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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

GENERAL ROBERT EDWARD LEE. Standards of human greatness.-Three classes of great men.--Nature and pecu-'

liarity of genius.--A second order of greatness. General Lee, as in the third class of great men.-Key to his character, . . . . . 33

CHAPTER II. The Lee family in Virginia."Light-Horse Harry.”—Early life of Robert E.

Lee.--His cadetship at West Point.-His home at Arlington Heights.-Services in the Mexican war.--Commended by Gen. Scott.--Appointed Colonel in the First Cavalry.:-The John Brown raid.--Colonel Lee and the outlaws.-The first act of “rebellion” at Harper's Ferry.--Governor Wise arms Virginia, . .

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CHAPTER III. Abraham Lincoln elected President of the United States.----Anxiety and hesi

tation of Lee at the commencement of hostilities.-His sense of duty.--He debates the question of his allegiance to Virginia.--His peculiar school of

lime struggle in Lee's mind.--He goes to Richmond.-Appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Virginia forces. His reception by the State Convention.- Appearance and carriage of the man.--Military preparations in Virginia.-She joins the Southern Confederacy, . . . . . 48

CHAPTER IV. Gen. Lee sent to Northwestern Virginia.-Description of the theatre of the

war. Unfortunate military councils in Richmond.-Proclamation of Gov. Letcher.-- A. caricature of secession. ---Disaster of Rich Mountain. Gen. Lee's plans thereafter.-He is foiled at Cheat Mountain.—Marches to the Kanawha Valley.-Escape of Rosecrans.-Failure of Lee's Campaign.—He is abused and twitted in Richmond.-Scoffs of the Richmond “Examiner."He is assigned to“ the coast service.”—Recalled to Richmond, and made “Commanding General.”—This post unimportant, and scarcely honourable, 58

CHAPTER V. McClellan's march up the Peninsula. Recollections of the “ White House.”_

Battle of Seven Pines.—Review of condition of the Confederacy.---An act "to disband the armies of the Confederacy."-Carnival of misrule.-Gen. Lee in command of the forces around Richmond.-Nearly two-thirds of his army raw conscripts.—His adoption of Gen. Johnston's idea of concentration. Manners of Lee as a commander.—The great battle joined.-Beaver-Dam

Creek.-Gen. Lee resting at a farm-house.--The glory of Gaines' Mills.Brilliant audacity of Gen. Lee in delivering this battle.--Retreat of McClellan.--Frazier's Farm.-Malvern Hill.—The circuit of Lee's victories broken.His official summary of “the Seven Days' battles,”

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CHAPTER VI. General Lee the favourite of the populace.—He moves out to the line of the

Rappahannock.-Cedar Run.-Bold and daring enterprise of General Lee, in detaching Jackson to the enemy's rear.-A peculiarity of his campaigns. How he disregarded the maxims of military science. The battles of Second Manassas.-Gen. Lee marches for the fords of the Potomac.-His address at Frederick, Maryland.-Jackson detached again.—McClellan finds an important paper. The Thermopylæ of "South Mountain Pass.”—Battle of Sharpsburg.-Gen. Lee obtains a victory, but is unable to press it.-He retires to Virginia.-An authentic statement of Gen. Lee's reasons for the Maryland campaign.--His constant and characteristic idea of defending Richmond by operations at a distance from it. Congratulations to his troops.-Moral results of the campaign of 1862.–Testimonies to Southern heroism, . . . .

. . . . . . . 78

CHAPTER VII. General Lee's perilous situation in North Virginia.His alarming letter to the

War Office. —The happy fortune of McClellan's removal.The Battle of Fredericksburg.-Gen. Lee's great mistake in not renewing the attack.-His own confession of errour.-He detaches nearly a third of his army to cover the south side of Richmond.-He writes a severe letter to the Government.--The enemy's fifth grand attempt on Richmond.—Gen. Lee in a desperate extremity.-The Battles of Chancellorsville.—Three victories for the Confederates.-The masterpiece of Gen. Lee's military life,

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CHAPTER VIII. Controversy between Gen. Lee and the War Department.--The Secretary

winces.-Gen. Lee's new campaign of invasion.-How it differed from that of 1862.-Reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia.--Some remarks on its artillery service.--Gen. Lee across the Potomac.—His orders at Chambersburg, Pa.-His errours with respect to the policy of "retaliation.”—His conversation with a mill-owner.—A letter from President Davis.--Gen. Lee misunderstood and disappointed by the Richmond authorities.-Orders to Stuart's cavalry.-The Confederate army blinded in Pennsylvania for want of cavalry.-The battle of Gettysburg has the moral effect of a surprise to Gen. Lee.--The lost opportunity of the 1st July.-Why Gen. Lee fought the next day.-Temper of his army.—He assaults the enemy's centre on the 3 July.-Recoil of the Confederates.-Gen. Lee cheering and comforting his men.—His fearful retreat, and his wonderful success in extricating his army, . . . . . .

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CHAPTER IX. Decline of the fortunes of the Confederacy.-Operations in the autumn of

1863.-Gen. Lee's patriotic exhortation to his troops.--His great care for them.—Meeting of the chaplains in his army.--Relations between General Lee and his troops.-His habits on the battle-field.—Intercourse with his men.--Simplicity of his manners.—His feelings towards the public enemy.How he rebuked a Yankee-phobist.-Sufferings of the Confederate troops. Commissary Northrop.-Gen. Lee demands food for his troops.--Touching

address to his half-starved men.-Anecdote of Gen. Lee and his cook.--Personal recollections of the great commander.-An English officer's description of his person and habits, . . . . . . . . . 116

CHAPTER X. Opening of the great campaign of 1864. Precise account of Gen. Lee's plans.

-He acts with his accustomed boldness and takes the offensive.--Actions of the 5th and 6th May.--General Lee determines to lead a critical assault.Protest of the soldiers.-Grant resorts to manœuvre.—Spottsylvania CourtHouse.-General Lee again in the extreme front of his men.-A thrilling spectacle.—Heroic action of Gordon.-" Gen. Lee to the rear !-Account of the strategy from Spottsylvania Court-House to the vicinity of Richmond.Grant on the old battle-field of McClellan.-His army defeated in ten minutes at Cold Harbour.-His losses in one month exceed Lee's whole army. Precise statement of the odds against Gen. Lee.Reflections on the nature and degrees of generalship.--Comparison of the two rival commanders of the North and South, . . . . . . . . . 125

CHAPTER XI. Gen. Lee's private opinion of the defences of Richmond.—A serious communi

cation to the Government, and how it was treated.- Vagaries of President Davis.-Gen. Lee decides that the safety of Richmond lies in raising the siege.—Expedition of Early across the Potomac.-Anxiety of Gen. Lee.-He meditates taking command of the force in Maryland.-Retreat of Early. -Gen. Lee next proposes a diversion in the Valley of Virginia.— Failure of this operation.--Zonstant extension of Grant's left around Richmond.Period of despondency in the South.--A letter of Gen. Lee on the question of supplies. He proposes bringing in two or three years' supplies from Europe. -Desertion the great evil in the Confederate armies. -Difficulties of dealing with it.-Various letters and protests from Gen. Lee on the subject of discipline.--An angry comment of President Davis.--Gen. Lee a severe disciplinarian, and yet loved by his men.-Anecdote of the General and a one-armed soldier.- Skeleton returns of the army.-The popular clamour against President Davis.--Gen. Lee's quasi acceptance of the position of Commander-in-chief.-Nature and peculiar history of this rank in the Confederate armies. Hopeful views of Gen. Lee.-- Project of arming the negroes. Growth of new hopes for the Confederacy, . . . 135

CHAPTER XII. Extraordinary cheerfulness of Gen. Lee.--A psychological reflection. The

Army of Northern Virginia at a third stage in its history.-Military preparations for the evacuation of Richmond. Protests of the Government.Gen. Lee's last and desperate resolution.-Battle of Five Forks.-Theory and results of the action.--Grant's assault in front of Petersburg.--How Gen. Lee received it.—His remark to a staff-officer, . . . 149

CHAPTER XIII. The last retreat of Gen. Lee's army.-Two notable pictures.—Gen. Lee con

ceives a new prospect of action.--A fatal miscarriage at Amelia CourtHouse.—No food for the army.-Terrible sufferings of the retreat.-General despair and misery.--Action at Sailor's Creek. --Condition of the army at Appomattox Court-House.—Apparition of the white flag.-Correspondence between Generals Lee and Grant.-Authentic and detailed account of their interview at McLean's House.-Contradiction of various popular reports of this event.-General Lee announcing the terms of surrender to his officers.--Scenes in the encampments.--Gen. Lee's last address to his troops. -His return to Richmond. -- Last tokens of affection and respect for the Confederacy, · ·

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. . . 155 CHAPTER XIV. An interesting interview with Gen. Lee after the surrender.-Remarks upon

the Federal rule.—Indicted for "treason.”—Proceedings stayed on the protest of Gen. Grant. Explanation of Gen. Lee's course with reference to amnesty, etc.-Elected President of Washington College.—The true spirit of his advice of “submission."-His hopes for the repose and welfare of the South, . . . . . . . . . . . 172

CHAPTER XV.

LIEUT.-GEN. STONEWALL JACKSON. Boyhood of Thomas Jonathan Jackson. His experience at West Point.-His

studies and habits.-A novel analysis of awkward manners.—Jackson's promotions in the Mexican war.--His love of fight. Recollections of "Fool Tom Jackson” at Lexington.-A study of his face and character.-His prayers for “the Union." —A reflection on Christian influences in America.Jackson appointed a colonel in the Virginia forces.-In command at Harper's Ferry.—Constitution of the “ Stonewall Brigade."-Jackson promoted to Brigadier.--His action on the field of Manassas.—He turns the enemy's flank and breaks his centre.—How much of the victory was due to him.His expedition towards the head waters of the Potomac, . 177

CHAPTER XVI. Description of the Shenandoah Valley.-Its importance as an avenue to

Washington.-Gen. Jackson retreats from Winchester, and returns and fights the battle of Kernstown.-His first and last defeat.-Analysis of the enemy's “On-to-Richmond.”_Four armies to converge on the Confederate capital.-Situation of Gen. Jackson.-Reinforced by Ewell's division.--His rapid movement to McDowell, and its designs.—He falls upon the enemy at Front Royal.-He chases Banks' army through Winchester and across the Potomac.-President Lincoln “sets a trap" for him.-Gen. McDowell's remonstrance.--Battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic.-Summary of the Valley campaign, . . . . . . . . 190

CHAPTER XVII. Gen. Jackson's share in the “ Seven Days' battles” around Richmond.-Shift

ing of the scenes of war from the James River to the Rappahannock.Battle of Cedar Run.-Gen. Jackson moves a column between the enemy's rear and Washington.-Scenes of the march.—Battle of Groveton.-The two days' conflict on Manassas Plains.-Gen. Jackson strikes the enemy at Ox Hill.--Results of the campaign so far.- Extraordinary achievement of Jackson's command.--He moves against, and captures Harper's Ferry. His part in the battle of Sharpsburg, . . . . . . 199

CHAPTER XVIII. Battle of Fredericksburg.-Gen. Jackson conceives the desperate enterprise

of driving the enemy into the river.-But he recalls the attack.--Battle of Chancellorsville.-A night council under the pines.--The flank-march. How Gen. Hooker was deceived.-Gen. Jackson's last dispatch.-Fury of his attack in the Wilderness. He is shot from his horse by his own men.Particulars of his wound and sufferings.—His dying moments.-Funeral ceremonies in Richmond,

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CHAPTER XIX. Review of Gen. Jackson's services and character.—True nature of his ambi

tion.--The value of glory.-Religious element in Gen. Jackson's character. Peculiarity of his religious habits.-Anecdotes.--Want of natural amiability. -Harshness of manner towards his officers.—His severe idea of war. Destructiveness.--His readiness to forgive.-A touching personal incident.

His self-possession as a mark of "genius."—His military faculty not a partial one.-European estimates of his career.--A lesson to Northern insolence and rancour, . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER XX.

GEN. PETER G. T. BEAUREGARD. Early life of P. G. T. Beauregard. His gallantry and promotions in the Mexican

War.–Life in Louisiana.-Appointment in the Confederate Army.--Defences of Charleston.-Battle of Fort Sumter.--Gen. Beauregard takes command in Virginia.--His contempt of "the Yankees.”-A grotesque letter.--Popular sentiment concerning the war.-Explanation of the sudden disappearance of the Union party in the South.-Gen. Beauregard's declaration of the purposes of the war.-"Beauty and Booty."-A Northern journal on Butler vs. Beauregard.-Battle of Manassas.-Complimentary letter from President Davis.--The popularity of Gen. Beauregard alarms the vanity of the President. -A scandalous quarrel.-Gen. Beauregard's political "card" in the Richmond newspapers, . . . . . .

. . . . 231

CHAPTER XXI. Gen. Beauregard transferred to command in West Tennessee.—His order

about “the bells.”—He concentrates the Confederate forces at Corinth.Battle of Shiloh.-A "lost opportunity."-Retreat to Tupelo.-He obtains a sick furlough.-President Davis deprives him of his command.—Official persecution of Gen. Beauregard.-Violent declarations of the President. Gen. Beauregard in retirement.--A private letter on the war, . 249

CHAPTER XXII. Gen. Beauregard in command at Charleston.--Military importance of "the

City of Secession.”—Gen. Beauregard's appeal to the patriotism of the Carolinians.-Naval attack on Charleston, 1863.-Gen. Beauregard's department stripped of troops.-Unavailing remonstrance to President Davis. Gen. Gillmore's attempt on Charleston.--Its impotent conclusion.--Fame of Gen. Beauregard as an engineer.--He receives the thanks of Congress. -Returns to Virginia in 1867.-"Battle of the Falchion and the Buzzard." -Gen. Beauregard's plan of campaign before the battle of Drewry's Bluff. -Remarkable interview with President Davis.-Connection of Gen. Beauregard with Hood's campaign.--He advises the evacuation of Richmond.Merits of Gen. Beauregard's military career. Description of his person and habits, . . . . . . . . . . . 257

CHAPTER XXIII.

GEN. ALBERT SIDNEY JOHNSTON. Remarkable career of Albert Sidney Johnston.--He eludes the Federal

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