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The Open

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LONDON, July 1, 1895. however, when the diplomatists, the admirals, and enino The great international event of the the princes of the Old World and the New gathered of the Kiel month was the opening of the Kiel together to cheer the German Emperor, and to pay

Canal. Canal, connecting the Baltic with the the homage of civilisation to the Imperial engineer. German Ocean. As a ceremonial, the festivities One hundred warships, representing all the Naval arranged and

| Powers, thun carried out

dered a salute under the

of welcome direction of

when the Imthe German

perial flotilla, Emperor were

piloted by singularly

the Emperor, successful.

steered its Nothing more

way through magnificent Grünthaler

the canal has been seen Moldorf

into Kiel in our time

Harbour. than the

A World gathering of

Armada. the warships

The gatherof the world

ing of the in Kiel Har

fleets was an bour to wel

event, in its THE KIEL CANAL. come the

way, as notcompletion of a great engineering feat, which may able as, or perhaps more notable than, the mustering of exercise incalculable influence upon the history of manufacturers of all nations at international exhibithe world. The canal, which only cost eight millions tions, such as at Chicago and at Paris. There the to build, or less than the annual increase in the competitors, although rivals, were rivals in the arts English Naval Estimates since 1885, will, it is of peace, whereas at Kiel the exhibitors were armed estimated, be equivalent to the doubling of the to the teeth with the latest appliances of science for fighting force of the German navy, and may at the the purpose of destruction. It is the daily thought same time so facilitate the dispatch of a German and the nightly preoccupation of every officer on expedition from the Baltic to the North Sea and board those one hundred fighting ships how he can the Channel, as to affect decisively the fortunes most speedily wipe out of existence, by torpedo, of some future war. Of all this nothing was said, cannon, or ram, the vessels which represent the

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armed strength of his rivals. The antagonism, latent No longer Although the Emperor, the war-lord of in times of peace, was very near the surface in

ing united Germany, in whose honour this the case of France, who on this occasion could not Sea.” armada of civilisation had assembled, was even suppress her ill-will sufficiently to preserve never more visibly the soldier and the admiral, his ordinary civility in the midst of the inter- speech was as peaceable as if he had been a national concourse. Her admiral, obeying orders, magistrate on the bench. The canal was for peace took his ironclads to Kiel, but ostentatiously and sul- and for linking of the nations together, and, he added lenly took as little

in a significant senpart as he could in

tence, “the sea the festivities in

unites, it does not which he was in

divide.” This truth vited to participate.

is one which Mr. Still worse, the

Gladstone, for inRussian and French

stance, never could ironclads entered

be got to recognise. the harbour to

He always drew in gether as if they

his own mind the were one fleet,

widest possible the command of

difference between the entire squadron

an empire which being vested for

was united by the the time being in

sea and an empire the hands of the

all of whose possesFrench admiral.

sions were terriThe Parisian press

torially contiguous. naturally made the

Yet it is a fact that most of this signi

it is owing to the ficant demonstra

ocean that the tion, and declared

British drumbeat is that the true signi

echoing round the ficance of the fêtes

world. What chance was not the opening

would there have of the canal, but

been of colonising the display side by

Australia, for inside of the French

stance, if we had and Russian fleets.

had no other but The Germans, for

land carriage all the once displaying

way? At the same more sang froid

time proximity is than is usually

by no means always natural to that

or necessarily consensitive and some

tributory to peace. THE GERMAN EMPEROR. what thin-skinned

Hence it is by co (Prom a recent photograph by Russell and Sons.) race, stolidly

means certain that ignored the French ill-will, so that the incident the canal which brings the Baltic nearer to which might have been serious passed off with France will altogether conduce to the maintenance out creating more than a ripple of discontent. of the sullen peace which exists between Paris and All the same, it is a cause for great satisfac- Berlin. tion that the mustering of the navies passed off

The End of Among all

of Among all the reflections which the without a breaking of the peace or a single the Turkish mustering of the navies suggests, one of contribution to the troubles of the chancellories of Fleet. - the most serious from the point of view Europe.

of the old alarmist was the appearance in the



the father to tafrican questions without

targe an order to be ajuestions. This is much to

nked as one of the

harbour of Kiel of a solitary Turkish ironclad. It into the hands of Russia, or any one else who will was well, no doubt, that the crescent should fly at help them to vengeance. the masthead of one ship at least in the combined

Rumours were rife all through last navies of Christendom, but its presence emphasised and month as to the understanding between and accentuated the extent to which the power of Russia, France and Russia, one side of which the Ottoman has faded out of Europe. It is might easily be very serious for us. It is stated, stated on the best authority that this solitary not officially, but in quarters where the wish is Turkish ironclad was the only vessel in the whole of the father to the thought, that Russia will support the Turkish fleet whose boilers were in a condition France in all African questions. This is much too to get up steam, and possibly the only survivor of large an order to be accepted without better conthe fleet which, thirty years ago, ranked as one of the firmation than any that has yet been forthcoming. best half-dozen in the world. Europe has by no means The policy of Russia, ever since the days of the adequately recognised the way in which the Eastern Emperor Nicholas, has been that of acquiescence in Question has been revolutionised by the way in English ascendency in Egypt; and although there which the rust has eaten into the boilers of the is a new school in power in Russia, it is doubtTurkish ironclads. At the last Eastern war the ful whether the Russian Foreign Office has so Turkish fleet, under the command of Hobart Pasha, far departed from its traditional policy as to try had an unquestioned supremacy in the Euxine, and and take the Egyptian : chestnuts out of the fire in the waters of the Levant. Hence the Russian for the benefit of the French Republic. For the advance upon the Bosphorus was of necessity made moment, France, Russia, and England are all by land. In the future there will be no necessity working harmoniously together on the Armenian for crossing the Danube and marching through Bul- Question, nor is it likely that the advent of Lord garia. The Russian Black Sea fleet could in a Salisbury to power will jeopardise the good undermoment seize Constantinople, and hoist the Russian standing which exists between the three Powers on eagle over the Mosque of St. Sophia. Of course that important point. But the situation is dangerous, this might mean war-probably would mean war- and—as the Sultan knows as well as any one else but not necessarily with England, for with us the how difficult it is for any of the Powers to fire a shot Constantinople superstition is rapidly dying out. even to secure the better policing of his Armenian But if war it be, it would be a war in which the provinces, fearing, as all do, that a spark might be capital of the Turk would be in the hands of the thrown into the European powder magazine,--he is Russians almost as soon as the rest of Europe heard not likely to do more than make faces politely at his of the declaration of war. i

- nentors, who are in no position to enforce their stond. There is no reason to anticipate any such benevolent lectures by a display of physical force. Constanti- bold and dashing stroke as this on the The Peril Meanwhile, the situation in Macedonia

nople? part of the Russian Tzar. He might in the is serious indeed. Macedonia is the - seize Constantinople, but whether he could retain it - East. great south-western province of the Great would depend upon the issue of the war wbich would Bulgaria which Lord' Beaconsfield and Lord Salisthen almost of necessity be raging along the whole bury, with the aid of Austria, succeeded in 1878 in of his Western frontier. Still, it is well to remember thrusting back under the rule of the Sultan. By when people are discussing the chances of the great the treaty of San Stefano, Macedonia would have been war which some anticipate will break out this part and parcel of the Bulgaria, one and indivisible, autumn, that if France and Russia should really go which General Ignatieff drew upon the map, from the campaigning together, Constantinople would fall into Danube to the Ægean. At the Berlin Congress the their hands almost without a blow. The great British diplomatists insisted upon dividing Bulgaria Napoleon regarded this as such a menace to civilisa- into three parts. The Principality north of the tion, that no consideration would induce him to Balkans became independent in all but name, the consent to Russia's occupying the Bosphorus. The second division received a modified autonomy under Frenchmen of to-day are not so squeamish. In order the name of Eastern Roumelia, while the third and to wreak their vengeance upon their German con- most unfortunate-namely, Macedonia—was made querors and recover their lost provinces, they appear over to the uncovenanted mercies of the Turk, a to be willing to place not only the keys of the crime which was scantily veiled from the conscience Bosphorus, but the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven of Europe by a clause in the Berlin Treaty, which

How stand

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