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413

Napoleon in command of troops of Paine, Tom, pamphlet on“ Common

the Convention, 123; commands Sense,” 312.
army of Italy, 125; expedition to Papacy, 259; extent of power
Egypt, 127; returns to Paris, 128; during the Middle Ages, 263;
first consul, 131; frames new con- denounced by Luther, 267; edict
stitution, 132 ; reforms, 133; of Nantes, 271; opposition of
emperor, 134; relations with for-

Descartes, 272; of Richelieu,
eign nations, 136; marries Maria 275; treaty of Westphalia, 277.
Louisa of Austria, 138; Russian Papal power, decline, 178; statutes
campaign, 138; abdication, 139; against, 183.

Waterloo, 141; character, 141. Pariahs, 3.
National Assembly, early meeting Paris improved by Philip Augustus,

in France, 105; proceedings, 105; 78; government, 108; under Na-
moves to Paris, 106.

poleon, 124.
National Convention, origin, 107; Parliament summoned by barons,

meets in the Tuileries, 109; parties 167; legislative functions recog-
in, 109; proclaims republic, 110; nized, 173; privileges, 203;
condemns Louis XVI. to death, struggle with James, 204; oppo-
110; under Robespierre and Dan- sition to Charles, 208; Long
ton, 111; proclaims the existence Parliament, 212; remonstrance
of a Supreme Being, 116; con- against the crown, 214; victory
demns Robespierre, 118, 119; ac- over Charles I., 216; turned into
quires supreme power, 120; meas- the street by Cromwell, 226;
ures, 121; forms constitution, 121; Barebones Parliament, 227; con-
organizes troops, 123.

stitution under Cromwell, 229;
National Intelligencer, establish- Rump Parliament, 235 ; under
ment of, 365.

Charles II., 246; supreme power,
Natural phenomena, influence on 253.
civilization, 23.

Pastoureaux, devastations by, 78.
Navigation Act, 300.

Patriots' struggle for power in
New England, settlement of, 293. France, 125.
New Orleans, founded, 284.

Peasants in France, 75.
New polity, 47; summary, 395. Penn, William, 284; character, 298.
New York, founded, 284.

Peru, early civilization, 9.
Nice, Council of, 38.

Peter the Hermit, 261.
Nobility, titles of, abolished in Petition of Right, 208.
France, 106.

Philip Augustus continues struggle
Nobles, feudal, in the crusades, 79; against feudality, 78; improves

overthrown by Richelieu, 85. Paris, 78.
Non-intercourse Law, 370, 371. Philip, Duke of Orleans, character,
Norman Conquest, 155.

95.
Norman lords in England, 160. Philip, King of Macedonia, anec-
Nullification, origin, 360.

dote concerning, 19.
Nuremberg, treaty of, 269.

Philip IV. of France, 79; said to

have raised first standing army,
Oath of supremacy, 185.

84.
Odoạcer overthrows Empire of the Physical science, culture of, in
West, 29.

France, 100.
Orleans, Duke of, guillotined, 113. Pisistratus founds the first hospital
Ostrogoths become masters of Italy, for wounded soldiers, 15.
42.

Plato, philosophy of, 17.
Oxford, Provisions of, 165.

Plymouth, landing of Puritans, 284.

Plymouth colony resists mother
Paganism, end of, 38.

country, 299.

414

in

Polybius, opinion of government, Religion of India, 3 ; of Egypt, 7;
27.

of Europe, 12; of Greece, 21.
Pompadour, Madame de, mistress Revolution in France, 104; victims,
of Louis XV., 96.

112; influence, 120; in England,
Ponce de Leon discovers Florida, 212; in America, 308; views of
283.

leading men, 311; war, 314.
Pope, bull against English barons, Revolutionary tribunal formed, 111;

164; opposition to, in England, suppressed, 121.
183; laws against, repealed, 189; | Richard I. of England, 161.
defied by Elizabeth, 190; powers, Richard II. succeeds to English
260.

throne, 171.
Popular representation, origin of, Richard III.

usurps English
167.

throne, 175.
Presbyterianism introduced into Richelieu invested with supreme
Scotland, 270.

power, 85; opposition to papacy,
Presbyterians struggle against 275.
Cromwell, 221.

Richmond, Earl of, defeats Richard
Prescott, William H., on civiliza- III., 175.

tion in Mexico and Peru, 10. Robespierre, character, 109; rules
Pride's Purge, 222.

National Convention, 111; com-
Primitive Church, three periods of, pared with Danton, 113; sacri-
39.

fices Danton, 114; at the head
Primogeniture, established

of France, 115; harangue con-
France, 58.

cerning Supreme Being, 116; in-
Proprietary government, 297.

fluence, 117; denounced by the
Protective Tariff, 378, 389.

National Convention, 118; ex-
Protestantism in Germany, 277. ecuted, 119; comments on, 119,
Protestants excluded from parlia- 120.
ment, 245; origin of, 269.

Roger of Normandy, exploits of, 62.
Prudhomme, account of the victims Rohan, House of, 64.
of the Revolution, 112.

Roman bishops, 260.
Prussia, alliance against Napoleon, Roman Church separated from
139.

Greek Church, 41.
Puritanism, 192.

Roman empire, fall of, 38; assailants
Puritans, mission of, 51; character,

of, 42.
286.

Roman jurisprudence, 27; centu-
Pyramids in Egypt, 8; in Mexico, ries, 28; consuls, 28; power, 29;
10.

empire, 29.

Romans in Britain, 151.
Quesnay, labors of, 100.

Rome borrows civilization from

Greece, 26; jurisprudence, 27;
Rabelais, 271.

forms of government, 28 ; height
Raleigh, Sir Walter, lands in Vir- of power, 29; frontiers, 29.
ginia, 284.

Root and Branch Men, 216; Inde-
Reade, Winwood, sketch of the en- pendents, 216.

thusiasm of the early Christian Rousseau, works, 98.
converts in Rome, 33; sketch of Royal government, 296.
the early Christian Church, 38; Royal power conflicts with nobility,
government of the castle, 67.

85.
Reformation introduced into Eng- Royal society, 256.
land, 183, 266.

Royalists' struggle for power in
Reign of Terror inaugurated in France, 125.
France, 111; extent of slaughter, Rump Parliament, 235.

Russell, Lord, executed, 243.

112.

139.

;

Russia, alliance against Napoleon, | Tinville, Fouquier, 117; beheaded,

121.

Tory party, origin, 243.
Saratoga, battle of, 318.

Tournaments, origin, 59.
Saxon epoch, 151.

Treaty of Westphalia, 277.
Scepticism in France, 102,

Tropical climates, character of, 22;
Scholastic philosophy, 273.

influence on civilization, 23, 25.
Schwartz, said to have invented Tuileries sacked by the mob, 108.
gunpowder, 80.

Tyndal, 270.
Scotland, Calvinism introduced,
270.

United States colonial epoch, 283;
Sedition Law, 358.

mother country renounced, 299;
Serfdom in France, 90.

Declaration of Independence, 308;
Shays's Rebellion, 325.

Revolutionary War, 314; con-
Ship Money created, 210; declared dition of the states in 1776, 316;
illegal, 213.

confederation, 318; peace, 323
Sieyès, Abbé, 107; created consul, failure of the confederation, 325;
130.

Constitutional Convention, 328;
Siva, 3.

new constitution, 330; presidency
Slavery, 383.

of Washington, 338; of John
Smith, Adam, 100.

Adams, 356; of Jefferson, 363 ;
Smith, John, founds Jamestown, commercial treaty with Eng-
284.

land, 367; Embargo law, 369;
Socrates, character, 17.

presidency of Madison, 371; war
Solon, constitution of, 15.

with England, 372; presidency of
Spain, war with France, 137.

Monroe, Missouri Compromise,
Stafford, Viscount, executed, 241. 385; presidency of John Quincy
Stamp Act, 301; repealed, 303. Adams, 387; summary, 400.
Star Chamber abolished, 213. Universal suffrage, 133.
States General, convoked by Louis
XVI., 105.

Vandals accept Christianity, 41.
Stephen, King of England, 161. Vedas, 1.
Stock-gambling, origin of, 95. Virginia, landing of English, 284.
Stoics, philosophy of, 20.

Vishnu, 3.
Strafford, Earl of, executed, 213. Vitry burned, 78.
Stuarts, beginning of the reign of, Voltaire, character, 99.

201.
Sudras, 2.

Waldenses, 264.
Summary, 393.

Wales annexed to England, 168.
Suzerain, definition of, 56.

War of the Two Roses, 175.
Sydney, Algernon, conspires against Warwick, Earl of, 174.
Charles II., 241; executed, 243. Washington, George, commands

American forces, 308; letter to
Tacitus, opinion of government, 27, Captain Mackenzie, 311; vic-
333.

tories at Trenton and Princeton,
Taxation vested in commonalty, 317; letter to Congress, 319; char-

167; declared tyrannical without aoter, 321; views of the confed-
representation, 299.

eracy, 326; letter to Lafayette,
Tea thrown overboard in Boston 327; president of the Constitu-
harbor, 304.

tional Convention, 328; presi-
Test Act, 245; annulled, 250.

dency of, 338; relations with
Thanes, 152.

Jefferson, 350; farewell address
Thiers's comments on the French 352.
Revolution, 114, 115.

Wat, leader of insurgents, 171.

Waterloo, 141.

William Rufus, succeeds to English
Wentworth, Peter, sent to the Tower, throne, 160.
194.

Williams, Roger, 293.
Whig party, origin, 243.

Windsor Castle, built, 171.
Wickliffe, 264.

Winthrop, Governor, views of lib-
William, Marquis of Montferrat, 66. erty and order, 292.
William of Normandy, deeds of, Wolsey, Cardinal, 180; disgraced,

61; lands at Hastings, 155; in- 182.
troduces feudal system into Eng-Woolsack, origin, 205.
land, 155; character, 158; death, Worcester, battle of, 225.

160.

William, Prince of Orange, 251;

accepts English crown, 252.

Yorktown, capitulation, 323.

THE END.

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