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c Acts iii. 14.

began to desire [him to do] as he had ever done unto
them. 9 But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that
I release unto you the King of the Jews? 10 For he knew
that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.
11 But
the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather
release Barabbas unto them. 12 And Pilate answered and
said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do
unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews? 13 And
they cried out again, Crucify him. 14 Then Pilate said
unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they
cried out [m the more] exceedingly, Crucify him.
15 And
so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas
unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged
him, to be crucified. 16 And the soldiers led him away
into the hall, a called Prætorium; and they call together
the whole band. 17 And they clothed him with purple,
and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head,
18 and began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews!
19 And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did
spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him.
20 And when they had mocked him, they took off the
purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led
him out to crucify him. 21 And they compel one Simon a
Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the
father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.
22 And


not expressed in the original.
n render, which is.

8.] This is also peculiar to Mark-in Mat-
thew it is Pilate who first offers them the
choice-in Luke they cry out, but it is
"away with this man, &c." ver. 18.
coming up probably implies the rising of
the crowd in excitement- or perhaps their
coming up towards the palace, as "when
they were gathered together" in Matthew.

9.] Here our account differs from Matthew and agrees with John, ver. 39. 10.] He knew is the imperfect tense He was aware, He perceived, His apprehension of it was concurrent with the action going on. 12.] whom ye call the King of the Jews is "Jesus, which is called Christ" in Matthew. Neither of these expressions can well have been copied from the other. 13.] again only refers to "cried out;" see ver. 8, where this is implied in "began to desire:"-they had not cried out this before.



m omit.

• render, his.

Matt. xxvii. 27-30 (omitted in Luke). John xix. 1-3. See notes on Matthew. 16.] hall, the court or guard room, but open, see note on Matt. xxvi. 69.

17.] purple, in Greek, is vaguely used, to signify different shades of red, and is especially convertible with "scarlet," as St. Matthew.

20-23.] HE IS LED TO CRUCIFIXION. Matt. xxvii. 31-34. Luke xxiii. 26-33. John xix. 16, 17. See notes on these. 21. Alexander and Rufus] It is quite uncertain whether Alexander be identical with either of the persons of that name mentioned Acts xix. 33, 1 Tim. i. 20, 2 Tim. iv. 14, or whether those, or any two of them, represent one and the same person. There is a Rufus saluted Rom. xvi. 13. The words coming out of the country determine nothing as to its being a working day or otherwise, any more than "they that passed by" Matthew, ver. 39: nothing

they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull. 23 And they P gave him [PP to drink] wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it


not. 24 And when they had crucified him, they parted a Ps. xxil. 18. his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take. 25 And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. 26 And the superscription of his accusation. was written over, The King of the Jews. 27 And with him they crucify two 49 thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left. [ 28 And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the trans-Isa. liii. 12. gressors.] 29 And they that passed by railed on him, f Ps. xxii. 7. wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that de- 8 ch. xiv. 58. stroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, 30 save thyself, and come down from the cross. 31 Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save [. 32 Let Christ the King of Israel] descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified

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PP omit. romit.

John ii. 19.

I read, part.

render, himself he cannot save, the Christ, the king of Israel. Let him descend now. . . .


is said as to the distance from whence he 22.] the place Golgotha-or perhaps the place of Golgotha, as the word Golgotha would then answer to a skull in the interpretation; St. Luke has "the place which is called a skull."


wine mingled with myrrh is "vinegar mingled with gall" in Matthew, which see. Literally, they were giving, i. e. they offered.

24-28. HE IS CRUCIFIED. Matt. xxvii. 35-38. Luke xxiii. 33, 31, 38. John xix. 18-24. 25. the third hour] This date is in agreement with the subsequent account, ver. 33, and its parallel in Matthew and Luke, but, as now standing unexplained, inconsistent with John, xix. 14, where it is said to have been about the sixth hour at the time of the exhibition of our Lord by Pilate. I own I see no satisfactory way of reconciling these accounts, unless there has been (see note on John) some very early erratum in our copies, or unless it can be shewn from other grounds than the difficulty before us, that John's reckoning of time differs from that employed in the other Evangelists. The difficulty is of a kind in no

way affecting the authenticity of the narrative, nor the truthfulness of each Evangelist; but requires some solution to the furnishing of which we are not competent. It is preposterous to imagine that two such accounts as these of the proceedings of so eventful a day should differ by three whole hours in their apportionment of its occurrences. So that it may fairly be presumed, that some different method of calculation has given rise to the present discrepancy. Meanwhile the chronology of our text,-as being carried on through the day, and as allowing time both for the trial, and the events of the crucifixion, is that which will I believe be generally concurred in. All the other solutions (so called) of the difficulty are not worth relating.

29-32.] HE IS MOCKED ON THE CROSS. Matt. xxvii. 39-44. Luke xxiii. 35-37, 39-43. (John xix. 25-27.) Our narrative, derived from a common source with that of Matthew, omits the scriptural allusion, "He trusted in God," &c. Matthew, ver. 43. 32. And they that were crucified with him] See notes on Luke.

with him reviled him. 33 And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole t land until the ninth hour. 34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a h Ps. xxii. 1. loud voice, [tt saying,] Elöi, Elöi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? 35 And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias. 36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a


i Ps. lxix. 21. reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down. 37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. 38 And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. 39 And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so [ cried out, and] gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of 40 There were also women looking on kafar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; 41 who also, 1 Luke viii. 2, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him; and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.

k Ps. xxxviii. God.



42 And now when the even was come, because it was the

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" render, breathed his last: the words are not as in Matthew.
▾ omitted by several ancient authorities, probably rightly.

33-37.] SUPERNATURAL DARKNESS. LAST WORDS, AND DEATH OF JESUS. Matt. xxvii. 45-50. Luke xxiii. 44-46. John xix. 28-30. Our account is nearly verbally the same with Matthew.

34.] Elöi, the Syro-chaldaic form, answering to "Eli" in Matthew. Meyer argues that the words in Matthew must have been those actually spoken by our Lord, owing to the taunt, that He called for Elias. The last word is pronounced Sabáchthani, not Sabachtháni. 36.] On the differ

ence in Matthew, see notes there.

38-41.] SIGNS FOLLOWING HIS DEATH. Matt. xxvii. 51-56. Luke xxiii. 45, 4749. Omitted by John. See notes on Matthew. 39.] which stood over against him -a minute mark of accuracy, so common in Mark. so-so majestically, as Theophylact. There was something in the manner of this last cry so unusual and superhuman, that the Centurion (see on Matthew) was convinced that He must have been that Person, whom He was

accused as having declared Himself to be.

40, 41.] the less-literally, the little-either in age, or in stature, so distinguished, hardly, at the time of this Gospel being written, from James the son of Zebedee, but more probably from James the brother of the Lord, the bishop of Jerusalem see Introduction to Epistle of James. This Mary is the wife of Alphæus or Clopas; see John xix. 25. Salome

is called in Matthew, "the mother of the
sons of Zebedee:" our Evangelist men-
tions that they had accompanied Him to
Jerusalem;-and we may observe a curious
variation of the wording, in "
Him when He was in Galilee," and "fol-
lowed Jesus from Galilee"-- the former
rendering necessary the additional clause,
"which came up with Him," &c.

42-47.] JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA BEGS, AND BURIES, THE BODY OF JESUS. Matt. xxvii. 57-61. Luke xxiii. 50-56. John xix. 38-42. For all notes on the substance of the common narrative, see

preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, 43 Joseph of Arimathæa, an honourable counsellor, which also


m waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in m Luke ii. 25, boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus. 44 And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. 45 And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the v body to Joseph. 46 And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre. 47 And Mary Magdalene and Mary [w the mother] of Joses beheld where he was laid.

XVI. 1 And when the sabbath

v literally, corpse.

Matthew. 42. the preparation, that
is, the day before the sabbath] The Friday
afternoon (the preparation-Parascevé,
"the name by which Friday is now gene-
rally known in Asia and Greece." Wordsw.)
before sunset, at which time the Sabbath
would begin, and the taking down, &c.
would be unlawful. The three Evangelists
do not imply that this "preparation" had
any thing especial in it, as St. John does,
ver. 31. 43.] honourable- probably in
its later sense of noble, i.e. in station. But
Meyer supposes it rather to refer to some-
thing noble in the character or appearance
of Joseph. counsellor, a member of
the Sanhedrim ;-see Luke, ver. 51.
waited for the kingdom of God is common
to Mark and Luke. went in boldly]
Characteristic of St. Mark's narrative. On
the change of mind produced in Joseph
and in Nicodemus by the crucifixion, see
note, John xix. 39. 44.] There is no
inconsistency, or but a very trifling one,
with the order in John, ver. 31, to break
their legs and take them down. The cir-
cumstances related there had taken place,
but no report of them had been made to
Pilate. And the Body of the Lord had
not been taken down, for some reason
which does not appear, but which we can
easily guess-if Joseph had declared to
the soldiers his intention of begging the
Body, nay, had immediately gone (perhaps
with them) to Pilate for that purpose,-
and went in boldly looks like a sudden
and unannounced application,-they would
have left the Body for him to take down.

was past, Mary Mag

not expressed in the original. already taken place. 45. gave] The passage cited from Cicero to shew that it was customary to give money on such occasions, is not to the point; "the parents were obliged to purchase with money a speedy death," is not said of the body after death, but of a fee given to the officer for shortening the torments of the executed. 46. bought] Therefore

it was not the first day of unleavened bread, which was one of sabbatical sanctity; as indeed the whole of this narrative shews, but such expressions as this more strikingly. in a sepulchre] It is not said, but implied, both here and in Luke and John, that the tomb was his own-for how should he place the Body there otherwise? The newness of the tomb is not mentioned here, but by the other three Evangelists. 47.] Mary

of Joses-understand mother; see ver. 40. That the same person is so called here, and Mary of James in the next verse, points to a difference of origin in the two accounts here, of the Crucifixion and Resurrection.

The mother of the Lord had in all probability previously departed: see notes on Matt. xxvii. 56 and John xix. 27.

St. Luke generalizes, and says, the women who came with Him from Galilee.

Some have understood by Mary of Joses or Jose or Joseph (for all are read here in the MSS.), the wife or daughter of Joseph of Arimathæa-some, the mother of the Lord: but both unnecessarily, and without proof.

CHAP. XVI. 1-8.] THE WOMEN, marvelled if he were already dead COMING TO THE SEPULCHRE, ARE AP-he wondered at the fact thus an- PRISED OF HIS RESURRECTION. Matt. nounced to him of His death having xxviii. 1-10. Luke xxiv. 1-12. John

a Luke xxiii.


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dalene, and Mary [w the mother] of James, and Salome, ax had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. 2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. 3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. 5 And zz entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. 7 But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye

W not expressed in the original.

y render, when the sun was risen.

zz read, when they came to. xx. 1-10. On the general difficulties of this portion of the Gospels, and my view respecting them, see notes on Matthew.

1. when the sabbath was past] It was strictly when the Sabbath was ended, i. e. at sunset, that they bought the spices. St. Luke xxiii. 55, places it on the evening before the Sabbath; a slight but valuable discrepancy, as shewing the independence of the accounts. To suppose two parties of women (Greswell) or to take bought as pluperfect (as the A. V.) is equally arbitrary and unwarranted. anoint him] This had not been done as yet. Nicodemus (John xix. 40) had only wrapped the Body hurriedly in the spices with the linen clothes. 2. when the sun was risen] This does not agree with Matthew, "as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week"-Luke, " at early (or deep) dawn;" or John, "when it was yet dark:" -nor indeed with "very early in the morning" of our narrative itself. If the sun was up, it would be between 6 and 7 o'clock; which in the East especially, where even public business was transacted very early, could not be so called. Even Greswell virtually acknowledges a difficulty here. 3, 4. It had been rolled away by an angel, Matthew. for it was very great is stated as a reason why they could see that it was rolled away on look. ing up, possibly at some distance. This explanation is according to St. Mark's manner of describing minute circumstantial incidents; but to refer this clause

render, bought.

2 literally, looked up.

back as the reason why they questioned
who should remove the stone, is not only
harsh, but inconsistent with the usage
of this Gospel. 5.] In Matthew-an
angel, sitting on the stone which he had
rolled away. Here he is described as he
appeared, and we are left to infer what he
was. In Luke, -two angels appeared to
them in the tomb. The incident to which
these accounts point, must be distinct from
that related John xx. 11, which was after
Mary Magdalene returned from the city.
It is not worth while to detail the attempts
which have been made to reconcile these
various reports of the incident: they pre-
sent curious examples of the ingenuity, and
(probably unconscious) disingenuousness,
of the Harmonists. I may mention that
Greswell supposes the angels in Matthew
and Mark to be distinct, and accounts for
were affrighted in our text thus: After
seeing one angel without already, they
were probably less prepared than before
to see another so soon after within.'
6.] From the come of St. Matthew, I should
be inclined to think that his is the strictly
accurate account. This word implies that
the angel accompanied the women into
the tomb and if so, an imperfect nar-
rative like that in the text might easily
describe his whole appearance as taking
place within. 7.] But breaks off the
discourse and turns to a new matter-

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But now rather do ye... and Peter] It is hardly perhaps likely that the denial of Peter was the ground of this

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