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DEPARTMENT OF FINISTERE. I. Two Lights at the Mouth of the Odet.—Ist. A Light on the Point du Coq, left bank of the Odet.

Fixed Red Light.
Latitude 47° 52' 20" N. Longitude 6° 26' 58" W. from Paris.
Elevation above the ground, 31 feet; above the sea, 31 feet; visible 11 miles.

2d. Light about 870 feet to the N. 14° W.

Fixed White Light. Elevation above the ground, 31 feet; above the sea, 58 feet; visible 11 miles. The above two Lights kept in range indicate the direction of the great channel of the mouth of the Odet.

II. Two Fired Lights of the Harbor of Concarneau.—1st. Light in the battery of La Croix at Concarneau.

Latitude 47° 52' 11" N. Longitude 6° 15' 21" W. from Paris. Elevation above the ground, 31 feet; above the sea, 46 feet; visible 11 miles. 2d. Light between Concarneau and Benzec, 6,155 feet N. 28° E. from the first.

Elevation above the ground, 31 feet; above the sea, 178 feet; visible 14 miles. These two Lights kept in range indicate to navigators the course to take in order to enter the little roads of Concarneau, avoiding on the west the banks of Lue Vras and the neighboring shoals, and on the east the banks of Cochon, Barzic, and Men-Fall. This course passes very near the bank of Cochon.

FLOATING LIGHTS IN THE PRINCE'S CHANNEL. Two Floating Light Vessels have been moored near the East Tongue and Girdler Sands in the Prince's Channel, in the following positions:

The “ Tongue” Light Vessel is placed in 54 fathoms at low water spring tides, three cables' lengths to the eastward of the East Tongue Buoy, and with the following compass bearings :North-east Spit Buoy of Margate Sand...

..S. E. I S. Tongue Beacon.....

.W. by N. I N. North-east Tongue Buoy.

.W. N. W. ; N. Shingles' Beacon.....

...N. W. I N. The “ Girdler” Light Vessel is moored in 34 fathoms at low water spring tides, onehalf cable's length to the southward of the Girdler Buoy, with the following marks and compass bearings :The Eastern Preventive Station at St. Nicholas, its apparent width open to the westward of the west end of Cleve Wood......

.S. S. E. E. The Girdler and Shingles' Beacon in line....

E. S. E., Easterly. South Girdler Buoy...

.E. by S. I S. North Pansand Buoy.

.S.S. E. 4 E. West Pansand Buoy.

..S. by E. & E. Shivering Sand Buoy...

..N. N. W. Mariners are to observe that on board these vessels Lights, as hereinafter described, will be first exhibited on the evening of the lst of October next, and thenceforth continued every night from sunset to sunrise, viz:

At the East Tongue-Two Fixed Lights, one of which, at the masthead, will be White; the other will be shown at a lower elevation, and colored Red.

At the Girdler-One Bright Revolving Light will be exhibited.

Note.—The East Tongue and Girdler Buoys remain at their stations for the present, but will be taken away and discontinued after a short time.

REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS ANCHORING NEAR GIBRALTAR.

GIBRALTAR, September 13th, 1848. His Excellency, the Governor, has received the subjoined official communication from the competent authority at Algeciras.

By the roadstead of “ Tunara” is meant the Spanish Beach, about two miles behind the Rock; where, sometimes, during a long westerly wind, from fifty to one hundred square-rigged vessels come to anchor, being unable to pass the Straits.

That of “Getareg” is commonly known by "Sandy Bay," between Algeciras and Point Carnero. It is certainly a safe anchorage for vessels unable to pass the Straits, being the weather side of the bay during westerly winds. Masters of vessels in quarantine must be very guarded, however, not to infringe the sanitary laws and regulations of Algeciras, or they will be subjected to very heavy fines, such as were inflicted some months ago on the barques Hope and Amana.

" As it is a very great abuse on the part of all classes of vessels, whether national or foreign, 10 anchor on any part of the coast under pretext of contrary winds, thus infringing the existing laws, particularly the Sanitary, by giving rise to repeated complaints by irregularities, and as I'am determined not to permit that abuse in the maritime district under my command, by which danger to the public health might accrue, and upon which subject the Provincial Board of Health of this district has communicated to me the course it considers the most advisable to be pursued. I have, therefore, instructed the commandant of the coast guard of this station to warn the commanders of the vessels of the di. vision under his orders to cruize to the eastward of Gibraltar, and not to permit, upon any consideration, vessels to anchor in the roadsteads of Tunara or Getares, or on any part of the coast.

“ Thus vessels, prevented by contrary winds from fetching this anchorage or that of Gibraltar, may put into some authorized port to the eastward, where proper surveillance will be exercised by the established authorities, or their assistants, whereby all danger to the public health will be avoided.”

NEW LIFE BOAT INVENTED. The London Morning Chronicle furnishes a description of a valuable improvement in the construction of Life Boats, just perfected by Captain J. Keyse, by which the buoyancy of vessels of this description has been increased to an extraordinary degree. The model. boat, built under the direction of Captain Keyse, at Walworth, is only 26 feet in length, but it is calculated that it will carry 4 tons. By means of what is technically called a “ watercourse," introduced just below the watermark, it is rendered perfectly impossible to upset the bark, upon the safety of which so many lives frequently depend. Another inimitable contrivance which Captain Keyse has introduced, enables the generous-hearted sail. ors who peril their lives for the salvation of the shipwrecked, to lower the mist on nearing a rock, for a landing bridge ; and its efficiency in this respect is increased tenfold, by its being removable upon a swivel to either end of the life-bout. The model-boat, which has received the approval of the British Admiralty, has been removed to Wrolwich for trial. Captain Keyse is also the inventor of a floating line, which is caleulated to be the means of saving many valuable lives in cases of shipwreck, and it is anticipated will prove wonderfully serviceable in enabling an army advancing into an enemy's country to establish the communication across rivers necessary for the construction of pontoon bridges and other purposes.

CHRISTMAS ISLAND. Christmas Island is little else than a sand bank, bounded by a coral reef, which makes off about half a cable’s length from the shore and surrounds the island, with the exception of the south-west point, where the surf makes to the beach. It lies in lat. 2° North, and long. 157° 30' West. It is about 80 miles in circumference. The eastern point lies in long. 158° 40' West, and lat. 1° 45' North. The island is low, and cannot be seen at a distance of more than 16 miles in a clear day. The north-east side of the island forms a deep bay, with a strong current setting in shore, and it is necessary to avoid getting em. bayed here. There is safe anchorage for ships on the west side, opposite the entrance to the lagoon, with soundings say from 10 to 30 fathoms. The English whale ship Briton was wrecked on this island October 10th, 1836, and lately the Chilean ship Maria Helena, and Bremen whale ship Mozart.

WRECK IN HOLLESLEY BAY. A Green Buoy, marked "Wreck,” has been laid about 18 fathoms to the westward of a schooner sunk in the Western entrance to Hollesley Bay. The Buoy lies in 34 fathoms at low water spring tides, with the following marks and compass bearings :The second Westernmost Tower at East-Lane, its width open of two remarkable poplar trees...

..N. W. by W. Baudsey Church......

..W.N. W. Orford High Light-house..

.N. E. by E. JE.

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.

THE RAILROAD SYSTEM SUGGESTED. In the Merchants' Magazine for March, 1846, (vol. xiv., pages 249-260,) we published an interesting article entitled, “ First application of Steam to Railways,” furnished by J. E. Bloomfield, Esq., of New Jersey. By refererrce to that article it will be seen that, ag far back as 1809, Col. John Stevens, of Hoboken, was the first individual in this country who conceived and defined the proportions of the locomotive, and compared “ the superior capacity and advantages of a railway with those of a canal.” He even predicted that steam carriages would be propelled at the rate of 40 miles per hour; a prediction which has been fulfilled on the best English railroads. A late London paper attributes the honor of suggesting the “ Railway system” to Sir Richard Phillips, as will be seen by the following extract:

A striking suggestion of the extension of railway communication into a " system," as connecting lines are now called, will be found in Sir Richard Phillips' “ Morning's Walk from London to Kew," published in 1813. On reaching the Surrey Iron Railway, at Wandsworth, Sir Richard records: “ I found renewed delight in witnessing at this place the economy of horse labor on the iron railway ; yet a heavy sigh escaped me as I thought of the inconceivable millions which have been spent about Malta, four or five of which might have been the means of extending double lines of iron railway from London to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Holyhead, Milford, Falmouth, Yarmouth, Dover and Portsmouth! A reward if a single thousand would have supplied coaches and other vehicles, of various degrees of speed, with the best tackle for readily turning out; and we might, ere this, have witnessed our mail coaches running at the rate of ten miles an hour, drawn by a single horse, or impelled fifteen miles an hour by Blenkinsop's steam-engine. Such would have been a legitimate motive for over-stepping the icome of a nation ; and the completion of 20 great and useful a work would have afforded rational ground for public triumph in general jubilees!” The writer of these penetrative remarks lived until 1840; so that he had the gratification of witnessing a triumph akin to his long-cherished hope.

BRITISH RAILROAD STATISTICS. A paper by Mr. W. Harding, Manager of the Glasgow and Greenock Railway, was read at the last meeting of the British Association for the advancement of science, which affords some interesting particulars of the working of the railway system. It appears by his statements that in 1842 the average receipts per mile were £2,489, and in 1847, £2,596; that the length of railway open in Great Britain, including Wales, was in the former year 1,990 miles, and the gross receipts of traffic, £1,740,000; whereas in 1847, the miles open were 3,597, and the gross amount of traffic, £8,366,772. The receipts, therefore, were about doubled, upon a less proportionate amount of mileage, a circumstance which would tend to give confidence as regards the prospect for the great additional lengths of railway, for which acts have been passed. The length of railway sanctioned by Parliament, up to the beginning of the present year, but not opened, was 7,150 miles, a considerable portion of which is in more or less rapid progress. On the 1st of May, 1847, 5,209 miles were in progress, on which 215,792 persons were at work. It is calculated that within the next five years there will be upwards of ten thousand miles of railway open in Great Britain, which will give permanent employment at good wages to upwards of 140,000 persons, representing about 720,000 of gross population, taking five to a family. When it is considered that there are about 4,000 miles of canals, and about 30,000 miles of rumpike road in the kingdom, this 10,000 miles of railway in addition is an accession of vast importance to our internal communication. Mr. Harding states the gross receipts of traffic on the railways for the year ending June 30, 1847, at £1,366,000, which includes $3,312,000 receipts for carriage, in round numbers, of 7,000,000 tons of merchandise and goods, 8,000,000 tons of coals, 500,000 horned cattle, 1,500,000 sheep, and 100,000 horses, besides mails, parcels, &c.; leaving for passenger traffic £5,024,000. The passenger traffic constitutes, therefore, about 60 per cent of the whole receipts. Since 1842, the proportion of receipts from other sources than passengers has increased by 11

66

per cent. The total number of passengers, by the returns of the Board of Trade, for the year ending June 30, 1847, was 47,484,134, and in 1842, 22,403,478. The average distance travelled by each passenger in 1842 was thirteen miles, and in 1847, sixteen miles. The classes of carriages used were in the following numbers and proportions :

1847. 1812. First class.......

14.2 20.2 per cent. Second class....

38.3 45.4 Third class........

47.5 34.4 The third class passengers increased from 6,000,000 in 1842 to 21,000,000 in 1847. In 1842 they formed about one-third, and in 1847 they were nearly half of the whole number travelling by railroad. The reduction of fares between the periods appears to have been 21.8 per cent on first class carriages, 23.8 on second class carriages, and 25 on third class carriages. The reduction of fares, coupled with the increased speed of travelling, may be considered as the chief cause of the increase of the number of passengers since 1842. It appears that the increase of third class passengers has been very different on different lines, reaching as high as 83.3, 79.5, and 723 per cent on some lines, down to 65.4 and 50.3 per cent on others; and on the Great Western it is as low as 14.6 per cent. The different characters and circumstances of the population in different localities will account, no doubt, in a considerable degree, for the state of the traffic, but there must be other causes operating to produce so marked a difference of result in the case of the Great Western. The results of the whole, as bearing on the question of traffic by the railways generally, is greatly in favor of a reduced system of fares, which is most satisfactory, as far as the public interests are concerned.

1847.

Jst.

RAILWAY DIVIDENDS IN ENGLAND. “ The Weekly Share List,says the Chronicle, “ gives the following tabular statement of the rates of dividend paid during the last four half years by ten of the principal rail. ways :

DIVIDENDS PER CENT PER ANNUM.
1846.

1848. 2d half. 1st.

2. Eastern counties.......

6
5

4 Great Western.....

8
8
7

7 Glasgow and Ayr........

7
7
6

4 London and North-Western...

10
9
8

7 South-Western

99
9

8 Brighton........

7
4
4

21 Midland...

7
7

6 South-Eastern.....

6.34
6.34

6.34 6.34 York and North Midland........

10
10
10

8 York, Newcastle, and Berwick......

9
9
9

8 The South-Eastern is, therefore, the only company which has maintained the same rate of dividend for the past four half years; and the Eastern Counties and Great Western the only two which have paid the same dividend for the 1st half of 1848 as for the 2d half of 1847.

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RAILROAD TRACK SPRINKLER. This is the name of a contrivance that has been patented by persons in Providence, R. I., for sprinkling railroad tracks. The Journal of that city states that "it has been applied to the trains of the Stonington Railroad, with results favorable far beyond the expectations of the projectors. A tank of 2,000 gallons has been found sufficient to sprinkle the whole track from Providence to Stonington, the train going at the rate of twenty miles an hour. The dust has been laid so effectually as to give no annoyance to passengers; the friction of the wheels on the rails has been greatly diminished; the bearing of the wheels and the journals have been much less worn, and such a thing as a “hot box” to a car has not been known, even at the greatest speed, since the sprinkler has been in use. The labor of cleaning the cars, and the wear upon them, have also been greatly diminished. The sprinkler is placed just behind the locomotive, so that while the locomotive is constantly traversing a dry and comparatively dusty track, the cars are going over a wet one."

RAILROADS AND BRANCHES IN THE UNITED STATES.

GENERAL STATEMENT SHOWING THE NUMBER OF RAILROADS AND BRANCHES IN THE UNITED

STATES, THEIR TOTAL LENGTH, AND THE AVERAGES OF FARE PER MILE FOR FIRST AND SECOND CLASS AND WAY PASSAGE, AND FIRST AND SEC IND CLASS FREIGHT PER TON PER MILE, (OMITTING THE CAMDEN AND AMBOY, THE CAMDEN AND AMBOY AND UNION TRANSPORTATION RAILROADS, AND THE BORDENTOWN AND TRENTON RAILROAD,) TAKEN FROM DOGGETT'S RAILROAD GUIDE FOR 1848.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Maine..... 3 2261 2 82 2 50 2 57 2 63 5 68

3 38 New Hampshire.

2 99 300 300 2 62 2 871 5 25 5 00 Vermont...

* 1 33 300 300 300 3 00 4 00 4 00 Massachusetts.

36 1,9:29 2 43 1 66 2 71 2 27 5 47 4 54 Rhode Island......

2 911 3 00 2 00 3 16 2 72 6 37 4 39 Connecticut...

4 2531 2 50

1 75 2 20 2 15 5 75 3 50 New York.

20 798 4 3 17 I 50 3 75 2 811) 9 04 5 79 New Jersey.

4 $155 4.00 3 33 3 54 3 621 13 57 11 66 Pennsylvania. 9 355 3 60 3 26 3 60 3483

6 75 5 25 Maryland.... 19 661 3 45 3 45 3 58 3 4941 4 56

3.12 Virginia....

6 2641 4 74 2 38 4 72 3 919 10 44 4 69 North Carolina..

2
218

4 23 4 23 4 00 4 151 9 83 6 37 South Carolina....

2 204 5 00 500 500 500 10 75 5 50 Georgia

5 1602 4 14 4 14 4 70 4 323 9 33 4 78 Kentucky.

28 4 46 4 46 4 46 4 46 9 00 9 00 Mississippi

2 70 5 35 5 35 600 5 563 24 39 17 30 Alabama

1 67 4 50 4 50 5 50 4 831 16 83 8 00 Ohio

4 307 2 77 2 77 2 66 2 733 6 60 4 62 Indiana....

1 86 3 00 3 00 3 00 3 00 8 00 5 81 Michigan.......

3 241 300 300 3 32 3 103 8 44 6 50

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Total..

117 6,720

72 16 64 28 74 09 70 19 179 46 120 30

Averages...

3 60 3 21 3 70 3 51 8 97 6 16 1. Number of railroads and branches. 2. Total length of miles. 3. First class per mile-average in cents and hundredths of a cent. 4. Second class per mile -average in cents and hundredths of a cent. 5. Way passage per mile-average in cents and hundredths of a cent. 6. Whole average of first and second class fares and way fares. 7. First class freight per ton per mile-average in cents and hundredths of a cent. 8. Second class freight per ton per mile-average in cents and hundredths of a cent.

It appears from the above table, from an average of all the railroads and branches in twenty different States, one hundred and seventeen in number, and six thousand seven hundred and twenty miles in length, that the average price of fare on them is three cents and fifty-one hundredths of a cent, or three and a half cents per mile.

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OPENING AND CLOSING OF THE NEW YORK CANALS. We give below a table showing the time of commencement and close of the navigable seasons of the State canals from 1824 to 1847:Years. Opened. Closed. Days. Years.

Opened. Closed Days. 1821...... April 30 Dec. 4 2191837...... April 20

Dec. 9 234 1825.....

5 23-1838..

12 Nov. 25 228 1826...... 18 213 1839.

Dec. 16 228 1827. 18 241 | 1840.

3 227 1828.. Mar. 27

269 1841.

Nov. 29 218 1829 May 2 17 230 1812

218 1830...... April 20 17 2.12 1813 May 1

Dec. 1

214 1831.. I 230 1844 April 18

Nov. 26 223 1832

21 241 1845.

" 15

228 1833.. " 19 12 238 1846..

( 16

25 224 1831. " 17 12 240 1847

May 1

21 234 1835. 15 Nov. 30 230 1848......

1 1836......

26 216 VOL. XIX.NO, VI.

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