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PARKS, DRIVES AND STATUES-MANHATTAN AND BRONX-Continued. in British prison ships during the Revolutionary, to death, the sculptor being J. Massey Rhind. The war.

structure is of granite a most as light as marble, Mazzini- A 'bronze bust of Giuseppe Mazzini, The sarcophagus is of brilliant reddish porphyry, presented to New York by Italian residents; in and is in the crypt immediately under the center Central Park on the West Drive; unveiled in 1878. of the dome. A place is reserved for Mrs. Grant,

Moore-Bronze bust of the poet, Central Park, and there is a stairway leading down to the restnear 5th av. entrance; unveiled 1880.

ing place. The dedication of the tomb took place Morse-Life size bronze statue of Professor S. April 27, 1897. F. B. Morse, the inventor of the telegraph, in Central Park, near 5th av. and 720 st. entrance; unveiled 1871. Obelisk, the-This monolith, relic of an age dat

Staten Island Driveways. ing back more than fifteen centuries before the

As a bulder and maintainer of good roads, birth of Christ, was presented to New York by siaten Island stands pre-eminenty in the forethe late Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt. It is

ground, L’nder the provisions of a special. law of of granite, about 70 feet long and weighs 200 tons.

1890 (Chapter 555). eighty-five miles of improved Special machinery for its removal was constructed.

roads have been completed, and there is still It was erected in Central Park, near the Art

under contract about fifteen miles more, which Museum, in 1877.

WiN be constructed during the year 1899. The Peter Cooper-Bronze life size statue of Peter

roads thus far constructed are of the TelfordCooper, junction of 3d and 4th avs.; unveiled 1897.

macadam and macadam classes, more especialy Schiller-Bronze bust of the poet, in the Ram

of the latter. The mileage of roads has been ble at Central Park; unveiled 1859.

The Scott-Bronze statue of Sir Walter Scott; Central fairly wel. dividel among the five towns.

county has issued bonds to pay for this imPark, on the Mall: unveiled 1872.

proved road system to the amount of $1,215,000, Seventh Regiment-A bronze figure to commem

and the cost of cleaning, sprinkling, patching orate the regiment's dead during the civil war;

and repairing of roads, bridges and culverts is Central Park on the West Drive; unveiled 1874.

about $73,000 per annum. The roads are

conSeward-Bronze statue of the American states

structed and maintained under the personal suman, William H. Seward; Madison Square Park; pervision of Henry P. Morrison, Deputy Commisunveiled 1876.

sioner and Chief Engineer of the Borough of Shakespeare-Bronze statue of the great dram

Richmond. The entire mileage of roads is staatist; Central Park, lower end of the Mall; un

tioned off in fifty foot lengths, and is daily paveiled 1872.

trolled by inspectors. Sims-Bronze statue of the eminent American

The towns of Northfield, Middletown, Southfield surgeon, James Marion Sims; unveiled in Bryant

and Westfield (now known as the Second, Third, Park in 1894.

Fourth and Fifth Wards respectively) made arStuyvesant-Marble effigy of Governor Peter

rangements, while under the old County govStuyvesant, in the outer wall of St. Mark's

ernment, for the construction of about forty-four Church.

miles of macadam roads, which are now in course The Pilgrim-Bronze statue of heroic size, to

of construction, and the town of Southfield also commemorate the lan-ling of the Pilgrims in 1620; provided for the building of a boulevard, to run Central Park. near E. 724 st. entrance.

parallel with the shore for seven and one-hall The Stil! Hunt-Represents a beast of prey in

miles. Staten Island has but few public parks. the aot of lea ping; Central Park, East Drive, Stapleton and Port Richmond each has one. There near the Obelisk.

is in contemplation, however, the establishment Thor walisen-Abronze statue of the Danish

of an extensive public park at Silver Lake. sculptor, in Centra: Park, 59th st. and 6th av.;

commission was appointed by the Governor, in unveiled 1894.

Tigress and Young-A bronze group presented 1898, to make arrangements for chis improvement. by twelve New York men in 1867; Centra Park, near the Terrace.

Washington-A bronze equestrian statue; Union How to Obtain a Discharge From the sq.

U. S. Army.
Washington-A bronze statue on Wall st, corner
Broad, on the site of Federa: Hail, where Wash.

Enlisted men of the Regular and Volunteer Army ington took the oath of office as first President who desire to procure a discharge from the Unit.d of the United States April 30. 1789; unveiled 1883.

States service should address a letter to the AdWashington-A copy of the Houdon statue,

jutant-General of the Army eutting forth the rea. gift from New York pub.ic schoo: children, is at sors upon which they base their applications and Riverside Park, between 88th and 89th sts.

hand or mail it to the captain of their company Washington Marble Arc'h-Washington sq., foot

who in turn is required to forward it through regi: of 5th av.

mental, brigade and division headquarters with Webster-An heroic bronze statue of Daniel

bis recommendation. Applications that do no1 Webster; Central Park, West Drive, near 720 st.

come up in this manner will not be entertained Worth-A granite shaft in honor of Major-Gen

All applications must be forwarded immediately eral Worth, U. S. A.; Broadway, 5th av, and 25th approved ar disapproved. st.; unveiled 1857.

Soldiers transferred from one regiment to an

other and soldiers going on furlough, other thai Grant's Tomb.

sick furloughs from hospitals, perform the journej

at their Owr. expense and can not be furnished General U. S. Grant died July 23, 1883. Ground

government transportation. was broken for the magnificent tomb April 27, 1891. The corner stone was laid by President Harrison April 27, 1892. The location is on the Riverside Drive and 123d st., Manhattan. The cost

About Flags. was between $500,000 and $600,000 and the money was raised by voluntary contributions of 30,000 To "strike the flag" is to lower the nationa donors, varying in amount from 1 cent to $1,000 colors in token of submission. each. The measurements of the structure are 90 Dipping the flag is lowering it slightly and the feet each side of the square. It is built according hoisting it to salute either a vessel or a fort. to what is called the Grecian Doric order, and has A flag of truce is a white flag. portico steps 70 feet wide. The square structure A black flag is a sign of piracy. is surmounted by a cornice and parapet 72 feet Yellow flag shows a vessel to be in quarantine high.

Above this rises a circular cupola 70 feet or is the sign of a contagious disease. in diameter, terminating in a pyramidal tap 150 A flag at half-mast means mourning. feet above the grade and 280 feet above the Hud Flags are used as the symbol of rank and com son River. The interior shapes the outline of a mand, the officers using them being called fla cross 76 feet in greatest dimension, Piers of officers. Such flags are square, to distinguis masonry at the four corners are connected by them from other banners. arches forming recesses. The arches rise 50 feet The red flag is a sign of defiance, often use above the floor, and on them rises an open circular | by revolutionists. In the American service it is gallery surmounted by a paneled dome 105 feet mark of danger and shows a vessel to be receiv above the floor level. The plane and round sur ing or discharging her powder. faces are decorated with sculpture in alto relievo, The white flag with a red cross is a sign o representing scenes in Grant's career from birth peace.

a

THE WATER FRONT.
Brooklyn.

East River is that of Arbuckle Bros., at John The length of Brooklyn's water frontage is

st., which is equipped with ali modern appliances thirty-three miles and extends from the head of

for speedy and extensive production. Hair the Newtown Creek along the East River, around

sugar consumed in the United States is refined Red Hook Point into Gowanus Bay and along Go

in Brooklyn. wanus and Bay Ridge shores to Fort Hamilton,

Between s. 11th and Little sts, is Wallabout around the reservation into Gravesend Bay, along

Bay and channel, constituting the water front Bath Beach, Bensonhurst and Gravesend Beach, of the United States Navy Yard and Wallabout

Market. around Coney Island into and around Sheepshead Bay, into and around Jamaica Bay and along BROOKLYN WHARF AND WAREHOUSE CO. the full extent of Rockaway Beach, including --Between Main st and the Erie Basin, on Goall intermediate creeks and canals, a good depth wanus Bay, is embraced_the most valuable propof water prevailing for the greater part of the erty and works on the East River front, among distance. The portion bordering on the East them, near the junction of Water and Fulton se, River and eastern shore of New York Bay is being the eastern pters of the New York and lined with docks and wharves for every descrip- Brooklyn Suspension Bridge. For many years tion of craft, storehouses, grann elevators, sugar the docks along this shore have been used by a refineries, oil refinerties, iron milis, saw milis, majority of the steamships and sailing vesels ship and spar yards and the buildings and ap which find berths in Brooklyn, ihe various inwar pointments of many boat, ytacht, athletic and and outward cargoes of which are delivered to the country clubs which represent the outlay of hun- storehouses or received from the grain elevatore. dreds of millions of dollars. Between s. 5th and These stores and the wharfe adjoining are now S. 6th sts, are located the tower piers and anchor united under the control and management of one age of the new East River Bridge to Manhattan. company--the “Brooklyn Wharf and Warehouse There are thirteen landings for ferries from Company.'

" the total capital of which is $30,000,000, Mann hattan along the Brooklyn frontage on the and the property owned and leased by it extends East River, distributed between 39th st., South along the shore for the distance of two and threeBrooklyn, and College Point.

quarter miles. This company has built a terminal PALMER'S DOCKS—The area embraced be railway upon the bulkhead in front of its waretween N. 10th and N. 4th sts., Kent av, and the houses, connecting with the largest of the trunk East River, with a shore frontage of upward of lines, which facilitates quick service in the receipt 1,800 feet, has located upon it several extensive en- and shipment of merchardise, and four locomotives terprises. The largest and most important of are constantly employed in shifting cars on the these is the manufactory of the Brooklyn Cooper- various divisions of its property. Beside the other age Company. Between N. 8th and N. 9th sts, are

vesses, the steamships of fifty regular lines dock located wharves, elevated railways, platforms and at the wharves of this company. pockets, fitted with every mechanical device for GRAIN ELEVATORS—The port of New York receiving, handling, storing and delivering coal. is one of the largest grain handling porte in the There is storage room for 35.000 tons of coal and world and Brooklyn warehouses store four-fifths the business in this line amounts to upward of of the grain brought to its harbor. The capacity 350,000 tons annually. The block between N. 9th of the Brooklyn grain elevators is upward of and N. 10th sts. is appropriated to a depot for 20,000,000 bushels. The largest, Dow's, at Columthe receipt and shipment of general freight. At bia and Pacific sts., contains huge bins, shoots the storehouses are accommodated the wholesale and six miles of rubber belts thirty inches wide, hay ard straw markets, which supply the greater operated by two 400-hors power engines. The part of the forage, consumed in Brooklyn. Ad grain is transferred from the canal boats joining the depot, at the river end, is a mill from in which it is brought to tide water to the which 100 tons of ground feed can be turned out bins, thence on the belts to every part of the daily. Connected with the mill is an elevator, building and ultimately by a conveyor to the final with a storage capacity of 500,000 bushels.

place of deposit. Following are the estimated With the exception of the business done by the capacitieg of the Brooklyn Wharf and Warehouse Pennsylvania Railroad on the block between N. Company elevators, of which the McCormack ele4th and N. 5th Sts., the entire space between N.

vator, on Commercial Wharf, has been remodeled Ath and N. 10th sts., Kent av, and the East River,

into a railroad elevator with latest improved mais occupied by railroad terminals and cooperage chinery for economizing time. The railroads terminating at New York harbor

Storage Transfer and from and to which cars are transported to the

capacity capacity docks are: N. Y. Central and Hudson River, West

Name and location.

bush. per hour. Shore, N. Y., Lake Erie and Western, Lehigh

Nos. 2 to 16, Commercial Wharf.. Valley and Central Railroad of New Jersey, and Nos. 51 to 59, Commercial Wharf. 6,000,000 25,000 their connecting lines; Central Vermont, New

Nos. 6 to 11, Clinton Wharf. York, Ontario and Western, Norfolk and Western

Nos. 70 to 92, South Pier... and Kana wha Dispatch. The business of these Columbia Stores, ft. Atlantic av... 1,500,000 8,000 lines, both east and west bound, excluding coal, Dow's Stores, ft. Pacific st..

2,500,000 12,000 averages about 5,000,000 pounds of freight daily. In Beard's Stores, Erie Basin.. 2,750,000 10.000 addition there is carried from the pier at n. 7th Woodruff's Stores, ft. Joralemon st 1,500,000

8,000 st. freight designed for the Chesapeake and Ohio Commercial, Atlantic dock... 2.000.000 5,000 Railroad and its fast freight lines, Old Dominion Francis E. Pinto's Atlantic dock.. 1,500,000 10,000 Steamship Company. People's line of steamers for

Iron Elevator, ft. Degraw st... 500,000 14.00) Albany, Citizens' line of steamers for Troy, Mur- | Watson's, Furman st.......

750,000 12.000 ray's line of steamships and barges for Albany and Troy, Norwich line for points on V. Y. and

Total

19,000,000 104.000 New England Railroad, Central Vermont Rail

OTHER ELEVATORS. road and its connections and Mallory line to Gal. Bowne's, Gowanus Canal..

600,000 3,000 veston.

Beyer's, ft. Taylor st...

150.000 6.500 SUGAR REFINERIES-Sugar refining is one of Shaw & Truesdell's, Second st.. 100,000 the most important industries in Brooklyn. For Hecker-Jones-Jeweil Mfg. Co., merly it was distributed among many individual

Fulton st.

20,000 and competing interests which of late years have been harmonized and brought under consolidated

Total

870,000 15,500 control under the title of the American Sugar Re Beside those mentioned in the foregoing table fining Company, commonly known as the "Sugar a large number of floating elevators are conTrust." The largest refinery of the combination, stantly at work at viers which have no permawhich is the largest in the world, covers the water nent elevators, and add from five to six milions frontage from S. Ist to S. 5th Sts., as well as to the storage capacity of the city, as well as several squares on the east side of Kent av. This between thirty-five and forty thousand bushels refinery treats 2,000 tons of raw sugar per day, per hour transfer capacity. producing 12,000 barrels of the refined product. INDEPENDENT STORES AND BUSH DOCKSThe Greenpoint refinery is the most modern of all Foot of 41st, 42d and 43d sts., have two piers, 303 the sugar plants. Its capacity is 7,000 barrels 1.000 and 260x1,000; of the latter 100x900 ft. is corper day. The Mollenhauer sugar house, at the ered, being the largest covered pier in the Port of foot of s. 11th st., was built in 1892 and is in New York. The company has six four-story and dependent of the Trust." The latest sugar re four six-story warehouses, with a floor space of finery constructed the Brooklyn side of the

600,000 sq. ft. Entire plant is of recent construction,

2,000

4,000

on

THE WATER FRONT-BROOKLYN-Continued. THE ATLANTIC BASIN-Under the control of , portance. Among them are Bath Beach and Benthe Brooklyn Wharf and Warehouse Company, is sonhurst on Gravesend Bay: West Brighton, situated near Hamilton Ferry, nearly opposite Brighton Beach, Manhattan Beach and Point Governor's Island. Vessels can enterit un any Breeze on Coney Island; Sheepshead Bay on the stage of tide. It covers an area of 40 acres, has bay of that name; Bergen Beaoh and Canarsie on brick and granite warehouses on three sides and Jamaica Bay, and Rockaway Beach, Arverne, contains four piers, beside the two bulkheads Wave Crest, Isle of Wight and Far Rockaway on which form the basin and are known as the North the farther ocean front embraced in the Greater and South piere. Three of the inside piers are New York, from the eastern limit of which to the covered and are 700, 800 and 900 feet in length, western shore of Staten Island the width of the respectively, by 75 and 85 feet in width.

The

new city is nearly thirty miles. bongest, designated as South Central, is the moet extensive in this port. A float bridge with rail

Manhattan. road tracks enables the transfer of cars brought by floats from any ra blroad terminal on the har

HUDSON RIVER SHORD LINE. bor to the tracks which ramify each pier and The water front of New York City, which bulkhead of the basin. The freight thus brought borders for seven-eighths of its boundaries upon is thereby delivered to storehouse or vessel with the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island Sound, the bays out bulk being broken between shipment and de and estuaries which put in from those bodies of Hvery. This basin is the largest gralin depot in

water and the Hudson River, has been ascertained the world and is equipped with seven eievators,

by the Department of Docks of the City Its frotstage line of bulkheads and piers measure be 450 lineal miles. The water frontage on the three miles. The entrance to the bagin is 200

Hudson River side begins at the Battery. The feat wide.

first feature of interest is the Castle Garden BuildTHE ERIE BASIN-Now operated under lease ing, in which is now established by the city an by the Brooklyn Wharf and Warehouse Com- aquarium open daily and free to the public. Next pany, commences at the inset of Gowanus Bay and northward is Pier A, occupied by the Department Gowanus Canal, at Van Brunt st., covers about of Docks, which has exclusive supervision over all 100 acres of the bay and is protected by a mile the wharf privileges of the city. Adjoining is fire in length of breakwater, semi-circular in form, station No. 57, the headquarters of the fire-boat terminating at Columbia st. Along its northenn system of the Manhattan Fire Department. From interior are located the great Erie Basin Dry there northward on various piers and bulkheads Docks, Crane's Dry Docks and Gokey & Hilton's are established extensive terminal and highly deDry Docks. It contains two large covered piersvelaped facilities for the receipt and handling of and eight smaller open piers, stores for graim freight brought or dispatched by the railroads terhaving

capacity of over 3,000,000 bushels and minating on New York harbor. Also conveniences stores for general merchandise. Of the latter, for the many thousands of passengers and the Wo are used for the storage of nitrate of soda, freight by ferries, ocean going steamships and chloride of potash, salitpeter and similar sub river steamboats, which berth on that side of the stances and are the only stores in the aity whích city, particulars of which appear under appropriate receive that charaioter of merchandise. In the classification in this book. At W. 10th st, and vibasin are received the great ocean rafts cinity is the principal oyster and clam market of timber

from

Maine and other northern of the city. The largest meat and general produce forests as well as much sawed lumber. Many ves market-West Washington-is at Gansevoort and sels of all descriptions are laid up in this basin W. 12th sts. From W. 14th to W.22d sts. are the for repai

to winter. Every autumn from landing places of the ice and lumber companies, 500 to 700 canal boats seek its proteotion upon having depots and yards in contiguous streets. the closing of the Erie and other canals and the From W. 29th to w. 38th st. the frontage is OCcrews and their families form a colony of from cupied by an immense freight depot of the N. Y. 2 000 to 3,000 persons. Many of the boats are grain Central and Hudson River Railroad Co., and laden and retain their cargoes on storage at an freight landings of the West Shore, N. Y., Ontario average rate of % cent per bushel per month, On and Western and Pennsylvania railroads.' On this account of the great quantities of grain transfer stretch, in addition to the other freight, is received red in the basin it is made the headquarters of the bulk of the hay and straw brought to the many floating grain elevators.

city. The piers and bulkheads from there proBROOKLYN DRY DOCKS—The Erie Basin Dry

gressively are occupied by the Western Stock Yard Docks of Brooklyn, among the largest in the

(o., Consolidated Gas Co., Knickerbocker Ice Co., United States, were opened to public use in 1866.

N. Y., Lake Erie and Western Railway Co., ConThe chamber of No. i dock is 510 feet in length,

solidated Canal and Lake Co., Union Stock Yard 112 feet wide at the top and 50 feet at bottom.

and Market Co., East man's Co. and individual inNo. 2 dock is 610 feet long, 124 feet wide at top

terests to W. 59th st. Between W, 59th and W. and 60 feet at bottom. Most of the iron ships | 72d sts. is another great freight terminal of the that require docking in this port are hauled up on

N. Y. Central and Hudson River Railroad Co., these docks. It was here the Celtic and Britannic connected with which are nine viers, ty tin were repaired after their collision. At the foot of

elevators, stock yards and abattoir. From W. 720 Court and Clinton sts. are the shipyards of C. & R.

to W. 129th sts. the river is overlooked by River. Poillon, remarkable for yacht and pilot_boat build

side Park, the shore line for that distance and to ing Also the marine railways of Downing &

W. 158th st. being occupied by individual and corLawrence. The Burtis Marine Railway is at the porate interests of varying importance. W. 130th foot of Conover st.

at. is the landing place of the ferry from Fort Lee, New Jersey. At W. 219th st. is the mouth of the

Spuyten Duyvit Creek and the Harlem Canal, BROOKLYN SHIP YARDS.

which connects the Hudson and Harlem rivers,

Mount St. Vincent, fifteen miles from the City Brooklyn is noted for its many ship yards, where Hall, is the northern limit of the city. From this tamous ships have been built. The principal work point to the southern extremity of Staten Island In that line nowadays is the building of immense the air linie length of New York City, from railroad floats and scows at Crane's yard in the

north to south, is upward of 35 miles. Erie Basin, and the building of pilot boats and yachts at Poillon's yards. Ayres' yard, foot of 55th st., and H. C. Wintringham's are known for

EAST RIVER SHORE LINE, the

construction of boats, steam and naphtha The point of land lying between the Hudson launches and steam and sail yachts. Leary's ship and East rivers, at the southern extremity of yard, on Newtown Creek, near Eagle st., is also Manhattan, is occupied by the public park known another busy place in the same line.

as the Battery. At the southeast corner of BatSouth of Gowanus Bay are the premises of nu tery Park is located the ferry to Liberty Island, merous yacht and boat clubs, From both the Barge office, a department of the customs, a st. to the Narrows the high bluff of bureau of immigration, office of the U. S. MaBay Ridge overlooks New York Bay. rine Hospital, ship news office and ferry to GovOutside the Narrows at the northern headland of ernor's Island. Next, on the East River, is the Gravesend Bay is situated the United States gov terry to Staten Island. Adjoining are the ferries ernment property and harbor defenses of Fort to Hanilton av., Atlantic av. and 39th st., BrookHamilton. From that point the remainder of the lyn, the three occupying the space to Pier 3, East shore, with the exception of a lodgment of a River, upon which is located the Quartermaster's warehouse Gravesend Bay, is occupied by | Department of the U. S. Army, From

these summer pleasure resorts of more or less im. ferries, freight terminals

ognals and

on

or as

THE WATER FRONT-MANHATTAN-Continued. railroads, steamship, steamboat and other ves- | brings the shore line down to Newtown Creek, sel landings take up the space to Wall st., from which is the northern boundary of Brooklyn, which there is a ferry to Montague st., Brooklyn, At Fulton st. there is another ferry to Brooklyn,

Staten Island. Between Fulton and Beekman sts. is lo

At St. George, five thousand feet of the water cated the principal wholesale fish market offrono is owned by the Staten Island Rapid Tranthe city. At Roosevelt st. are established the

sit Railroad Co., on which is established the ferry western piers of the great suspension bridge which landing and depot of that company, Also the connects Manhattan and Brooklyn. Between Mar- freight terminals of the Baltimore and Ohio Railket and Pike sis. are pontoon dry docks of great road Co. The latter has lately been augmented to capacity. At Clinton st. is a sectional dry dock. double its original capacity. In 1897 the company Between Broome and Delancey sts, is located the paid the Rapid Transit Co. over $500,000 for trackanchorage of the new East River bridge to Brook- age, at the rate of one cent per ton per mile. lyn in course of construction. The piers of this Adjoining these terminals is the property of the structure on the Manhattan side are fully com United States Government, appropriated to the pleted and the anchorage is well advanced. Be light house establishment at Tompkinsville. tween E. 26th and 28th sts. the water front is The adjoining 800 feet belong to the American embraced in the possessions of Bellevue Hospital, Docks' corporation, which has four great piers a free publie institution of New York City. Con- and ten extensive warehouses. Beyond Tompkinsne ted with the hospital are ferries to Blackwell's, ville about one mile of the shore is owned by the Randall's, Ward's and Hart's islands. At E. 34th Rapid Transit Co., on its own account st. the ferry to Long Island City provides connec lessee of the Staten Island Railway Co.; 1,800 tion with the Long Island Railroad system. From feet by the estate of George Bechtel, and another E. 34th to E. 84th st., excepting at E. 71st st., long stretch by A. B. Stickney, of St. Paul, Min. where the tunnel bored under the East River from nesota, President of the Chicago Great Western Ravenswood, L. I., by the East River Gas Co., Railway Co., acquired with the view of establishreaches Manhattan, the shore front is used in small ing a terminal for the freight of the railroad, via local interests, landings for ice boats, brewers' lake and canal connections. The succeeding 4,000 Ice and malt houses, etc. Between E. 84th and feet of the water front down to the U. S. GorE. 89th sts., East River Park takes in the water ernment fortifications are held by small private front and land to Avenue B. E. 89th to E. 90th owners. The remainder of the shore to the waters st. embraces the Roman Catholic institution, of the lower bay is the property of the State of Home of the Good Shepherd. E. 92d st. is the New York and the United States and occupied by landing of the ferry to Astoria, L. I. At E. the quarantine station and the fortifications on 99th st. is a ferry to College Point, L. I. At E. that side of the Narrows. South of the Narrows 127th st. is the outlet into the East River of the is South Beach, a stretch of two miles, now used Harlem River. The features of note on the Har as a seaside resort. Adjoining is Midland Beach, lem River are the bridges, some of which are recently enlarged in development. One steam and draw or swivel, at 3d av., those of the N, Y. and two electric railroads, local and from Newark and Harlem and X. y. and Northern railroads, Wash-Elizabeth, N. J., have terminals at this beach, ington Bridge, High Bridge, on which the Cro.

too. Along this shore to the bay Great Kills the ton aqueduct crosses the Harlem River and High water is shallow. Beyond Great Kills the depth inBridge Park, which borders for a considerable creases. At Prince's Bay the White Dental Co. distance the west side of the river. North of the has a large manufactory. At Tottenville, the exeastern outlet of the Harlem River, and continu-treme southern point of the Island, on Raritan ing out into the head of Long Island Sound i9 Bay, are 'brickmaking and terra cotta works and Port Morris, where is located a freight and trans- other industries. Northward at Rossville, on Statfer terminal of a branch of the N. Y., New en Island Sound, is the ultramarine manufactory Haven and Hartford Railroad. at which boats of Louis De Jonge & Co. Next, at Linoleumville, take the cars of that railroad and transfer them are large manufactories of the floor covering from to the Pennsylvania Railroad at Jersey City, N. which the place derives its name. From there a on

the west shore of the Hudson, with-wide expanse of sait marsh borders the Sound to out disturbing passengers or breaking freight bulk. the place a: which is established the abutment Some two miles beyond Port Morris the Bronx of the Arthur Kis railroad bridge, which conRiver, the limit of city improvements on the east nects the states of New Jersey and New York side, empties into Long Island Sound. From that about a mile west of Elizabethport. This bridge to Throgs Neck the shore consists chiefly of is free, and therefore accessible to all the ten salt marshes. At Thogs Veck is located Fort trunk ines of railroads west of the Hudson Råver. Schuyler, a powerful defense of this approach to Three miles further on, at Mariner's Harbor, 18 the city. Salt marshes again border much of located the largest flouring mill in the Eastern the shore in this section, and on to Pelham, the States included in the Jones-Hecker-Jewell syndinorthern limit on this side of New York City. cate; also the Dean Linseed oil mids, the most From there across the sound the New York City importan: in the neeed oi: trust. On Shooters' line takes its course to Long Island, reaching the Island in the Sound is the Standard Oil Company's land at Little Neck, on the east side of Little packing factory. Next comes the Jewett white Neck Bay. On the western side of the bay, jut- lead mills at Port Richmond, the largest conting out into the Sound and closely approaching tributor of goods to the white lead trust. Throgs Neck, is Willet's Point, which is also the Benlee ship building establishment with its strongly fortified, and with its compan- late 'arge additions and J. H. Starin's vessel ion, Fort Schuyler is believed to con- repairing shop. Further along, at Weet New stitute an impassable barrier

hostile | Brighton, is C. W. Hunt's portable railway approach. Whitestone, College Point and manufactory. At the end of another mile is Flushing line the shore to Flushing Bay. At BOW- Sailors' Snug Harbor. The income of this instiery Bay an attractive summer resort, called North tution now amounts to $1,000 per day. Between Beach, has been created. West of Bowery Bay this point and St. George there remains but New is the village of Steinway. Astoria and Ravens- Brighton, at which several industries are proswood fill up the space to Long Island City, where ecuted, chief among them being the plaster mills there are extensive petroleum refineries, paint, of J. B. King & (o., 'by which are reduced to varnish and other manufactories and numerous commercial conditions millions of tons of Nova piers for the shipping, connected with those in- Scotia piaster rock brought by vessels direct from dustries. The western terminus of the Long the mines. The circuit of the island water front Island Railroad is also located at this city. This aggregates about fifty miles.

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MARKETS.
Brooklyn.

of Hudson av., between Tillary and Concord ets.,

is the site of the slaughtering houses, at which FORT GREENE PLACE, between Atlantic av.

250,000 head of cattle, sheep, lambs and calves and Hanson pl., adjoining the Brooklyn terminus are prepared for market and sold annually. of the Long loland Railroad, is the location of dis. JOHNSON AVENUE SHAMBLES Johnson av., tributing branches of the great Western dressed

between White and Bogert sts., are important ca meat and packing houses; also of dealers exten- tle and nog slaughtering and meat selling estabeively engaged in distributing poultry to retailers. lishments. The output is the largest in the city.

HUDSON AVENUE SHAMBLES-The weet side PLYMOITTH MARKET-Est. 1875. Private prop

In

MARKETS--Continued. erty. Now situated at cor. Henry and Orange sts. the Long Island Railroad. are located commission Business retail.

and wholesale dealers in Long Island produce. WALLABOUT MARKET-For the detailed history of this market see Brooklyn Daily Eagle

Manhattan. Almanac for 1896. Established by the city, Oct., 1884, on land of the Navy Yard Reservation, rented

CATHARINE MARKET-City property, Est.

1786. from the United States Government.

Bounded by Catharine, Cherry and South

Location, Flushing and Washington ave. Fee of the land,

sts, and Catharine slip. Business, distributing to

retailers and retailing, the latter chiefly to ves17 85-100 acres, secured Nov., 1891; consideration, Additional lands, 27 15-100 acres, west of

sels docking in the vicinity. $700,000.

Revenue to the city Washington av., from Flushing av. to the East

from rents, $4,939. River, purchased from the National Government

CENTRAL MARKET--Private property. Est. June.

1894. Consideration, $1,208,666. The latter 1567. Bounded by ith av., Broadway and w. 47th tract is being developed into a canal, pier and st. Business retail. warehouse system for veeeels engaged in the food CENTRE MARKET-Oity property. Est. 1817. supply traffic. Facilities for railroad cars to bring Bounded by C'entre, Grand, Orange and Broome freight to the market without breaking buik will sts. Business distributing to retailers and retail. aleo be embraced.

May, 1894,

the city A portion of this market is occupied by the Secauthorities and market people, acting conjoint-ond District Civil Court. Lease of the remainder ly, effected from the New York State Legislature for term of yeare sold at auction at $1,500 anthe enactment of a law, chapter 569, which pro- nual rent. vided for the future administration of the market CLINTON MARKET-City property. Est. 1829. interests and authorized the city authorities to

Bounded by Canal, Spring. Washington and West issue upon lots rented five years' leases, with

sts. business, distributing to retailers and retail. privilege of two renewals of similar duration at rates adjustable at the commencement of each

Revenue to the city from rents, $7,404.75.

COLUMBUS MARKET-Private property. LOterm. The leases issued under this law required

cated at 7th av. and W, 124th st. the erection of substantial buildings of brick,

Business, retail,

FULTON MARKET-City property. Est. 1821. stone and iron, uniform in external design, at the

Bounded by Fulton, Beekman, Front and South outiay of the lessees; th buildings at the termi

sts. nation of the leases to revert to the city upon

Business, wholesale and retail. Revenue to payment of their appraised values. During the

the city from rents, $43,618.

FULTON FISH MARKET-The building is the years 1895-6 the buildings were constructed and are regarded as comprehending the nearest concep

property of an association which pays $1,200 an

nual rent for the bulkhead occupied by it on the tion possible at the present time of perfect adaptation to their respective uses.

east side of South st, between Fulton and Beek

The improvements on the east side of Washington av. during 1897-8

man sts., opposite Fulton general market. Busihave been the construction of buildings on several

ness, exclusively sea food at wholesale. additional lots rented and the completion of the

HARLEM MARKET--Private property. Opened market office building, for the accommodation of

1891. Bounded by Ist av., E 1024 and 103d sts and the market officers, health department, telegraph

Avenue A. Business, distributing to retailers. Has station, etc., the gift to the market of ex-Commis- also an open square in which market gardeners sioner of City Works Alfred T. White, under

stand their wagons and sell their vegetables diwhose administration the reconstruction of the

rect from their farms. market was instituted, and chiefly carried out.

JEFFERSON MARKET-City property. Est. There has aiso been additions to the paved area

1832-3. Bounded by 6th av., Greenwich av. and of the plaza appropriated to the use of the wagons

W. 10th st. Business, distributing to retailers and of farmers in the sale of market garden produce.

retail. Revenue to the city from rents $9,064.50. of the work on the west side of Washington av.

MANHATTAN MARKET-Property of the N. Y. the Wallabout basin is practically completed;

Central and Hudson River Railroact Co. Bounded the bulkhead wall surrounding the same having

by 11th av., W. 34th and 35th sts. and 12th av. been finished during the past year.

The total Originally established in 1871 by the city at a dredging or excavation, giving a depth of about

cost of $3,000,000. Consumed by fire in 1879. Site sixteen feet at low water over almost the entire sold to present owner a few years later, by which basin, has amounted to 640.000 cubic yards, accom

present buildings were erected. Business, wholeplished at the cost of $127,000. The bulkhead wail

sale and distributing to retailers, both meats and along the south and west sides of the basin,

vegetables. 1,680 feet in length, has cost $157,000, and the wall

TOMPKINS MARKET-City property. Est. 1828. along the easterly side of the basin, some 1,080 Bounded by 3.1 av., E. 6th and 7th and Hall sts. feet long. $90,000. These walls add mooring The greater part of the building is occupied for frontage of over half a mile in length to the city's an armory by the 69th Regt., V. G. N. Y. wharfage

room. Piers will be built into the Business, on ground floor, wholesale meat dealers, basin from the easterly bulkhead as business re

distributing to retailers. Revenue to the city from quires, The lease of one of the piers to the rents, $7,105.88. Pennsylvania Railroad Company at the annual

WASHINGTON MARKET-City property. Est. rental of $12,000 to enable the delivery of freight

1813. Bounded by Washington, West. Fulton and by that railroad to the market without intermedi. Vesey sts. Present structure erected in 1880. ate handling has been agreed to by Comptroller Business, wholesale and retail. Revenue to the Coler.

The preparation of the pier for the serv city from rents, $80,348.75 by last report. The reice will involve the outlay by the city of $40,000 duction of 20 per cent, from the amount of rents and of $100,000 by the railroad company.

previously charged in this market to take effect The business of the market is distributed to re

September 21, 1898, was ordered by the City Comptall dealers, and is estimated to aggregate at least

troller. $25,000,000 a year in the value of commodities

WEST WASHINGTON MARKET-City properhandled. A considerabie portion of such amount ty. Originally an auxiliary of Washington Maris contributed by the market gardeners of Long ket, located on bulkhead and wharves of HudIsland, who dispose of their vegetables in

the son River, Opposite that market an} between Dey square of the market set apart for their use,

and Barclay sts. Moved to Washington and West and in which 546 wagon loads of such produce sts. and 13th av., between Gansevoort and W. 12th were sold on a Saturday in the summer of 1897.

sts., in 1889. Market for meats and vegetables, Revenue to the city

as per report of fiscal year that portion between West st. and 13th av., while closing November 30, 1897–From lot rents, $42,- space between West and Washington sts. 'is eft 046.65; from farmer's fees,

open for the standing wagons

market garUnder the changed condition of the city govern

deners in the sale of their vegetables. Nearly ment the revenue of 1898 from the markets will

500 wagon loads of vegetables have been sold in not be reported until the commencement of the

this square in a single day. Business, wholesale It will, though, in this market, not

and distributing to retailers. Permits to do busivary greatly from that received in 1897, through

ness in this market are revocable by the Compthe lot rents being enlarged from new leases and

troller without time notice Revenue to city last farmers' fees reduced by smaller yield in crops,

year from rents of stands, $104,699. From farmers' through the season's unfavorable weather upon

wagon fees, $15,381.25. This year the aggregate of che rents will be larger through there being fewer

unoccupied stands, while fees from farmers will VEGETABLE MARKET-On Bushwiok av., at amount to less in

consequence of unfavorable the western terminus of the Montauk division of weather in May, reducing market gardeners' crops.

a

new year.

agriculture.

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