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In England a state of society virtually similar exists, since no obstacles are interposed to the claims of genuine intelligence. The Upper Class enjoys no privilege beyond the reach of any. Merit ascends by regular gradation to its natural level. As in the United States, Religion is practically free, Law equal, and the Government, though not the choice of the Majority, is administered in its interest. To give the Majority the control of Government before it is competent by education and experience to exercise it, would be, as has been said, to involve society in confusion.

In France, at the present day, the Lower Class is in plenary possession of the absolute equality prevailing in the United States. Nay more, not content with this, there are fanatics, called Communists, who would despoil superior intelligence of its acquisitions, to bestow them on those without claim. Though it is true that the Lower Class has achieved its complete emancipation in France; though it is true that power, wealth, and knowledge, as in the United States, are denied to none; yet society is unsettled, and frequently falls into disorder. The reason is to be ascribed to the fact that the Lower Class having, through the blind arrogance of the Upper Class, obtained sudden Independence by revolution, is unfitted by education and experience—which the United States possess-to preserve it. In consequence, the people abandon it at one time in despair, and at another seize upon it with fury. Time, with its discipline, can alone provide a remedy and ensure ultimate stability.

It is plain that all Europe is drifting in the direction. of the fourth civilization. The abolition of serfdom in Russia; the resurrection of Italy; the consolidation of Germany; the anarchy of Spain: all attest it.

But the renovation of society on a more equal basis is not limited to Europe and America. Already has the fourth or Christian civilization with its wonderful results-its telegraphs, railways, finance, and tradepenetrated into the long stagnant reservoirs of the ancient civilizations. The Missionary armed with the New Testament is but a Pioneer. In his train follow legislation, science, enterprise-in a word, the moral and material progeny which, after the gestation of centuries, the fourth civilization has brought forth, confirming its Divine origin and confounding scepticism. For who can deny that Christianity by emancipating the mind of the Mass is the parent of all the prodigies enumerated? It is through the stimulus of England, France, and the United States, that the heathen lands of Asia and Africa are awakening to the new influences. The Religions and Laws which have there so long guaranteed the supremacy of the Upper Classes are being constantly modified; and the burdens. and exactions imposed on the masses for ages are being constantly diminished and removed.* To what extent

* Sir Bartle Frere, in his speech to the working men at Bath, October 10th, 1873, stated that "the working men, almost universally throughout the two hundred and odd millions inhabiting India, were everywhere trodden down by the strictest possible system of caste; but Christianity had been silently and imperceptibly breaking down the bonds of caste. He believed there were 33 societies of different denominations which were actively engaged in preaching the Gospel, through missionaries, to the people, and the effect had been to permeate the whole of Indian society more or less with the spirit of Christianity. Through the spirit of Christianity, through railways, through legislation, and through the hundred influences of the Central Government, power had been communicated to the people, which was gradually and imperceptibly, but surely, breaking down the power of caste: and he believed that if, by the blessing of God, the empire of England over that country was perpetuated, before very many generations had passed, they would find that caste had melted away before the influences of Christianity."

As an additional proof of the progress of the fourth civilization, it may be stated that active efforts are being made by English capitalists

these ancient communities can be remodelled on the Christian basis, it is impossible to foresee. It will be remembered that the political and social organizations so long existing in these tropical lands, were shown to be chiefly due to physical causes. How far these may be eluded or tampered with by human laws is an enigma which the Future must disclose.

to introduce railways and telegraphs into China. In spite of the firm opposition of the Government, it would appear by the last advices that a line of telegraph of some ten miles has been erected, which may be regarded as the entering wedge.

It is unnecessary to remind the reader that Japan has opened wide its gates, and welcomed the coming of the Christian civilization.


Adams, John, views on independ- | Bacon, Roger, said to have invented

gunpowder, 80.

ence, 311; theory of govern-
ment, 333; vice-president, 338;
president, 356.

Adams, John Quincy, presidency |
of, 387.

Africa, early civilization in, 6.
Albigenses, 264.

anity, 41.

Angoulême, Duchess of, 121.
Anne of Austria, Regent, 87.
Antoinette, Marie, execution of, 112.
Aristocracy in France, 59; war


against, 77.

Baldwin, Count of Flanders, anec-
dote of, 158.

Bank of discount, first established
in France, 95.

Alcuin aids Charlemagne in found-
ing schools, 43.

342, 379.
Barebones parliament, 227.

Alderame, founder of House of Barons, feudal, in Italy, 66; conflict
Montferrat, 66.
Alien Act, 358.
Alison, account of the death of
Marie Antoinette, 113; of Robes-
pierre's execution, 119.

with crown, 76; secure Magna
Charta, 162; war against the
king, 165; summon great council,
167; powers under Edward II.,
168; defeated by the king, 170.
Barras commands the troops of the
Convention, 123; member of the
Directory, 125.

America, early civilization, 9; dis- |
covery of, 51, 283.
Anglo-Saxons, converted to Christi-

of France established, 133.

of the United States created,

Bacon, Lord, comments on reign of
Henry VII., 178; condemned, 204.

Bastille, 105.

Beckett, Thomas à, assassinated,

Boleyn, Anne, marriage with Henry
VIII., 181.

Bordeaux, Duke de, 145; Charles
abdicates in favor of, 147.

Aristotle, works of, 18.
Arius, disbelief in divinity of Christ, Boston Port Bill, 304.


Bouchard, founder of House of
Montmorency, 64.

Armies, standing, origin of, 83.
Arnold, Benedict, treason of, 323.
Asia, seat of the first civilization, 1;
religion of, 3.

Bouillon, Duke of, defeat of, 86.
Bouillon, Godfrey de, 261.
Bourgeoisie, 85.
Brahminism, 3.

Assignats, origin of, 106.
Athens, government, 15; classes of Bretagne, Count of, vassal of Wil-
inhabitants, 15.
liam of Normandy, 61.
Austria, subjugation of, 138.
Buckle, on Egyptian civilization, 6;
adopts Montesquieu's theory of
civilization, 25; on military duty,
81; gunpowder, 82; standing ar-

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