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is believed that as a result of this somewhat elastic arrangement the person who. consults the volume will find the topics treated under the titles to which he would naturally turn first. The information in regard to universities and colleges, being almost wholly statistical in character, has been presented in an alphabetical table, under the title of Universities and Colleges, a comparatively small number of institutions being treated in separate articles. By this arrangement greater facility of reference has been secured, than if each college or university were treated by itself. Another object which the authors of this volume have had in view has been to reflect the current discussion of the topics treated instead of giving a bare catalogue of events. Such discussion is as truly a part of the history of the year as the events themselves, and although the historical interpretation of events must be postponed for many years after their occurrence, a record of current opinion upon them has interest and value. For that reason, in treating such political topics as the colonial policy of the United States, the Fashoda affair, the Dreyfus case, the partition of China, the Behring Sea Dispute, the annexation of Hawaii, Currency Reform, the Nicaragua Canal, etc., and other matters which, like Hypnotism, Spiritualism, Christian Science, etc., have occasioned controversy, the purpose has been to present a fair statement of opposing views. A work intended to fulfil the double office of a Year Book and a Cyclopaedia appendix must necessarily include many lines of statistics, for no other department of a reference book falls so quickly behind the times. Jt is, perhaps, unnecessary to explain the inclusion of statistics in certain cases for years previous to 1898, since it is well known that many classes of statistics are not issued until long after the period of time to which they relate. It has been the aim of the editors in every case to include the latest figures which were available at the time of writing. It will be noted in certain articles that the account of the year is preceded by a review on earlier aspects of the subject. In such cases it was thought that the reader would be spared some inconvenience if the article were made fairly complete in itself, instead of beginning abruptly with the year’s record, without explanation or intro

duction.
FRANK MOORE COLBY,

University Heights, New York City. MAY 25, 1899.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.

WILLIAM H. CARPENTER, PH.D.,

Professor of Germanic Philology,
Columbia University.

HAROLD JACOBY, PH.D.,

Professor of Astronomy,
Columbia University.

HUBERT LYMAN CLARK, PH.D. (J. H. U.),

Instructor in Zoology,
Amherst College.

CHARLES S. HILL, C.E.,

Associate Editor “Engineering News.”

MARSHALL AVERY HOWE, PH.D.,

Curator of the Herbarium,
Columbia University.

WILFRID LAY, PH.D.
WILLIAM SCOFIELD DAY, PH.D.,

Columbia University.

ESTHER SINGLETON.

W. J. McGEE,
Ethnologist-in-Charge,
Bureau of American Ethnology.

M. N. BAKER, PH. B.,

Associate Editor “Engineering News,”
New York City.

HEINRICH RIES, PH.D.,

Instructor in Economic Geology,
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

JAMES MOONEY,

U. S. Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology,
Washington, D. C.

JAMES MORTON PATON, PH.D. (BONN),

Associate Professor of Greek,
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn.

ALBERT WARREN FERRIS, A.M., M.D.,

Assistant in Neurology,
Vanderbilt Clinic, Columbia University.

JOHN JOSEPH SWANN, M.E.,

Associate Member Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Associate Editor “Engineering News.”

FREDERICK TABOR COOPER, PH.D. EDWARD LATHROP ENGLE, B.A. GEORGE J. HAGAR.

MAPS.

AFRICA, . o o o o
ALASKA, . o to & © *
CENTRAL AMERICA, . © o o
CHINA, e - o e o o
CUBA, . o * - o e
EGYPTIAN SUDAN, . & © © &
HAWAII, & t & & &
INDIA, o - e
INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE, . & e
NICARAGUA CANAL, & e so ey
TREATY BOUNDARIES IN WEST AFRICA, o
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, e - - o
PoRTO RICO, g * - g o
HARBORS IN CUBA, o 4- o
SANTIAGO CAMPAIGN, .

LADRONE ISLANDS, e o - e
WEST INDIES, , o e e

ILLUSTRATIONS.

SCENES IN THE KLONDIKE REGION,
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, .
THE PIRENE,

ARCTIC EXPLORATIONS, . e
MODERN ELECTRIC VEHICLES, o - o
PRINCE BISMARCK,

AT FRIEDRICHSRUH, - e - *
THé UNINTERPRETED DREAM,
ADMIRAL GEORGE DEWEY,
ELECTRICITY ON SHIPBOARD, . o
PALACE OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS IN PARIS, .
WILLIAM EwART GLADSTONE,
MAJOR-GENERAL HERBERT KITCHENER,
HARBOR OF HONOLULU,

Pope LEO XIII.,

WILLIAM MCKINLEY, . - •
RECENT ELECTRIC MINING MACHINERY,
THE Y RIVER, .

OMAHA EXPOSITION,
JESUS AND HIS MOTHER,
SCENES IN THE PHILIPPINES,
THE PASIG RIVER, . . . - 4.
GOVERNOR THEODORE ROOSEVELT, - o
NICHOLAS II., CzAR OF RUSSIA, ,
SEwAGE FILTRATION AREA, o © e
SANTIAGO AND HARBOR,
THE “VISCAYA ’’ STRANDED, . . . . e
THE “ ALMIRANTE OQUENDO,”
MAJOR-GENERAL NELSoN A. MILES,
COLONEL GEORGE E. WARING, - *
QUEEN WILHELMINA,

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