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OBSERVERS at the various stations
along the line of the elevated railroad in Chicago, noticing that the tracks slope gently downward on either side from the stations, have jumped at the conclusion that the purpose of this construction has been to take advantage of the action of gravity in controlling the movement of trains. This, however, is a misconception. The net reduction in operative cost through such means would be but very slight, if anything. The reason for the lower level between stations is found in the fact that this was the original construction level, and when the city ordered a higher elevation at the stations, the company found it cheaper to leave the track at its old level in parts than to raise it uniformly to the new elevation required at the stations.
A Dog Cemetery THERE is a cemetery in London where
all the epitaphs that are written on the tombstones are true. Of course it is not a cemetery for human beings, for when these die, no matter how base the lives they have lived, the inscriptions on their tombs usually have a tone of tone of euphemistic eulogy. This is a dogs' cemetery. It is located in a little, secluded spot, right in the heart of the great city. People, even strangers, when they read these epitaphs, often shed tears, for they know that they are true. Marble never marks the resting place of a dog that was not worthy of all that is written about him. Here are some of the inscriptions one may read:
"She brought the sunshine into our lives, but took it away with her.
To our gentle, lovely little BlenheimJane."
"Dear old Topsy, for over sixteen. years the faithful friend of Sir and his family-Loved, lamented, and respected."
"There are men both good and wise, who say that dumb creatures we have cherished here below shall give us kindly greeting when we have passed the Golden Gate."
Multum in Parvo TO put a quart of water into a pint bottle is a physical impossibility in the nature of things. But to combine in a single instrument a maximum of convenient uses in a minimum of space, is no uncommon achievement of modern ingenuity. We have, for example, "pocket handbooks" that surpass the whole Bodleian Library in practical value as works of reference; we have "pocket tool-chests" that are not only the delight of the small boy but frequently the relief of the family in emergency. And now we have, as a result of the pecuniary necessities that had beset one correspondence school student, a new drafting instrument to which has been given the appropriate name of the "Ready." It combines an amazing multiplicity of timeand labor-saving features in a device of pocket size and small cost. It serves all the uses of the T-square, compass, scale, and protractor. By its means, angles of any degree can be readily determined or drawn, diameters found in 16ths of an inch, delay of adjusting compass points to centers avoided, etc. By a convenient system of observation openings, the progress of any arc being drawn can be "kept in sight."
OURSE IN SLOYD FOR BOYS
HARRIS C. TROW B.S.
Graduate Sloyd Training School of Boston
Fifth Lesson-Model No. V. Flower-Pot Stand
PERSPECTIVE view of this model is shown in Fig. 1, and the complete working drawing with dimensions is shown in Fig. 2. The new tools required are a hammer A. E., B. F., price 42 cents; and a nail set, hollow point, price 10 cents. The initials A. E., B. F. as used above, represent the words Adz Eye, Bell Face. The stock should be white pine of 3/4-inch thickness.
As seen in Figs. 1 and 2, the stand consists of two supports or standards, upon which are nailed four cross-pieces, making in all six separate parts.
Let us begin with the standards first. It would perhaps be quite natural to get out two separate pieces of stock for these two parts, but it can readily be seen that it is simpler to work them as far as possible in one piece, but of twice the length. Accordingly a piece of stock should be roughed out with the splitting saw and the crosscut saw, about 101⁄2 inches long by 14 inches wide. One of the broader surfaces should be planed straight and true with the jack-plane for the working surface. Then finish one of the narrow surfaces at right angles to this, using the eye to test both its straightness and squareness as far as possible. The try-square should also be used to check the accuracy of the eye as to squareness. When this surface has been properly finished,
gauge the width of 1% inches with the marking gauge, and finish the other narrow surface straight and square with the working surface. Now gauge the width 5% inch on both narrow surfaces, and finish to the gauge marks. When this has been done, block-plane one end in the bench hook and cut off to length 5% inches, allowing enough to finish the other end with the block-plane. In a similar manner block-plane and finish the second piece to the exact length required.
Next lay off a distance of 3/4 inch from each end on one of the narrow surfaces of one of these pieces for the shoulders, as shown at A and B, Fig. 2. Lay off these shoulders with the try-square and pencil, marking the lines over with the point of the Sloyd knife guided by the try-square. Gauge a line on both of the broader surfaces between A and B, 5-16 inch from the edge. The cross-cuts should be made with the back saw exactly to a depth of 5-16 inch. Then remove the stock between them, down to the gauge line, with the Sloyd knife. Fin
ish the second piece in like manner, smoothing with sandpaper and block. Remember to remove only the smallest possible amount of stock in the process and keep all corners square.
The four cross-pieces should be worked in one piece as far as possible, but not from stock four times the length of one piece, as this would be too long to work to advantage. For making these crosspieces, block out a piece of the 34-inch stock a little over 15 inches long and wide enough to make four pieces of 5-16 inch thickness each, allowing for finish. A width of 134 inches should be sufficient.
have left the narrow surface of our original piece of stock rough and somewhat uneven, and this should be trued up with the jack-plane. A second strip can now be cut out as before, and the third and fourth in a similar manner. After smoothing these strips with sandpaper and block, all the parts of the stand are ready to be assembled. The four strips should be laid side by side on their broader surfaces on the bench, and a distance of 134 inches laid off from each end to locate the position of the supports. A line should then be drawn lightly across. As seen in the illustrations, the outer
This should be planed along one of its broader surfaces straight and true, and a narrow surface should be planed at right angles to this. A shaving should also be taken off the other narrow surface, although the stock need not of course be finished to any definite width at this stage. Now gauge the thickness of 5% inch and plane to the gauge marks. Next blockplane one end of the piece in the bench hook, lay off the length, and block-plane the other end. The thickness of the stock is now exactly equal to the width of the cross-pieces. From the finished narrow surface, gauge lines 5-16 inch from it on both the broader surfaces, lengthwise of the piece. Then with the splitting saw cut off the strip thus blocked out, allowing enough stock to finish it to a thickness of 5-16 inch with the jack-plane. When this cut has been made, one of our strips will be complete.
The cut with the splitting saw will
strips are flush with the ends of the supports. Beginning with one of the outer strips placed in this position, with the supports 134 inches from its ends, and perfectly square with it, secure in position by nailing with 7-inch brads. Next place the other outer strip in position and nail in place. The third and fourth strips can then be nailed on in the position indicated by the dimensions in Fig. 2. The heads of the nails should be sunk slightly below the surface by means of the nail set. In driving these nails the work should be supported firmly, immediately under the spot into which the nails are being driven, otherwise the work will spring.
A final touch of the sandpaper in connection with the block, will complete the work, and a useful and ornamental model will be the result if directions as given in connection with previous lessons have been properly followed.
VARIOUS TYPES OF WINDMILL.
1-Ventocrat. 2-Rose of the Winds. 3-Sourensen. 4-New Conical.
than before. Inspired by this demonstration, he made some further experiments, and perfected a wind motor of conical form, having six vanes, the ends of which curved toward the summit of the cone. Prof. P. LaCour, who has established, by authority of the Danish Government, an observatory for the study of wind power, showed that the new conical aëromotor developed more power
PAWNBROKERS in China are the bank-
THE bogs of Maine are as full of peat as are the glens of Scotland. The Bos
Firing ton & Maine Railroad has Engines been experimenting with with Peat peat-burning on locomotives, and so far the tests have given much satisfaction, the steaming qualities of the fuel being of the highest. The peats are subjected to heavy pressure, which exudes all the moisture, and, in
pressing, are forced into an elliptical shape with an inch hole running through them, which admits of free burning. The fuel is entirely free from smoke.
THE purchases of the Panama Canal Commission include guinea pigs, white Supplies for mice, wooden legs, Bibles,
Panama and playing cards. It has
Canal ordered 640,000 pounds of blasting powder and 675,000 pounds of dynamite. The paving of the city of Panama required 7,000,000 paving brick. Also 3,500,000 brick for the construction of buildings, with 30,000,000 feet of lumber, have been sent on. In addition to the locomotives in use by the railroad, 120 have been bought for excavating, together with 1,300 flat and hundreds of dump cars, 5,000 tons of steel rails, and 125,000 crossties upon which to lay the rails.
AN interesting source of power is found at Pierre, South Dakota, where Power from the city has decided to Artesian put in an incandescent
Wells electric light plant to be driven by waste water from the artesian wells. Tests have shown that water, coming under pressure, will develop more than enough power to operate such a plant.
An Auto Rigged for Hoisting
A. A. STOLTZENBURG, of St. Louis, Mo., is using his automobile in an ingenious way. On week days it is rigged as a hoisting machine. When he goes out to do a job, Mr. Stoltzenburg loads tackle and windlass on the car, and it will carry the load to any part of the city, under its own power. The windlass attachment is carried on a special frame, which is firmly clasped to the rear axle, and driven by the sprocket chain, which, for the time being, is removed from the driving sprocket of the car. The rig is used chiefly for installing elevators. It has lifted 500 pounds to a height of 100 feet in forty minutes. In two hours with this improvised auto-hoister, one man can do the same amount of work that, under the