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This simple harness, once put in operation, will virtually run itself, requiring little or no attention. Mr. Wilson demonstrates the success of the invention at his own shop in Westfield, which is brightly lighted with wind-made electricity, and to all appearances it equals the steam-made product that city folk enjoy.
Provision can be made to accumulate in storage batteries the electricity generated in excess of that used. According to the need, cells can be obtained of such capacity as to store up a week's supply in advance, so that enough current can be kept on hand at all times for use whether the wind is blowing or not. According to Mr. Wilson, a 14-foot windmill should produce enough electricity to light the average farm, generating the current in the daytime that is burned at night. The whole equipment is cheap. A hundred-dollar windmill, he says, can be fitted out to make electricity, by the expenditure of another hundred dollars. The cost of maintenance is said to be almost nothing, so that the farmer can have better lights than he now has, for less money than they are costing him; and at the same time the windmill will keep on performing the same work it has heretofore been doing.
The day of the electric farmer seems just now to be dawning. In the Wabash valley of Indiana, one of the richest agricultural districts in the State, an interurban electric railroad company is extending its wires in all directions to sell its current to the farmers for the operation of agricultural implements. The company is distributing neat pamphlets telling how the farmer can make life worth more the living by discarding oldtime methods and taking up new ones. Preparations are being made to wage an extensive campaign next year in this district to popularize electric farming. It is predicted that within a short time, all plowing will be done by electricity, and that the unseen power will be used to replace the forms of animal and steam motor power which have been used on the farms for so many years.
Mr. Wilson is convinced that windmade electricity can be adapted for more. purposes than the telephone, domestic lighting, and the interurban railroad.
The time is rapidly approaching when farmers will have to protect themselves by irrigation against loss from droughts; and this can be accomplished best by erecting serviceable windmills, one for every thirty or forty acres of land, to pump the necessary water that is to be run through the ditches. By harnessing each one of these windmills, enough electricity can be generated and stored up to run all the farm machinery at far less than it would cost to do the same work with a steam or gasoline engine. The electricity can also be used to assist the farmer's wife at the churn, in cooking, and for any number of other domestic purposes. The possible electric supply is limited only by the number and size of the windmills employed, and the capacity of storage. With ample equipment, it would be possible to light small towns with by-product electricity; and all the time, the mills would be busy pumping water for other purposes, the same as usual.
Speaking of his invention, or rather combination of principles, Mr. Wilson says:
"This is the age of by-products, as you know. My idea is in touch with the trend of the times, to get something for nothing. I am satisfied that the wind has been harnessed at last;
post, and be ready to voice the message it contains upon delivery at its destination.
A material called "sonorine," which has all the advantages of wax, and the added quality of being indestructible, is spread upon cards, which conform to postoffice regulations and requirements. Then, as may be seen from the illustration, the chemically prepared card is laid flat, and the voice is thrown into a small funnel, through which it passes to the registering needle. The record is made. by a spiral, which begins writing at one edge of the card and travels toward its center, filling the card completely with the exception of a small circular spot in the middle. A card will hold about eighty words.
Sonorine has not as yet been introduced in America, but no doubt will be within a short time.
Steam Turbines by the Train-Load
THOUGH the steam turbine in its
present form is a comparatively new invention, the fact that it is being widely adopted for practical use is well illustrated by the accompanying snapshot of a whole train-load of such power units leaving the factory of one of the largest manufacturers of turbines in the United States.
. While inventors have so far failed in their efforts to solve the problem of the
as certain decidedly good points of its own. The elementary principle involved in both turbine and rotary engines, is that of a paddle-wheel in a jet of water.
Mammoth Incubator THE largest incubator
in the world, with a capacity of 15,000 eggs, has just been completed by W. P. Hall of Pembroke, N. Y. It is 102 feet long and 4 feet 4 inches wide. Partitions divide it into 100 compartments, each accommodating two trays. The trays have wire bottoms, and hold 75 eggs each. To fill this incubator a single time with common-not thoroughbred
-eggs, would require an expenditure of $6,000, for eggs of the requisite freshness would cost forty cents a dozen. As one hen covers fifteen eggs for hatching, the incubator does the work of 1,000 fowls, or has the capacity of one hen sitting constantly for nearly ten years.
The incubator is heated by means of
a coil of eight steam pipes passing over the top of the egg chamber on one side and returning on the other. These pipes are connected, at one end of the struc
ture, to a water tank and heater. The water flowing through the pipes is heated to exactly the right temperature, a thermostat attached to the stove opening and closing the drafts to make this possible. The only attention required by the heater is supplying it with coal night and morning. The thermostat is an expansion
tank, 10 by 18 inches, which stands over the heater. The tank is filled with oil, in which is a float. As the heat of the furnace warms the water, the water in the jacket surrounding the heater expands, and the float in the oil rises. This movement closes a throttle attached to the float-arm, and shuts the draft of the heater; another lever at the same time
opens the cold-air draft of the furnace.
In this way the temperature is regulated automatically, with extremely little variation, the eggs being kept at 102° F.
A second novel feature is that the heat of the eggs is regulated by raising or lowering them in the egg chamber, which is nearly a foot high inside, burlap separating it from the pipes. The egg trays rest on double frames hinged by galvanized arms or levers. As the chicks develop, the trays are lowered on these sup
$150 for a season, while a large incubator was run three months at an expense of less than $8 for coal.
Photograph of High-
AN interesting feature of the Electrical Trades Exposition held in Chicago, January 15-27, was the series of electrical experiments with laboratory apparatus given by Mr. C. H. Thordarsen. In this exhibit were a number of pictures of remarkable high-tension discharges, one of the most unique of which is herewith reproduced. This illustration is taken from an actual open-air photograph of 2-second exposure made at the St. Louis World's Fair of 1905, and
OURSE SLOYD FOR BOYS
HARRIS C. TROW B.S.
Graduate Sloyd Training School of Boston
Sloyd is the Swedish system of manual training, as originated and taught by Herr Otto Salomon of Nääs, Sweden. Sloyd differs from other systems of manual training in that it has for its object the harmonious development and training of head and hand. The course of which this is the Fourth lesson, was begun in the December, 1905, number of this magazine, and is intended for boys of from twelve to eighteen years of age, and can be followed in the home, with the simplest tools. The course will be found just as valuable to the young man who intends to take up a professional career, as to him who proposes to follow a handicraft.-THE EDITORS.
Fourth Lesson-Model No. IV. Cutting Board
HIS model is shown in plan and front elevation in Fig. 1, and its name indicates the use for which it is intended.
In following out this course of models, the fact should be kept in mind that while each model has an intrinsic value because of its usefulness, its chief value lies in the exercises exemplified in its construction. These are arranged, as far as possible, in progressive order from the simple to the complex; so that, in constructing this course of models in a careful manner, the worker will find that he has mastered the use of the tools and exercises as well-and that almost without knowing it.
The new tools used in the making of the cutting board are a pair of winding sticks, price 25 cents; a pair of dividers, price 50 cents; a back saw, 10-inch, price $1.00; a firmer chisel, price 35 cents; a flat file, 8-inch, bastard, price 25 cents; a Barber bit brace, 6-inch, price $1.00; and an auger bit, R. Jennings, 3/4-inch, price 42 cents.
The stock should be good quality white pine 3/4 inch thick. A piece should be roughed out by means of the crosscut saw and splitting saw, as previously described, to approximate dimensions, 184
by 714 inches, or more if necessary. The worker should know by this time just how much to allow for finish.
The first exercise is a new onenamely, that of board-surface planing. The work should rest on a flat surface against the front bench stop; and, if necessary in order to keep the work from sliding backward, a tail vise may be used, so that the work is held securely between the front stop and the rear stop, which may be forced up against it by the vise.
The broad surface should be finished straight and true by means of the jackplane; and as it is both longer and wider than the face of the plane, additional difficulty will be found in making the surface perfectly level both lengthwise and crosswise. Each cut should extend the entire length of the board, as otherwise marks will be left where one cut ends and the next one begins. Since, as already mentioned, the piece is wider than the plane, several cuts will need to be made to cover the width, and each should join with its neighbor so that no lines. will be left. The surface should be tested with the eye to find out when it is finished, and its accuracy may be further checked by means of a straight edge. The straight edge should neither rock