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see him, bas he said unto you. 8 And they went out b Matt. xxvi [a quickly], and fled from the sepulchre; for aa they trembled 28. and were amazed : neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid. [b 9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. c Luke viii. 2. 10 [d And] she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11 And they, when they heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not. 12 After that he e appeared in another form d unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the a Luke iziv.

& omit, aa render, for trembling and amazement had possession of them.

b this passage, ver. 16-end, is omitted in some of the oldest authorities, and in all probability formed no part of St. Mark's original Gospel. On its authenticity, see note. Crender, he.

domit.

e render, was manifested.

message, though it is difficult not to con- the 2nd century: but Jerome in the 3rd nect the two in the mind. The mention says that nearly all the Greek MSS. in of him here is probably merely official-as his time did not contain it. The legitithe first among equals. We cannot say mate inference is, that it was placed as that others of the Apostles may not have a completion of the Gospel soon after the denied their Master besides Peter.

apostolic period, -the Gospel itself having It must not be concluded from this that been, for some reason unknown to us, left we have a trace of Peter's hand in the incomplete. 9.] the first day of the narrative. 8.] The idea of our nar- week is remarkable as occurring so soon rative here is, that the women fled in after the mention of it, ver. 2 (see Luke terror from the sepulchre, and did not xviii. 12). out of whom he had cast deliver the message at the time,-for they ...] This notice, coming so late, after the were afraid. All attempts to reconcile mention of Mary Magdalene in ver. 1., this with the other Gospels are futile. It is remarkable. The instances quoted by is a manifest evidence that our narrative De Wette to shew that the unexpected is here suddenly broken off, and (per introduction of notices contained in the haps ?) that no more information about other Gospels is in St. Mark's manner, do the women was in the possession of its not seem to me to apply here. This author. The subsequent verses are quite verse agrees with John xx. 1 ff., but is disconnected from this; and contain the unconnected with the former narrative in substance of their writer's information this chapter. 10. went and ...] This respecting the other appearances of the idiom, never used by St. Mark, is three times Lord.

contained in this passage (vy. 12, 15). 19-20.7 APPEARANCES OF JESUS AFTER

them that had been with him, though HIS RESURRECTION: HIS ASCENSION. An

An found in the Acts (xx. 18), never occurs in addition to the narrative of a compen the Gospels : nor does the word “discidious and supplementary character, bear

ples " in this passage. 11.] See John ing traces of another hand from that Xx. 18: Luke xxiv. 11.

had been which has shaped the diction and con

seen of (by) her is a construction only struction of the rest of the Gospel.

found here in N. T., and the word here The reasons for and against this inference

used for “ seen” (which occurs again ver. will be found in the various readings in my

14) is not used by Mark. believed Greek Testament, and in the course of this not (disbelieved) is only used in ver. 16 note: and a general statement of them at and Luke xxiv. 11, 41, throughout the the end of it. I may here state, for the Gospels. 12.] After that is not found English reader, that the passage is omitted, in Mark, though many opportunities oco -or marked as suspicious, as variously curred for using it. This verse epitomizes given,-or asserted not to occur in the cor- the events on the journey to Emmaus, rect copies,- in many of our oldest authori. Luke xxiv. 13--35. was manifested ties. It is quoted as early as Irenæus, in ... as they walked, though in general

e Luke xxiv. 30. Joha xx 19. 1 Cor. IV

country. 13? And they went and told it unto the residue : e Luke nuit, neither believed they them. 14 e Afterward he appeared

unto & the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided (88 them

with] their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they 1 John XV, 16. believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

15 ? And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, & and 32. Bom preach the gospel to h every creature. 16 h He that believeth i John xii. 48. and is baptized shall be saved; i but he that believeth not f render, they also.

& render, the eleven themselves. 88 omit : not in the original. h render, to the whole creation. The expression is the same as in Rom. viii. 22.

8 Col. i. 23.
h John iii. 18,

38: xvi. 30

9.

i Pet, iii.

accord with St. Luke's narrative, is not xxvi. 13. the whole creation] Not accurate in detail. It was not as they to men only, although men only can hear walked, but as they sat at meat that the preaching of the Gospel; all creation he was manifested to them. in an- is redeemed by Christ-see Col. i. 15, 23; other form - a slight difference from Luke Rom. viii. 19-23. “Men, primarily, ver. xxiv. 15, 16, which relates the reason why 16: the rest of the creatures secondarily. they did not know Him to be, that their As wide as the curse extends, reaches the eyes were holden, his being in his usual blessing. The creation by the Son, is the form being declared by Jesus himself: but foundation of redemption and of the kingsee notes there. 13.] they also - as dom.” Bengel.

This word creaMary Magdalene had done before. tion, or creature, appears never in the the residue---supply, of those that had been N. T. to be used of mankind alone. Benwith Him.

neither believed they gel's the rest of the creatures in the them--not consistent with Luke xxiv. 33, second placemay be illustrated in the 34. Here again the Harinonists have used blessings which Christianity confers on the every kind of distortion of the plain inferior creatures and the face of the earth meaning of words to reconcile the two by bringing civilization in its wake. accounts; assuming that some believed By these words the missionary office is and some doubted, that they first doubted bound upon the Church through all ages, and then believed ; or, according to Ben- till every part of the earth shall have gel, first believed and then doubted. been evangelized. 16.] These past 11.] The following narrative, evidently participles must be noticed, as carrying intended by its author to represent what on the thought to a time beyond the work took place at one and the same time, joins of the preacher: when saved and damned together in one at least four appearances shall take place; and reserving the division of the Lord : (1) that related in this verse of mankind into these two classes, till that and Luke xxiv. 36—49; (2) that on the day. On baptized, see note on Matt. mountain in Galilee (Matt. xxviii. 16—20), xxviii. 19. There is no “and is not when the words in ver. 15 were spoken; baptizedin the second clause here. Un. (3) some unrecorded appearance when the belief-by which is meant the rejection of rest of these words (vv. 16–18) were the Gospel in heart and life, not weakness spoken,-unless we consider the whole to or doubt as in ver. 14–shall condemn a have been said on the mountain in Gali. man, whether baptized or unbaptized. lee; and (4) the appearance which ter. And, conversely, it follows that our Lord minated with the Ascension. The does not set forth here the absolute, latter part of this ver. 14 appears to be but only the general necessity of Baptism an epitome of what our Lord said to them to salvation; as the Church of England on several occasions-see Luke xxiv. 25, also teaches. But that general necessity 38; John xx. 27; Matt. xxviji. 17.

extends to all to whom Baptism is acces15. all the world] all the nations," sible; and it was well said " not the priMatt. xxviii. 19: see note there.

vation, but the contempt of Baptism, conpreach the Gospel, without the addition demns."

demns,"

These words cannot be of “of the kingdom(Matthew) or of taken, as those in Matt. xxviii. 19, 20, God(Mark i. 14 only, Luke), is in st. as setting forth the order in which faith Mark's manner (see ch. xiii. 10; xiv. 9). and baptism must always come; belief and It only once occurs in Matthew, viz. disbelief are in this verse the great leading

viii. 7: xvi.

18: xix. 12. k Acts ii. 4:

X 40: xix. 6.

1 Luke x, 19.

m Acts v. 15,

10: ix. 17: xxviii, 8.

n Acts 1. 2. 3.

shall be damned. 17 And these signs shall follow them i Luke x. 17.

Acts y. 16: that believe ; ' In my name shall they cast out devils ; :, 71 . k they shall speak with new tongues; 18 1 they shall take * 48 : 'xix. 6.

1 Cor. xii, 10, up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall be not hurt them; m they shall lay hands on the sick, and Acts Ixviii. they shall recover. 19 So then n after the Lord had spoken "18: ix. 17: unto them, he was received up into heaven, and P sat on James v. 13, the right hand of God. 20 And they went forth, and O Luke xxiv.51.

p Ps.cx. 1. Acts vii. 55. subjects, and believeth must on that account the Lord in the message (common to all stand first. On he that believeth three Gospels) ch. xi. 3-but that mani. ... shall be saved, compare Acts xvi. 31. festly is no example. after the Lord This is a solemn declaration of the doc. had spoken can only in fairness mean, trine of salvation by faith,' from the "when He had spoken these words. All Lord Himself; but such a faith as is endeavours of the Harmonists to include expanded, Matt. xxviii. 20, into teaching in them “not only these words, but all them to observe all that I have com- that He spake(Euthymius) will have no manded you; which is its proper fruits. weight with an honest reader, who looks

shall be damned, i. e. in the most to the evident sense of his author alone, solemn sense : for the sin of unbelief :for and disregards other considerations. That those are now spoken of who hear the other words were spoken, we kuow; but Gospel preached, and reject it. 17.) that this author intended us to infer that, This promise is generally made, without surely is not deducible from the text, and limitation to the first ages of the Church. is too often allowed in such cases to creep Should occasion arise for its fulfilment, fallaciously in as an inference. We never there can be no doubt that it will be shall read or comment on Scripture with made good in our own or any other time. full profit, till all such subterfuges are But we must remember that signs are abandoned, and the Gospel evidence treated not needed where Christianity is pro. in the clear light of intelligent and honest fessed: nor by missionaries who are backed faith. We have an example of this last in by the influence of powerful Christian na. Theophylact's exposition," when He had tions. There are credible testimonies

was received up] I of miraculous powers having been exer. should hardly say that the author of this cised in the Church considerably after the fragment necessarily implies an ascension Apostles' time shall cast out devils) from the place where they were then The Lord Himself has declared how weighty assembled. The whole of these two verses a sign this was, Matt. xii. 28. For fulfil. is of a compendious character, and as sat ments of the promise, see Acts v. 16; on the right hand of God must be underviii. 7; xvi. 18. shall speak with new stood as setting forth a fact not compretongues) See 1 Cor. xiv. 22: Acts ii. 4 al. hended in the cycle of the writer's obOn the gift of tongues, see notes at those servation, but certain in the belief of all places. 18.] shall take up serpents Christians, so this may very well speak of see Acts xxviii. 3-5. if they drink the fact as happening, not necessarily then &c.] We have no instance of this given and there, but (see remarks above) after in the Acts: but later, there are several these words were spoken ; provided always stories which, if to be relied on, furnish that these words are recognized as the last examples of its fulfilment. Eusebius says in the view and information of our Evanthat “a wonderful thing was related of gelist. I say this not with any harmonistic Justus, who was surnamed Barsabas,-that view, but because the words themselves he drank deadly poison and felt no evil, seem to require it. (See on the Ascension, through the grace of the Lord.” on notes on Luke xxiv. 51 ff.) 20.] went the sick7 “to lay hands on” is in Mark's forth-not, from the chamber where they manner; see ch. viii. 25; x. 16. There is were assembled — which would not answer no mention of the anointing with oil here, to preached every where, but would reas in James v. 14. 19.] The connecting quire some immediate action of that very particle, rendered so then,—the Lord, day to correspond to it (see Matt. xii. 14); and the Lord Jesus, which some MSS. read -but used in the more solemn sense of here, are alike foreign to the diction of Rom. x. 18 (cited from Ps. xviii. 4 LXX). Mark, in speaking of the Lord : we have their sound is gone forth into all lands :

VOL. I.

U

xiv. 3. 1 Cor. ii. 4,5. Heb. ii. 4.

9 Acts T.12:. preached every where, the Lord working with them, 9 and

6. confirming the word with i signs following. [* Amen.]] i render, the signs that followed.

komit. see reff.

every where] No inference ternal evidence, see as above. As to its can be drawn from this word as to the genuineness as a work of the Evangelist date of the fragment. In Acts ix. 32 Peter Mark, (2) internal evidence is, I think, is said to have passed throughout all very weighty against St. Mark's being the (quarters) ...;" – the expression being author. No less than twenty-one words and only a general one, indicating their per- erpressions occur in it (and some of them formance, in their time and degree, of our several times), which are never elsewhere Lord's words, into all the world.

used by St. Mark,--whose adherence to the Lord, i. e. Jesus : see Matt. xxviii. 20: his own peculiar phrases is remarkable. Heb. ii. 3, 4, which last passage some have (3) The inference therefore seems to me to absurdly supposed to have been seen and be, that it is an authentic fragment, used by our Evangelist. The two words placed as a completion of the Gospel in rendered following (here and in ver. 17) are very early times : by whom written, must compound verbs, and both foreign to the of course remain wholly uncertain; but diction of St. Mark, often as he uses the coming to us with very weighty sanction, simple verb.

and having strong claims on our reception A few concluding remarks may be added and reverence.] respecting vv. 9–20. (1) For the ex

Used

[blocks in formation]

I. 1 FORASMUCH as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a a declaration of those things which are most

a render, narration concerning. CHAP 1.1-4.7 PREFACE ADDRESSED TO Introduction to Luke. (4) I believe the THEOPHILUS. The style of this preface is only probable interpretation of the words purer Greek than the contents of the Gospel, to be, that many persons, in charge of and also more laboured and formal.— This Churches, or otherwise induced, drew up, may be accounted for, partly because it is here and there, statements (narratives) of the composition of the Evangelist himself, the testimony of eye-witnesses and minisand not translated from Hebrew sources ters of the word (see below), so far as they like much of the rest, and partly because themselves had been able to collect them. prefaces, especially when also dedicatory, (I do not believe that either the Gospel are usually in a rounded and artificial of St. Matthew or that of St. Mark is to style. 1. many] Much depends on the be reckoned among these; or if they are, meaning of this word, as guiding, or modi. that St. Luke had seen or used them.) fying, our opinion on the relation and That such narratives should not have come sources of our Gospel histories. (1) That down to us, is no matter of surprise : for the writers of our present Gospels ex- (1) they would be absorbed by the more clusively cannot be meant, is evident; complete and sanctioned accounts of our since, even supposing St. Luke to have present Evangelists; and (2) Church traseen all three Gospels, one (that of St. dition has preserved very few fragments of John) was wholly, and another (that of authentic information of the apostolic age. St. Matthew) was in greater part, the It is probable that in almost every Church production of an eye-witness and minister where an eye-witness preached, his testiof the word,—which would leave only one mony would be taken down, and framed for the many. (2) Apocryphal Gospels ex. into some narrative, more or less complete, clusively cannot be meant : for they would of the life and sayings of the Lord. not be narrations concerning matters fully have taken in hand] This does not nebelieved among us, nor delivered by eye- cessarily imply the insufficiency of such witnesses and ministers of the word,' a narrations, as some have imagined. The great part of their contents being excluded fact of that failure is indeed implied in by this very author from his own narra St. Luke's description of his own worktion. (3) A combination of these two but that, more because it possessed commay be intended-e. g. of the later sort, pleteness (whereas they were fragmentary) the Gospel according to the Hebrews,- than from any difference in kind. of the former, that according to St. Mark, to set forth in order] more properly, to but then also how shall we make out the draw up,—to arrange a declaramany ? Our present apocryphal Gospels tion] a setting forth: and so if in relation arose far later than any likely date which to things past, a narration-history. can be assigned to St. Luke's Gospel : see surely believed] According to some, this

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