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to raise money, which Charles considered his prerogative fully authorized; but Parliament held a different theory. The Nobility were called on for contributions; and a loan of £100,000 was demanded from the City of London. The subsidies which the Commons had discussed without voting were exacted in the shape of loans. Many distinguished men refused to pay the loans, and were imprisoned.

An expedition to relieve French Protestants at Rochelle was fitted out with the money so obtained, but failed. Furthermore, the war with Spain and France, coupled with the onerous taxation, caused much agitation, and Charles was compelled to reassemble Parliament for the third time in 1628.

The King's opening Speech to Parliament was unconciliatory. He said money was the sole object of calling Parliament, and he would "use but few persuasions; for if these be not sufficient, then no eloquence of men or angels would prevail." After sundry other expressions of the same tenor, he concluded, "Take not this as a threatening, but as an admonition, for I scorn to threaten any but my equals."

The unsatisfactory condition of things led to long debates in both Houses. At the end of two months, a "Petition of Right" was passed by Lords and Commons, which, after reciting Magna Charta and ancient statutes, required that henceforth no man should be taxed in any manner without consent of Parliament, and that no Freeman be imprisoned without cause shown. The King came to Parliament House, and in the presence of the Lords and Commons assented to the Petition. Not long after, a subsidy was granted, and the Parliament was then prorogued.

Several of the Clergy offended Parliament by sustaining the King's abuse of power, and one of them, Dr. Mainwaring, was impeached by the Commons, tried by the Lords, and condemned to prison during the pleasure of the House. He was also fined £1,000, and disabled from holding any ecclesiastical dignity. Mainwaring, however, was promptly pardoned by the King.

Parliament met after a prorogation of six months. New complaints of the illegal acts of the Crown resounded on all sides. Mr. Rolles, a Member of the Commons, said his goods had been unlawfully seized for duties. Mr. Selden said the "Petition of Right" had been violated. He referred to the case of a Mr. Prynne, who had been deprived of his ears by sentence of the Star Chamber. Oliver Cromwell made his first appearance at this time, and stated that some of the Clergy of the Church of England were preaching "flat Popery." The antagonism of the Commons daily increased, and at last the exasperated King ordered the Speaker to adjourn the House for a fortnight. The majority of the House, however, compelled the Speaker to disobey the order of the King and drew up an indignant protest. The King, hearing that the House would not receive a message from him, and that the doors were locked, fell into a rage, and sent a guard to force an entrance. Before the guard had arrived, however, the House had adjourned.

The open defiance of Parliament inflamed the King. He published a proclamation against the seditious conduct of certain Members of the Commons, and announced the dissolution of Parliament, which soon followed. Nine of the prominent Members of the Commons were imprisoned. The Judges refused bail,

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and they were committed to the Tower during the King's pleasure, and Sir John Elliot, as the ringleader, was fined £2,000.

At this period the Commons were divided into two sections bitterly hostile to each other-the Court party and the Puritan party. The Lords frequently acted as peace-makers between the Lower House and the King, but always co-operated with the former in all attempts to limit the power of the Crown. Thus far the old alliance of Nobles and Middle Class was maintained. The power of the King now appeared so irresistible that several of the Puritan party went over to him and accepted office, for, says Rowland, sarcastically, "their patriotism seemed to promise no reward." Amongst others, Sir Thomas Wentworth left the popular party, and was made Earl of Strafford.

The King now determined to govern without a Parliament, and to strengthen himself, made peace with France and Spain. An interval of eleven years elapsed without a Parliament, during which, says Lord Clarendon, "there was peace, plenty, and universal tranquillity;" but the principles of the Constitution, as well as the laws on taxation, continued to be violated. Amongst other imposts created by the Crown was that of "Ship Money," or a tax to provide ships. John Hampden, a cousin of Oliver Cromwell, declared the demand illegal, and refused to pay his assessment of twenty shillings. "Thousands for defence," he exclaimed, "but not a penny for tribute."

To complete his difficulties, the King at this moment became involved in a deadly quarrel with Scotland. Archbishop Laud, one of his chief advisers, undertook to force the liturgy of the Church of England on

Scotland, which had adopted Presbyterianism, introduced by John Knox in 1558. The Scots rose en masse, made a ❝Solemn League and Covenant" to abide by their Kirk; organized an army, and met the forces of Charles at Berwick. A parley ensued, and Charles agreed to withdraw the project of Laud.

Want of funds compelled the King to call his fourth Parliament in April, 1640; but as it began discussing grievances, Charles abruptly dissolved it in three weeks.*

The English Clergy, under the lead of Archbishop Laud, and with the approval of the King, continued their aggressions on Presbyterianism. Exasperated by this, the Scotch sent an army into England. An engagement took place, and the King's forces were defeated. The Nation was aroused to fury by these events, and petitions came from every quarter for a new Parliament, London being specially clamorous.

* American readers may not be generally aware that a Dissolution of Parliament involves new elections, which a Prorogation does not.



THE above heading is usually applied in England to the bloodless change of Government that took place in 1688, whilst that of "Commonwealth" is affixed to the epoch following the reign of Charles I. Both titles are clearly misnomers as applied to these different periods. The tempest which swept away the throne, and left an interregnum which was filled by an Absolute Government, can only be designated as a Revolution; and therefore I attach this word to the present chapter, which will describe those events. On the other hand, I will head the chapter which narrates the pacific substitution of William III. for James II. as simply the Limitation of the Monarchy, for that was the true meaning of what occurred.

The Revolution, in my opinion, originates from that juncture when it was evident that both King and Parliament were engaged in a deadly struggle for the supremacy. From this point dates the rise of those waters of discord which were destined to flow and swell in volume till, finally, they overspread and deluged the land.

The King then called his fifth Parliament in November, 1640-better known as the "Long Parliament." The Government of the King had brought him into such discredit that Parliament was resolved to give him no quarter. The Commons were eager for the fray; "the

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