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deed, could task a greater variety of human has raised ? He must be a person of great powers. Keen perception, quick instincts, vigilance and freshness of resource, else how delicate tastes, strong good sense, a perfect should he vary his entertainments for his knowledge of character, a nice appreciation guests according to their differing characterof all that constitutes the sensibilities, and istics and desires ? The flexibility of his all that makes the virtues of the social man; intellectual vision must be great, else how —these are all absolute requisites for that should he be capable of that instinctive apartist, who, in the delineation of real life, in preciation of character which is called for by an atmosphere of fiction, must, to a certain the constant necessity of discriminating his extent, borrow faculties from every other dramatis personæ, the great essential requidepartment of human art. The poet must site for success in portraiture and for drayield him fancy and imagination; the matic vitality in action? The first dawning painter, an eye to the landscape; the sculp- of the humors of a period,-using the word tor, a just conception of form and attitude; in the sense of Ben Jonson,-its passing the dramatist, combination and the art of moods and fashions, its singular traits of trouping ;- and even the lawyer and the moral and society, (which are mostly epigistorian must, or may be drawn upon, — demical, and flit with the progress of a the one for the capacity to argue out a case season,) are among the minor but scarcely from certain premises and facts to a just less necessary requisitions of his art; to conclusion,—to weigh the motives to action, execute which requires a rare versatility of and determine the awards of judgment; talent. To this versatility no mere sumand the other, to sift the causes of social mary, like the present, could possibly do progress,to estimate duly the morals of justice. Let it suffice that the great or leading events, the effects which they should successful worker in prose fiction must be, produce, and the principles to which, taking Walter Scoit for our most obvious whether for good or evil, they are likely to example, a person of equal imagination and give birth hereafter, affecting equally the cool common sense;. of lively but healthy condition of the community and the aspira- sensibilities; of great tact, (which is another tions of the individual man. In a rare word for admirable taste,) and of equal vigijudgment all these faculties are necessarily lance and courage. He must be able to found to unite. The artist in prose fiction, observe without effort,—so endowed by namore than any other, must possess in ture and so trained by practice as to achieve, large degree the constructive faculty. Poe- so to speak, by the simple outpouring of try depends chiefly upon its courage and his customary thoughts. His habitual mensentiment; the drama upon its passion; tal exercise must be the acquisition of mate music upon its spirituality; and painting rial, and its partial subjection to his purposes, upon its happy distribution of light and though in detached and fragmentary condishade, the harmony of its colors, and the ditions, susceptible of adaptation to more symmetry of its forms. But, borrowing in elaborate uses when his schemes ripen into some degree all these agencies, the artist in design. Carrying the materials which he prose fiction makes them all ancillary to thus habitually realizes, without effort and one particularly his own, and that we co:l- almost without consciousness, to the alembic sider the constructive faculty. With this of his thought, he will extract from them faculty it is that he frames and adapts his by a process which, in the trained author, materials to whatever sort of edifice it is the goes on without respite, all the sublimated particular aim of his genius to erect. That essences which, thus resolved, become aggreedifice

may be a palace or a hovel, but it is gated within himself and constitute the required to be symmetrical, in compliance means and expedients of his own genius. with laws growing out of the very concep- He is original and inventive in due degree tion which suggests the structure. The as he has incorporated these external elebuilder, to achieve the reputation of a mas- ments in with his own thoughts, and the ter, must conceive boldly the plan and pur- habitual workings of his own intellect. pose of his fabric; and this requires a To acquire such materials, and to attain vigorous imagination. He must possess a these results, no mere fagging with a purpose Jively fancy, else how should he adorn fitly can possibly avail. No mere drudgery under and properly embellish the fabric which hel the stimulating force of will can possibly

yield the habitual condition by which such prosecution of his scheme. There must be accumulations go on, with all the regularity no need to stop, and study, and adjust, beof advancing and returning hours. Cram- fore he can conscientiously set down. His ming is no more likely to produce digestion implements must all be at hand, and at his in the case of the intellectual, than in that of instant control. His mental constitution the animal condition. On the contrary, as must be that of the poet. He must be born in the latter, the effect is unfavorable to the to his task. You cannot fashion him to it proper incorporation of the food with the by any course of training. He works quite healthy flesh and blood, and true nature of as much by intuition as by calculation and the recipient. And without the harmonious common reasoning. His plan once fairly co-operation of the several powers and attri- conceived, his thoughts and fancies, to use butes,-unless the aliment taken in by the the felicitous language of Milton, must, “like senses of the student and the inventor be so many nimble and airy servitors, trip about kindred in quantity and qnality with that him at command, and, in well-ordered files, upon which his genius may be supposed to as he would wish, fall aptly in their own feed, the latter is enfeebled rather than sus- places." He leaps to his conclusions as if tained by the innutritious supply, and the upon a wing of equal certainty and fleetfruits of his labor lack equally congruity and ness; and the chief and difficult study behealth. If, as Milton hath it, the life of him fore him is at the beginning, when reason who would write a poem must itself be a demands that he should choose his grond poem, so must the habitual tendency of ob- and field of operations, with such a careful servation and thought of him who deals in regard to his peculiar tastes, studies and prose fiction, tend to the supply of means experiences, as shall give free play to whatfavorable in particular to his freshness, his ever is individual in his character and geinvention, and his just appreciation of all the nius. Great freedom of speech, affording a varieties of human character. Perhaps we ready flow in the narrative, a prompt fancy may say all this, when we adopt the pecu- to meet emergencies and supply details, so liar idiom of another nation, and say that that the action shall at no time falter or for his art there must be a nature.

become flat; a quick and keen perception of It is very clear that, of the thousand fine the differing shades and degrees, in quality, iseues which belong to every action in the of human character; a nice appreciation of progress of a story, the trials of the heart, the delicate and noble, the lofty and the the displays of passion, the subtle combina- low, the sublime and the ridiculous; an eye tions of wit, the logical results of judgment, eager to seek and prompt to discern the the fancy which happily relieves the action picturesque; a facility in finding varieties in the proper place, the vivacity which keeps and in the suggestion of lively contrasts; the interest astir, the invention which pro- and that flexibility of mood, by which one, vides the impressive incident, and all the having a ready utterance, may individualize various and numerous faculties, of feeling the several dialects of the dramatis personceand understanding, which need to have ful- dialects which as completely distinguish the ness and free play in the development and individual from his companions, as do the action of a scheme which embodies equally particular traits of his countenance, the and all the characteristics by which society sound of his voice, and movement of his is moved and human sensibility excited; it body; these are all

, in greater or less demust be very clear, we say, that there can gree, essential to the successful pursuit of his be very few of these agencies, about which, art by the novelist and writer of prose ficas the necessity for their employment arises, tion. If held generally, and in large enthe author could deliberately sit down to dowment, and exercised with corresponding reason. It would be morally and physically industry, these faculties must render him an impossible, were any such necessity to exist, artist of the highest order, -remarkable, as that his labors should ever arrive at the the Germans have it, for the great faculty honors of a single volume. On the contrary, of Shakspeare, his many-sidedness, or cathohis resources should be so equally ready and licity,-a poet, a philosopher and dramatist, apple, that he shall be conscious, his pro- a painter, a seer, and a prophet! His words gress once begun, of no let or hindrance, will flow from him like those of inspiration. calling for long pause or hesitation in the His creations, from their equal majesty, grace

and beauty, will seem worthy to have owned and counselled by the lovely and the sweet, a divine original. His voice will swell, in the graceful and the bright, which the gardue season, to a natural authority in every den groups beneath his eye, or the groves ear, and his works will gradually pass into cherish and encourage about his footsteps. the common heart, lifting it to an habitual And thus informed, insensibly to himself appreciation of the high humanities which as it were, he models his own mind into it is the becoming object of a genius so images which posterity is fain to deify. Thus, worthily endowed to teach.

while the tout ensemble of his fabric will awe The fabric of such an artist will be raised by its magnificence, the exquisiteness of its with an equal eye to its uses, its durability, detail must persuade to a near delight which and grandeur. It will be no mere pleasure- loves to linger upon the study of its cunhouse. Its objects are never temporary. ning joinery; and this is the perfection of The true genius works not less for eternity art, where the exquisite delicacy of the finthan man. It is, indeed, in working for ish is not required to compensate for defieternity that he works for man. He has cient majesty and greatness in the first conbut a slender appreciation of the importance ception. of his race, who only sees them as they exist The first conclusive proof that we have of around him; who, satisfied with the present the superior artist will be in the manifestasounds that fill his ears, entertains no hun- tion of design. The really great genius is gering thirst for that faint voice, sounding conspicuous chiefly in this quality. It is ever in the solitude, which comes slowly but talent that simply finishes. It is taste surely up from the far-off abodes of his pos- only that never offends. It is art that adapts terity. He, on the contrary, who properly with propriety. It is genius that creates ! esteems his vocation, feels indeed that suc- To be sure of this faculty in the artist, we cessful working must always imply the future must see that he works out a purpose of his only. To be of and with the present only, own; and we estimate his strength by the to speak the voice with which it is already resolution which he shows, under all cirfamiliar, to go nothing beyond it, to have cumstances, in the prosecution of his scheme. no mysteries which it shall not and cannot It will not do that he follows, however adfathom; this is, surely, to forfeit all claim mirably, in the track of other masters. It upon the future generations, with whom will not do, even should he rival them sucprogress only is existence. But the true cessfully, in a region which they had exartist knows better than to toil for such bar- plored already. The world can never be ren recompense. His ambition, or we should persuaded of his superiority, who shall do rather say, his nature is governed by a more nothing better than multiply specimens unselfish instinct. He builds in compliance der well-known laws and models. He may with laws and motives which do not seem triumph for a season; he may give a certain to consider earth. His conceptions are degree of pleasure always, as adroitness, caught from the Highest, and would seem aptness and ingenuity, the sources of the to emulate his achievements. In what con- imitative faculty, are very apt to do; but sists bis material? The soul of man, his there will always be apparent in his performhopes and fears, his humanities; the inner ances that want of courage and enterprise, nature, the spirit and the heart, where lie which give to the original a masculine vigor his most permanent and most valuable pos- and proportion which men esteem the most session. And from what other of God's essential of all qualities in their guides and creations does he take the tributary forms leaders. The admiration which hails the and aspects which he groups around his imitator is seldom of long duration. It lasts subject as subservient to the action? The only while he seems like an original. It is sky for beauty and repose; the sea for im- by the strongest instincts that the world dismensity; the forest for depth and intricacy; tinguishes between the substance and the the rock and mountain for solidity and shadow. Not to sink into a pun, they soon strength: such are the model forms and at- feel the difference between them. The distributes that impress his soul from the begin- covery once made, they resent the deception. ning, and fashion, unconsciously to himself, In due degree with the extent of the imposall the shapes and creations of his genius. ture, will be the scorn and indignation which His fancies, in like manner, are controlled follow its exposure ; and the innocent follower in another's footsteps, who has uncon. the recompense, scarcely for the praise and sciously left his own tracks for a season more the fame, though these naturally suggest conspicuous than those of his predecessor, themselves to his mind, as proper influences is made to pay, as an offense, for the passing that cheer him when he faints, and stimufavor of good fortune. Nor, even where late him to new exertions when he would the imitation is not apparent, but where the shrink back from very weariness. He canaim is inferior, will the results be finally not help but build! It is because of the otherwise. There may be an originality God working in his soul that he seeks to which is yet without a becoming purpose. raise a temple. His struggle to erect this To seek simply after the satisfaction of a list structure betrays his secret sense of properless mood; to strive, in stimulating a feverish ties in the true and beautiful, which his own and morbid appetite, to minister to vicious nature entertains, and which he seeks to tastes, to drowsy faculties, by temporary symbolize and to evolve, as well as he may, expedients in art, by clever surprises, by glit- and in the best materials, for the delight tering but unsubstantial shows, the slight and satisfaction of others. The decorations fetches of a talent that is capable of small of his temple have an equal significance. exertions only, will not suffice long for the They declare for the tastes, as the fabric gratification of an intellectual people. It is, itself speaks for the religion of the artist. as we have urged already, in the design only, The sentiments, which are only so many in the fresh classical conception of a vig- passions informed by the affections and suborous imagination, bold, rich, free, generous, dued to a spiritual delicacy by the active incomprehensive and ingenious, that admira- tervention of the soul, now busy themselves tion becomes permanent, and reputation in embellishing the apartments. The chamgrows into that fixed condition which the bers are to be furnished, the high saloon, world finally calls fame. The design of the lofty portico, the altar-place and the the builder must be first apparent; the niche. Music and the dance are to be presgrand outlines, the great bulk upheaved ent, to spell, with a seasonable soothing, the upon the plain, massive but with what won-pauses between majestic lessons and affecdrous symmetry of proportion; a maze, but tionate discourse. Intellect must make itwith what admirable simplicity of plan; self felt, superior and winning, through some, showing, at a glance, the classical concep- if not all, of the human agencies. There tion, the daring scheme, the appropriate must be eloquence, though it be that of the thought, and that dependency of detail in passions only. There should be song, though all the parts upon the main idea, by which it speaks as freely the language of mere the mighty fabric of imagination and art is mirth and frivolity, as that of poetry and sustained and embellished. We must see love; and we shall not quarrel with the in the work before us, not only that the scheme of enjoyment, which is made to builder himself knew what

was about, minister in a temple meant for so various that he did not work blindly and at random; an audience, if art demeans herself in some but we must be prepared to acknowledge, lowlier forms, to pleasure and to persuade a as we gaze, that his work is entirely his own; class who are not yet worthy to penetrate that his copy has not been set for him; that the inner sanctuary. The muse that stoops he has striven with a native birth, and struck to elevate, does not degrade her dignity by his shaft into a hitherto unbroken soil with the temporary concession to the lowly and the vigor of an arm that obeyed an impulse the mean. There will be a better life in equally noble and independent. We must consequence, more of an inner life, in the behold that indubitable freshness in the con- humanity which is thus plucked from its ception, which we can liken to nothing al- wallow by the offices of art, which will ready familiar to our fancies. We must see amply compensate for any reproach that in the artist that eagerness of bent, that might otherwise fall upon her temples, from enthusiasm of mood, which proves his own the admission of those who have been hithconviction of a new discovery. And it must erto thought unworthy. What we too frenot be because we behold him, that he quently esteem as brutal, is nothing more works. It must be because of a love for the than roughness; and we must not forget labor, that he addresses himself to its execu- that the noblest fabric of art is still meant tion. He builds neither for the shelter nor | as a place of refuge for humanity. Tha cathedral loses none of its sacred character, | cause the profligate have expelled him from because the vicious sometimes crawl along it; but to endeavor so to purify the temple, its aisles; and it lessens not the virtue in the that we may persuade him back to the altar, offices of religion, because music is employed which we hallow with a purer service. It is to appeal to the sensual nature. The heart in this spirit that we are to employ the offiis reached through the senses, when we ces and the temples of every form of art, to should rainly appeal to the intellect; and make them clean and holy; not surrender we must be careful not to withhold from the them, because of their partial degradation, stubborn the attractions of any influence, wholly to this foul route to which, with a the proper employment of which may make nicer regard to our tastes than our faith and them accessible to yet higher teachings. duty, we have too early and too easily yieldThe sensual may still occupy a place within ed them. Let us, more wisely, with the our temples-must be there, perhaps, so long strong sense and the enthusiastic spirit of as humanity is the simple occupant; but the Martin Luther, determine that the devil shall sensual may be trained to be the minister of not possess himself of all the fine music!. the ideal, and the spiritual man may have To yield him up all the agencies by which his regeneration on that hearthstone where the heart of man may be touched, in his the worst passions of the heart may have hours of care or weariness or relaxation, is laid themselves down to sleep at nightfall surely to contribute wonderfully to the spread It is a miserable error and a bigotry of the of Satan's dominion, and to increase, with worst blindness, which presumes to repudi- woful odds against them, the toils of the ate the offices of art when they would min- saints, in their warfare for the Church of ister to a better nature in the vicious heart Christ. of man.

For, however rude and erring Such as we have endeavored to describe may be the rites in her temples, they are him is the Master of Fiction, and under such still calculated to elevate the aims of such laws and motives will he bring forth his best as seek their ministration. The very office performances. We have preferred setting of art is to purify, and her agency is still forth his higher offices, and the more encourthat of the intellectual man. She still toils, aging and elevating standards which enforcn whatever be her faults, in behalf of him who and regulate his labors. All of these belong struggles—blinded it may be, and frequently to poetry—the noblest fashion «f human overthrown in the attempt—to attain that art, whether we regard it in its epic, its lyrbetter condition to which the races, without ical, or dramatic forms. The same standards their own consciousness, are for ever address- applied to prose narrative—the romance or ing their endeavors. Genius, of whatever the novel—are as legitimately desirable ie description, and however false, under per- these forms as in any other, by him who verse influences, to its high commission and craves amusement and needs instruction. The eternal trusts, is still of an immortal and aims of prose fiction are precisely those of endowing nature. It is because of this poetry, simply contemplating another and a redeeming security for humanity which it larger audience. Nay, the audience may be possesses, that it commands the world's


very same.

There are persons who care and in some degree the world's admiration, nothing for music, who do not comprehend even when it inost seems to practise against its happy harmonies, and those delicious the world's happiness. It is in the convic- flights of sound which, through a sensual tion that we feel, that the great fabric, medium, lift the soul to objects of divinest though sometimes prostituted to the business contemplation. Yet, to such persons, the of the brothel, is nevertheless a temple same object is gained by other artists—the where thousands drink in the influences of poet or the painter; and the spirit which the a purer and more grateful atmosphere than musician would deem utterly callous to all that to which they are ordinarily accus- tender influences, is made to overflow with tomed. However unclean the structure, we sympathy when appealed to through an yet behold in its design and durableness agency with which its affinities are naturally the working of a rare and blessed divinity, strong. And he who is insensible to the inthe holiness of whose altars we must recog- tricate charms of poetry—“the measured file. nize, though the god himself may be in exile

. and metrical array" of art—will yield himIt is for us, not to abandon the shrine be- l self very joyfully to the very lessons which

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