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333.

mies, 83; the feudal system, 91; | Charter government, 293.
criticised, 200; on the Treaty of Chivalry, origin of, in France, 59.
Westphalia, 277.

Christ, the Saviour, advent of, 31;
Buddhism, 3.

mission of, 32.
Bunker Hill, 308.

Christian converts, enthusiasm of,
Burgoyne capitulates, 318.

in Rome, 33.
Burr, Aaron, candidate for presi- Christian priests, 43.
dency, 362; character, 363. Christianity, rise, 30; nature, 32;

growth, 32–37; accepted by Con-
Cabot, John, 283.

stantine, 37; sects, 38; progress
Calabria, captured by William of in Asia, 41.
Normandy, 61.

Church, character of the early, 40.
Calvin, John, 269.

Church of England established, 190.
Calvinism introduced into Scot- Church of Rome, 259; denounced
land, 270.

by Luther, 267.
Canada, discovery of, 283.

Cicero, opinion of government, 26,
Cannon, early use of, in war, 83.
Capet, Hugh, declared King of Cinq Mars, Marquis of, executed,
France, 58.

86.
Capitularies, 44.

Civilization, First, 1; nature, 2 ;
Carnot, member of the French Di- Second, 6; Third, 12; influences
rectory, 126.

on, 23; Fourth, 30.
Castle kings, 67.

Clergy in France, 91; struggle with
Catherine divorced from Henry Feudality, 92.
VIII., 183.

Climate, influence of, on civilization,
Catholics in reign of Henry VIII., 1, 6, 22.
187.

Clovis, 56.
persecuted in England, 191. Code Napoléon, 132.
Centralization in France, 135. Colonies in America, 293; form
Centuries in Rome, 28.

union, 294; resist England, 299;
Chambord, Count de, 145; Charles war begun, 308; become sovereign
abdicates in favor of, 147.

states, 314; confederation, 318.
Charlemagne, advent, 43; character, Columbus, Christopher, 283.
44; successors, 57.

Committee of Public Safety, 108;
Charles the Bold, 57.

created, 111; exercises absolute
Charles I. ascends the English dictatorship, 117.

throne, 207; dissolves parliament, Commons, House of, created, 165;
210; war with Scotland, 210; calls sit separately from lords, 170;
Long Parliament, 212; contest impeachments, 172; privileges,
with the commons, 215; civil war, 203; struggle with James, 204,
217; imprisoned, 222; trial and 205; antagonism to Charles, 208;
execution, 223.

divisions of, 210; dissolution of
Charles II., proclaimed king, 235; by Charles, 210; remonstrance

returns from exile, 238; restora- against the crown, 214.
tion, 239; conspiracy against, Commune, origin, 77; under Louis
241; laws passed, 246; death, VI., 79; privileges curtailed, 93 ;
247; character, 247; anecdotes governs Paris, 108; ruled by
of, 248.

Robespierre, 109.
Charles VII., of France, said to Condillac, publishes “ Treatise on

have raised first standing army Sensations,” 98.
in Europe, 84.

Confederation of American colo-
Charles X. succeeds to the French

nies, 318; failure of, 325.
throne, 146; abdicates, 147. Confederation of the Rhine, 136.
Charron, 271.

Confucius, death of, 17.

97.

assumes

Congress, continental, meets, 305; | De Tocqueville, on Athens, 16 ; on

second meeting, 308; meeting of equality, 31, 50.
United States, 338.

Diderot, publishes Encyclopædia,
Constantine accepts Christianity,
37, 40.

Directory in France, 121; parties
Constitution of the United States, of, 125;

dictatorial
330.

power, 126; opposition to, 127.
Constitutional Convention in Phila- Ducos created consul, 130.
delphia, 328.

Duke, origin of title, 58.
Constitutional government, origin
of, in England, 253.

Ecclesiastical court revived, 250.
Constitutionalists, their struggle for Edict of Nantes, 271; revoked, 276.
power in France, 125.

Edward the Confessor, laws of, 159.
Constitutions of Clarendon, 161. Edward I. succeeds to English
Consuls in Rome, 28.

throne, 168.
Continental blockade, 137.

Edward II., succession of, 168;
Corday, Charlotte, 113.

character, 169; deposed, 170.
Cordeliers, founded by Danton, 109. Edward III. of England, recog-
Council of the Ancients, 122.

nized as King of France, 63 ;
of Five Hundred, 122.

reign of, 170.
of Nice, 38.

Edward IV., King of England, 175.
Count, origin of title, 58.

Edward V. proclaimed King of
Cranmer, Thomas, efforts for England, 175.

Henry's divorce, 182; made arch- Edward VI. succeeds to English
bishop of Canterbury183; throne, 188.
executed, 189.

Egbert, King of Wessex, 151.
Cromwell, Oliver, advent of, 209; Egypt, early civilization in, 6;

leader of the Puritans, 214; religion of, 7.
sketch of his life, 218; master of Elizabeth, accession of, 190; char-
parliament, 222; anecdote of, acter, 191; reign, 195; death,
223; disperses parliament, 226; 197.
vocations of his officers, 227; pro-. Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI.,
tector, 228; foreign policy, 229

;

executed, 115.
aspirations for the crown, 230; Embargo law passed by United
death, 232; character, 233.

States, 369.
Cromwell, Richard, succeeds his Empire in France, 135; opposition
father as protector, 234.

to, 136; fall of, 139; extent of,
Crown, conflict with barons, 76. 141.
Crusades, 261.

Empire of the West, overthrown by

Odoacer, 29.
Dampierre, Guy de, 62.

Encyclopædia, published by Did-
Danes in England, 152.

erot and D'Alembert, 97.
Danton, character, 109; rules England, Saxon epoch, 151; Nor-

National Assembly, 111; com- man conquest, 155; feudal sys-
pared with Robespierre, 113; tem introduced, 155; feudality
execution, 114.

vanquishes the monarchy, 162;
Dark Ages, 42; summary, 395. Magna Charta, 162; House of
Delaware, early settlers, 284.

Commons created, 165; powers
Democracy, rise of, 48.

of the king, 166; parliament
Descartes, influence of, 101, 272. summoned, 167; Wales annexed,
Desmoulins, Camille, execution of, 168 ; legislative functions of par-
114.

liament recognized, 173; the
De Soto discovers the Mississippi monarchy again in the ascend-
River, 283.

ant, 177; reign of Henry VIII.,

180; accession of Elizabeth, 190; 97; skepticism, 102; revolution,
decline of the monarchy, 201; 104; National Assembly meets,
reign of Charles I., 207; the 105; divided into departments,
Revolution of 1688, 212 ; contest 106; church property sold, 106;
between Charles and parliament, proceedings of Legislative Assem-
212; civil war, 217; Cromwell, bly, 107; committee of public
218; military despotism, 224; the safety, 108; parties of the Mon-
protectorate, 228, death of Crom- tagne and the Gironde, 109; re-
well, 232; restoration of Charles public proclaimed, 110; war pro-
II., 239; origin of whigs and claimed against England, Hol-
tories, 243; limited monarchy, land, and Spain, 110; reign of
249; crown ceases to be held by terror, 111; under Robespierre,
divine right, 253; material pro- 115; death of Danton, 114; of
gress, 254; acquires North Amer-

Robespierre, 119; National Con-
ica, 284; measures against Amer- vention supreme, 121; the Direc-
ican colonies, 299; war with same, tory, 121; advent of Napoleon,
308; treaty of peace, 323; com- 123; war against foreign nations,
mercial relations with United

124; the consulate, 131; under
States, 367; war with United Napoleon, 132; the empire, 135;
States, 372 ; summary, 398.

Napoleonic Wars, 136; restora-
Epicureans, philosophy of, 20. tion of the monarchy, 140; Water-
Equality of men, first preached by loo, 141; second restoration, 142;
Christ, 31.

parties, 143; downfall of the
Essex, Earl of, commands parlia- monarchy, 146; assists American

mentary forces against Charles, colonists, 322; relations with the
218.

United States, 357; summary,
Ethiopia, early civilization, 6.

397.
Europe, early civilization, 12. Franklin, Benjamin, views on inde-

pendence, 312.
Fawkes, Guy, 202.

Franks converted to Christianity,
Federalists, 338.

41.
Feudal system, nature, 55; intro- Fronde, war of the, 87.

duced into Gaul, 56; France, 61;
Italy, 66; character

character of feudal Garter, order of, founded, 171.
laws in France, 75; assailed by Gaul, invasions of, 67.
monarchý, 75; disappearance of, Genet, 345.
89,90; Buckle on, 91; introduced George III., cause of American war,
into England, 155; vanquishes 313.
English monarchy, 162; abol- Georgia settled, 284.
ished, 246.

Germans accept Christianity, 41;
Fiefs, definition of, 55.

occupy Gaul, 67.
Flanders, Count of, assassin of Girondists, 108; leaders of, 110;
William of Normandy, 61.

imprisoned, 111.
Florida, discovery of, 283.

Goths accept Christianity, 41.
Fouquier Tinville, 117; beheaded, Government, theories of, 330.
121.

Greece, growth of civilization, 14;
France, classes, 49; middle ages, converted into a Roman prov-

57; divisions, 58; conflict be- ince, 21; religion, 21; aspects of
tween crown and barons, 76; nature, 23; compared with India,
introduction of printing, 85; es-

24.
tablishment of the monarchy, 88; Greek Church separated from Ro-
first bank of discount, 95; loses man Church, 41.
Canada and East India posses- Gregorian calendar annulled in
sions, 96; intellectual activity, France, 110.

Gregory VII., 260.

Hume, sketch of character of Charles
Grey, Lady Jane, executed, 189. II., 247.
Guise, Duke de, 63.

Hundred Days, The, 141.
Guizot, comments on Charlemagne, Huss, John, 265.

45; character of Washington, 354. Hyde, Sir Edward, 246.
Gunpowder, invention of, 79.
Gunpowder Plot, 202.

Iconoclastic controversy, 41.

Impeachment power first exercised,
Habeas Corpus Act, 246.

170.
Hamilton, General, opposition to Independence, struggle begun in
Burr, 363.

America, 306; declaration of, 308.
Hampden, John, 210.

Independents, compose Rump Par-
Harold II., last Saxon king, 154. liament, 235; decline, 237.
Hartford Convention, 378.

India, seat of the first civilization, 1;
Hastings, battle of, 145.

religion, 3; aspects of nature, 23;
Hazlitt, account of death of Robes- compared with Greece, 24.

pierre, 119; comments on Napo- Innocent III., interdicts of, 263.
leon, 123.

Innocent IV. excommunicates Em-
Hébert executed, 114.

peror of Germany, 263.
Helvetius writes “ The Mind," 98. Inquisition established, 2
Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I., Institutes of Menu, 1.
207; character, 216.

International law, origin of, 277.
Henry, Prince de Léon, 65.

Ireland, early period, 151; invaded
Henry I. ascends English throne, by Cromwell, 224.
160.

Italy, wars in, 262.
Henry II., Duke of Montmorency,
64.

Jacobins, 109; club closed, 121.
Henry II., King of England, 161. James I. ascends English throne,
Henry III., King of England, 164. 201; struggle with parliament,
Henry IV. succeeds to English
throne, 172.

James II. of England, accession of,
Henry IV. of France, 271.

249; acts of toleration, 250; an
Henry V. ascends English throne, exile, 252.
174.

Jay, John, negotiates treaty with
Henry VI. proclaimed King of England, 347.

England and France, 174. Jefferson, Thomas, views on Inde-
Henry VII., King of England, char- pendence, 312; member of Wash-
acter of reign, 178.

ington's cabinet, 340; relations
Henry VIII.

ascends English with Washington, 350; author of
throne, 180; marriage with Anne “Kentucky Resolutions," 359;
Boleyn, 181; head of the Church,

presidency of, 363.
184; wives, 188.

Jesuits, order of, suppressed, 276.
Heroic Age, in Greece, 14.

John ascends English throne, 161;
Hindostan, seat of the first civili- reign, 162; death, 164.

zation, 1; caste in, 2; inhabitants John, Count of St. Pol, 63.

compared with the Greeks, 24. Johnson, Andrew, impeachment,
Holland annexed to France, 138. 336.
Homer, date of poems, 14.

Jury trial, origin of, 161.
House of Commons created, 165; Justinian Code, 27, 28.

sit separately from the lords, 170.
Howe, Gen., in command of British Knight, duties in France, 60.
forces, 315.

Knighthood, created in France, 59:
Hudson, Henry, 284.

abolished, 106.
Iluguenots, 270.

Knox, John, 270.

204.

Lacretelle, account of the death of Maria Louisa of Austria, married
Marie Antoinette, 113.

to Napoleon, 138.
Lambert disperses Rump Parlia- Martel, Charles, 57.
ment, 236.

Mary succeeds to English throne,
Land, tenure of, in Middle Ages, 56. 189; death, 1:90.
La Paix de Dieu, 58.

Mary Queen of Scots, execution of,
La Rochefoucauld, House of, 65. 197.
Lasalle descends Mississippi River, Mary, wife of William of Orange,
284.

252.
Laud, Archbishop, 210; impeached, Maryland settled, 284.
213.

Massachusetts resists the mother
Law, establishes bank of discount

country, 303.
of France, 95; death of, 96. Mazarin, Minister of France, 87.
Lee, Richard Henry, 309.

Menes, King of Egypt, 6.
Legion of Honor, instituted by Na- | Menu, Institutes of, 1; code of, 2.
poleon, 133.

Mexico, early civilization in, 8.
Legislative assembly in France, Middle Ages, 55; in France, 57.
106; proceedings, 107.

Middle class, birth of, in France, 92;
Le Grand Monarque, 94.

growth, 93; becomes National
Leo III. restored to the Papacy, 44. Assembly, 105; in England, 152;
Leo X., 266.

position of, 177, 197.
Lollard, Walter, 264.

Mirabeau, 106.
Lombards accept Christianity, 41; Mississippi River, discovery of,
masters of Italy, 42.

283.
Longueville, Duchess of, 87. Missouri Compromise, 385.
Lords, in feudal period of France, Modern society, birth of, 45.
61.

Monarchy assails feudality, 75; es-
Lords, House of, dissolved, 224. tablished in France, 88; triumph,
Louis, Count of St. Pol, 63.

89; decline, 95; restoration, 140;
Louis VI. of France, reign, 76. second restoration, 142; downfall,
Louis VII. continues war against 146; in the ascendant in Eng-
aristocracy, 77.

land, 177; decline, 201.
Louis IX., 78.

Monasteries, rise, 43; abolished in
Louis XI., exploits, 84; introduces England, 185.
printing into France, 85.

Monk, General, march to London,
Louis XIV., character, 94; bril-

236.
liancy of his reign, 94.

Monmouth, Duke of, 241; beheaded,
Louis XV., reign, 96.
Louis XVI., character, 104; aids Monroe, James, presidency, 381.

American colonies, 104; convokes “Monroe Doctrine,” 386.

states general, 105; execution,110. Montagne, la, 107; leaders of, 109.
Louis XVIII., King of France, 140, Montaigne, 271.
142 ; character, 144.

Montesquieu, theories of civiliza-
Louis Philippe, 148.

tion adopted by Buckle, 25; pub-
Louisiana settled, 284; purchased lishes “ The Spirit of Laws,” 97.
by United States, 366.

Montferrat, House of, 66.
Luther, Martin, 266.

Montfort, Simon de, exploits of, 62,
Lycurgus, 14.

165; slain, 168.

Montmorency, Duke of, defeat and
Macaulay, comments on Grecian execution, 86.
philosophy, 20.

Montmorency, House of, 63.
Madison, James, presidency of, 371. Moravian Brothers, 265.
Magna Charta, 162; established, More, Sir Thomas, executed, 185.

169; petition concerning, 169. Mortimer, Earl of, 170.

249.

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