional foods which were found free from adulterants:

Salads and Condiments for Salads: Downing Taylor Co., Springfield, Mass.: Forest Park Shrimp. A. Colburn Co. Philadelphia, Pa.: cayenne, black pepper, white pepper, cinnamon, clove, ginger, mace, mustard, nutmeg. Louis DcGroff & Son, New York City: (Health Brand) black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, mustard, ginger. B. Fisher & Co., New York City: black pepper. Francis H. Leggett, New York City: (Premier Brand) black pepper, white pepper, ginger, mace, pickling spice, allspice, cinnamon. Seaman Brothers, New York City: La Rose Blanche Olive Oil. Nice, France, Beri Olive Oil. W. A. Castle, Springfield, Mass.: Castle's Olive Oil. California Olive Growers' Association: Sylmar Olive Oil. Heinz Preserving Co., Pittsburg, Pa.: Heinz Olive Oil. Francis H. Leggett, New York City: Premier Olive Oil. Beechnut Packing Co., Canajoharie, New York: Beechnut Vinegar. Nicelle Packing Co., New York City: Nicelle Olive Oil. Heinz Preserving Co., Pittsburg, Pa.: Cider Vinegar, Malt Vinegar, Pickling Vinegar.

Flour: W. F. Fletcher. Southwick, Mass.: graham flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour. Johnson Educator Food Co., Boston, Mass.: Dr. Johnson's Educator Flour. WashburnCrosby Co., Minneapolis. Minn.: Gold Medal Flour. Heckcr-Jones-Jcwell Milling Co., New York City: Hecker's Flour.

Baking Powders: Royal Baking Powder Co., New York City. Price Baking Powder Co., New York City and Chicago: Cream Baking Powder. Cleveland Baking Powder Co., Ne\v York City: Cleveland Superior Baking Powder. Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I.: Rumford Baking Powder.

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Pure Butter Boils Quickly. Oleomargarine Sputters.

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tant service in the campaign for pure food says:

Lowering the cost of living and also improving the quality of living is the object of a plan started in Illinois along lines that are certainly of interest. The Federated Marketing Clubs, an organization now in the preliminary stages, has made an investigation covering a period of about six months, and has reached the conclusion that the quality of food generally sold is worse than is known, and that prices are from fifty to one hundred per cent, at times even five hundred per cent, higher than they would be if distribution were properly organized. It does not blame the middlemen, who also suffer from our present system and desire a change.

The organization intends to look into the quality of foods made by various manufacturers and dealers, and to invite bids. It wishes not only to determine the quality of food, and to aid in establishing reasonable prices, but to increase the legitimate profits of producers and distributors and to co-operate with growers in providing markets for country produce which now goes to waste.

Distribution is possibly the biggest problem of our day, and something along the lines of this Illinois idea will ultimately come to pass.

PROTESTS IN BEHALF OF THE CANNERS.

Frank H. Gorrell, Secretary-Treasurer and Director of Publicity of the National Canners' Association quotes the following from my address before the Cook County League of Women's Clubs in which the Marketing Club Plan was first made public:

"When you buy canned foods you have no idea what you get. It may be pure but it may also be filled with enough poison to cause illness and even death."

Nothing of the kind was said but I am glad of the opportunity of giving space to Mr. Gorrell's account of the purposes and attitude of his Association on the canned food question. He states 93

THE FEDERATED MARKETING CLUBS

that his organization stands for the abolishment of chemical preservatives and was one of the first to file a protest with President Taft against the removal of Dr. Wiley.

That so many important canners out of the 2,000 and odd in this country have been organized for the purpose of cooperating with public officials in insuring pure canned goods is a very hopeful sign of the times, but that there is nevertheless need of an organization of consumers to protect themselves; that without such an organization, no public inspection or combination of manufacturers can ever effect this purpose, is shown by the next remark in Mr. Gorrell's letter:

"Working on these lines (in support of Dr. Wiley) we have incurred the enmity of all manufacturers of chemical preservatives."

That there are not only manufacturers of chemical preservatives but canners who :ise them there is ample evidence not only in the repeated judgments against manufacturers of canned goods for the use of such preservatives but still stronger testimony as the result of private investigations. These have not encountered the difficulties of public inspection which are always inevitable and with which we are all so familiar.

Never buy canned goods that have bulged out at either top or bottom (as shown in the illustration). These goods have either been improperly canned or contain foreign elements; and decay has begun to generate gas.

CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENTS.
The Pennsylvania Grange Enterprise

One of the most ambitious undertakings in the co-operative line is that of the

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Pennsylvania State Grange which is attempting to bring into one organization, the producer, the city consumer and the retail grocer. Druggists and other retail merchants as well as grocers are eligible to membership in the organization. Each group is required to pay to the Association a percentage of its gross receipts varying from 6% for grocers to 15% for druggists. The fund is divided into six parts, four of which are put aside for distribution among consumers, one to be spent for advertising and one for administration and operating expenses. Profits are to be divided among consumers according to purchases, after the plan of the English Wholesale Societies. Work is at present being done among New York City consumers and a large number of members are said to have been enrolled.

An Unsafe Package.

Blown out at the top by the

accumulation of erases

within the can.

Success of a Small Marketing
Club.

Mrs. Bleecker Bangs, of 400 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, has formed, with a half dozen of her neighbors, a marketing club for which she does the purchasing and saves from 33 J^ to 50 per cent. At present the club handles only staple articles like butter, eggs, rice, jams, canned and bottled goods and produce. Later, tea, coffee, ham and bacon are to be added. In a club conducted on this plan it is necessary that the members live close to each other. Every Friday evening, the members of the club meet and leave their lists with Mrs. Bangs. She goes to the wholesale grocery and produce district about 8 o'clock in the morning, because the groceries have by that time supplied their wants and she can pick up genuine bargains for the members of the club.

PLAN AND PURPOSE OF THE FEDERATED MARKETING CLUBS.

The Plan provides for the formation of local clubs and their affiliation, under the name of The Federated Marketing Clubs, through a general organization similar in character to the General Federation of Women's Clubs.

The Purpose is to reduce prices by collective buying through purchasing agents, warehousing, etc.; to insure purity and honest weight by a system of inspection under direct control of the Clubs; to provide a market for home food industries of the farm

and city; and to furnish a means of communication between farmers and other producers who wish to quote prices to groups of city consumers.

Membership involves no expense. There is no membership fee and the annual dues of $1.60, which are to be devoted to the expenses of promotion and publicity, are to be deducted from dividends on purchases provided for under a system similar to the dividend plan of the Wholesale Societies of England.

Even a single member in any city or community, where a local club has not yet been formed, can have goods, Inspected under the Marketing Club System, delivered through a local grocer.

Distribution is to be made under contract through retail grocers. Grocers can also purchase of the Marketing Clubs on their own account.

Marketing Club Literature: Marketing Club literature will be mailed on request addressed to the Secretary of the Committee on Organization, 4937 Vincennes Ave., Chicago. Send also the names of friends who would be interested.

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COOKING IN PAPER BAGS

IT took Nicolas Soyer, late chef of the Brook's Club, London, whose name has now become an international household word in connection with his paper bag system of cooking, fifteen years to make the art so simple that it could easily be learned even by mere beginners in the art of cooking.

Professional culinary artists know that, in cooking, it has long been the custom to wrap small articles, such as fish, in paper. This is called, treating them en papillottes. One day, when, as chef to the Dowager Duchess of Newcastle, M. Soyer had covered a piece of fish with foolscap and told the kitchen maid to add the sauce, she put in too much. Presently the paper vessel began to bubble and then—

Pouf!

The paper vessel had exploded.

At first, this gave M Soyer a shock. Then it gave him an idea; for upon examining the fish he found it beautifully tender, but tasting somewhat of the paper.

"I wonder whether I could cook by steam," said M. Soyer talking to himselt

With the swift action of an artist, this was no sooner thought than tried; some meat, some vegetables and a little water were placed in an envelope on an iron shelf in the oven. Again an explosion, again the burning of paper, again the food deliciously cooked and tender, but still tasting of the paper as it had done before. It seemed that the difficulties were unsurmountable—that the taste of the paper would always remain.

Then for three years M. Soyer stopped putting things in paper bags, but he put the idea away in his head, where it simmered. Meanwhile he had entered into the employment of Sir Herbert NaylorLeylancl. It occurred to him, one day, that he would try again. This time it was chicken with rice. At the proper time, out of the oven it came with a

lovely golden tint and flesh as tender

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Lift The Upper Edge Of The Bag. And Insert The Food.

In Putting The Bag In The Oven. Never Set It

On A Solid Shelf.

Place it on the wire rack shelf, or on a wire broiler.

The contents will thus cook uniformly, and the

d.uiK'-r of the bag's bursting will be greatly

minimized. This is the only approved

method of cooking in the oven.

as you could imagine—but still the taste of paper. Again a temporary abandonment of the idea until many years later when M. Soyer saw in a London newspaper that Herr Lampert, a Frankfort chef, was in London with a special oven for paper bag cookery; and the newspaper told what wonderful things Herr Lampert had done.

"This will never do" said the Frenchman, his patriotism and pride at once aflame. So he promptly sent a "challenge" to his German rival—w e a p o n s, paper bags. The three judges before whom the "duel" was fought at the National School of Cookery in Buckingham Palace Roai gave the decision to the Frenchman. He cooked eleven dishes and every one was done to a turn; but there was one judge who was not satisfied—M. Soyer himself, for there was still a flavor of paper in the food. The thing to do was to find a kind of paper that would stay on its side of the fence—so to speak; so M. Soyer worked on the idea all day in the kitchen at the Brook's Club, as circumstances offered, and took the idea to bed with him when he went home. It was a troublesome bed-fellow, as the ideas of geniuses are apt to be.

"I could not rest in my bed" says M. Soyer in his little book of directions for the housewife, "and I often had to get up at two o'clock in the morning in order that I might put my paper bag to some fresh test."

Persistence and years of experience in cooking finally solved the puzzle. A paper bag was produced that any housewife can use successfully; and as a result the subject of paper bag cookery is attracting attention almost as great as that of the cost of living and the wholesomeness of food, to which it is so closely related. Here are, in brief, the merits of paper bag cookery:

Dish washing is reduced to a minimum—with paper bags there are no pots or pans to clean.

Expert cooking with reference to a long list of foods which has hitherto been the luxury of the rich is now equally the

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privilege of the poor and within the skill of any ordinary cook.

No special kind of stove or oven is required. All that is needed in addition to the ordinary oven is a broiler and the paper bag. The use of the broiler is explained in M. Soyer's book.

The advantages of paper bag cooking
over the ordinary boiling
and baking processes are
that it prevents food
from shrinking and from
losing its natural flavor
—an important result,
whether one is consider-
ing the pocketbook or
the palate.
Many women who would
like to cook and experiment
with new dishes are kept
from doing so by the dislike of

the smell of cooking or the Removing The Food From ... , . °., ,

Thf. Bag After Cooking, headaches caused by the heat

of the range, the dislike of

handling greasy pots and pans, and so on.

Others cannot spare the time from their

usual cooking and other household

duties. With the paper bag system all

of these obstacles are removed.

The system especially commends itself to those who have kitchens in small flats where there is little space for pots and pans. It is also just the thing for women living in single rooms, such as teachers, stenographers and clerks. With the paper bag system they can cook, for themselves, a simple and satisfactory meal in half an hour and have nothing to wash but a plate and other necessary table utensils.

The paper bag is the foe of the microbe. The microbe has no resting place. After each meal, the bags in which cooking has been done, are thrown into the fire and fresh, clean bags are used for the next meal.

M. Soyer's book which, like the paper bags, should be a part of the equipment of every kitchen, is a perfect cyclopedia of recipes and directions for cooking under this system. M. Soyer's experience is too wide and his reputation too great to make extravagant claims. On this point he says (Soyer's Paper Cookery, page 19):

"I do not claim for the paper bag system that it can cook everything. It is

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