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on June 18 to be in violation of existing commercial treaties between the two Powers. Russia has since notified the United States of its readiness to return to normal relations. The Russian tariff upon American iron and steel goods would prove prohibitive in presence of European competition. Government aid to nianufacture appears in the contemplated export tariff on sawn wood, which is likely to force German factors of wooden articles to locate within the Russian border. In 1899 Germany imported sawn and cut wood from Russia to the value of $9,750,000.
AREA AND POPULATION.-Russia is the largest continuous empire in the world, occupying about one-seventh of the earth's total land surface, and covering Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Its area is 8,645,803 square miles, of
make a grand total of about 130,000,000. Of this population about three-fourths are Slavs, and the balance are Poles, Finns, Germans in the Baltic provinces and in the South; Jews to the number of 3,500,000 in the West, and Tartars with other Mongolian tribes in the Southwest. Among the cities the population of St. Petersburg was 1,267,023, of Moscow 1,035,664, of Warsaw 638,208, of Odessa 405,011, of Lodz 315,209, of Riga 282,943, and of Kieff 247,432. The immigration of foreigners in 1896 was 6,906; the emigration of Russians was 27,084. The rate of increase is very rapid, being 74 per cent since 1859, and 1,913,281. for the single year 1896, which year saw no territorial accessions, and that in spite of the high mortality, which is over 42 per cent before reaching five years of age. Of the total population of 130 millions in 1897 only 16 millions lived in towns of over 1,000 population, which is but 13 per cent, while the population in France of towns over even 2,000 is 37.4 per cent, and in Germany 49.9 also over 2,000. This argues economic and social backwardness in Russia.
Russia in Asia comprises the following divi. sions: Northern Caucasia
THE CZAR OF RUSSIA, NICHOLAS II.
which only 2,081,025 square miles lie in Europe. This European part consists of one vast plain marked to the north and northwest by immense forests and numerous lakes, to the south by dry and treeless steppes, while between lies the wheat-land. The greatest rivers of Europe traverse these plains, and form the water highways of Russia. The forests cover not less than one-third the area of Russia, and contain pine, fir, oak and some linden and beech.
According to the last imperial census taken February 9, 1897, the population of European Russia was 94,188,750, of Poland 9,442,590, and of Finland 2,483,249, making a total of 106,114,589. The addition of Asiatic Russia would
Russians in Finland, Bokhara, Khiva and the Navy....
42,909 GOVERNMENT.-The emperor, or czar, of Russia is a hereditary absolute monarch, uniting in himself the supreme legislative, judicial and executive powers. Their administration is done through four great councils. The first is the Council of Ministers, each of whom is appointed by and is directly responsible to the emperor, while there is no prime minister. The present ministers are as follows: 1. Minister of the Imperial House and Imperial Domain, General W. Freedericksz. 2. Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Lamsdorf. 3. Minister of War, General Kuropatkin. 4. Minister of Navy, Vice-Admiral Tyrtoff. 5. Minister of the Interior, M. Sipyaghin. 6. Minister of Public Instruction, M. Vannovsky. 7. Minister of Finance, M. Witte. 8. Minister of Justice, M. Muravieff. 9. Minister of Agriculture and State Domains, M. Yermoloff. 10. Minister of Public Works and Railways, Prince Khilkoff. 11. Department of General Control, General Lobko. 12. Procurator-General of the Holy Synod, M. Pobyedonostseff. 13. Minister and State Secretary for Finland, M. de Plehwe. Besides these ministers, three Grand Dukes and many functionaries, chiefly es-ministers, swell
the size of this council. The second council is ard in Europe. Mr. W. T. Stead, the English the Council of State, or of the empire, which champion of Russia, could defend it from cerin 1900 had 93 members, also appointed by the tain unmentionable charges only by the desemperor, and includes the ministers and several perate consideration that, if such were the case, -now four-members of the imperial family. Russians could not be men. The birth rate is Its use is simply for consultation on matters of the highest in Europe, so that the population legislation submitted by the ministers, and on can double in 46 years. the budget. As such it has no power of initia FINLAND is a grand-duchy, which was ceded tive. It is divided into four departments, to Russia in 1809, but had preserved its national namely, those of Legislation, Civil and Church parliament, summoned by the Czar of Russia Administration, State's Economy and Industry, to consider laws of his proposal and under his Sciences and Commerce, this last having been veto, but needed to change the constitution or established as recently as January, 1900. The to levy taxes. The Senate, which administers third council is the Ruling Senate, consisting the laws, is nominated by the Czar. (For reof persons of high rank or otfice appointed by cent history see p. 260.) the emperor. It both promulgates laws and POLAND lost its constitution in 1830, its forms the high court of justice. But there pre separate government in 1864, and in 1868 was sides over each of its six sections some lawyer by ukase of the Czar absolutely incorporated of eminence as representative of the czar, and with Russia, use of the Polish language for without his signature no decision would have public purposes being prohibited. force. It also reviews the acts of the governors THE BALTIC PROVINCES have likewise sufand settles their disputes with zemstvos. The fered gradual curta ilment of their ancient fourth council is the Holy Synod, which com rights, ending in 1889 with absorption into prises the metropolitans and bishops of the Russian administration. Russian Church, to which is intrusted the su BOKHARA, in Central Asia, is under the perintendence of religion.
suzerainty of Russia. Its sovereign is the For administration Russia is divided into gov Ameer Sayid Abdul Ahad, who was educated ernments, each under a governor-general who in Russia. Russian influence began in 1866 represents the czar and liolds supreme civil and and became exclusive in 1873. Its population military control. In European Russia local af is about 2.5 million, and their religion Islamfairs are largely in the hands of the people, ism. The army numbers 11,000. No spiritgrouped as mirs (communes) to the number of uous liquors are admitted to Bokhara. The 107,676. The land held by a mir is divided Russian Trans-Caspian Railway runs through among the families according to the number the country. of their workers, but the mir is responsible for KHIVA is another vassal State to Russia, the taxes. The mir assembly is formed by all lying south of the Aral Sea. Its sovereign, householders, and decides all communal affairs. Seyid Mahomed Rahim Khan, succeeded his These mirs unite into volosts (cantons), each father 1865. In 1872 Russia used a pretext to containing about 2,000 householders, and man make war on Khiva, and compel subordination aged by an assembly of delegates from the with heavy war indemnity. The population is mirs, supervized, however, by an imperial of estimated at 800,000, half of whom are nomad ficial. The provincial assembly, called the Turkomans. The religion is Islamism; the zemstvo, is composed of landed nobles and dele army numbers 2,000; the produce is silk and gates elected by other landowners, by house cotton. holders in the towns, and by the peasants. The KWANG-TUNG is the name given by Russia to powers of such zemstvos extend to education, Port Arthur, Talienwan and certain territory roads, saloons, public health, taxation, etc. to the north of them, which she leased in 1898 Their freedom is limited by the governor. from China for a term of 25 years, which may Cities and towns possess an organization simi be extended by common consent. In 1899 Ruslar to that of the zemstvos.
sian Imperial ukase created Kwang-tung a Briefly stated, the Russian government con province, and placed it under control of a govsists of two distinct elements: 1. The na ernor, while Chinese troops were withdrawn. tional government is a pure autocracy, more Port Arthur, a naturally impregnable strongprecisely a bureaucracy with a czar as its glori hold, is closed against both war and merchant fied figurehead. These officials, with a vast vessels of other nations than China and Rusnumber of subordinates, are drawn from the sia. One part of the harbor of Talienwan is educated higher class, numbering some ten left open to merchant vessels of all nations. millions. There is no Russian middle class. 2. Near here a new city, Dalnii, has been founded, The remaining 120 millions are peasants, who which will have railway connection with until 1861 were serfs, and 80 per cent of whom Niuchwang, Mukden and Beduné. can neither read nor write. The local govern RELIGION.—The state Church of Russia is the ment of these peasants is a pure democracy, as Græco-Roman, ruled by a synod at the head of shown above in the account of the mir. But which is, not a patriarch as with the sister the Russian peasant is peaceable and docile Churches of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch and easily falls a prey to the combined tyranny and Alexandria, but the Czar, who appoints to of Church and State, through their control every office on proposal by the bishops, though equally of press, platform and pulpit. He is he claims no authority in theology. This Rusthe poorest peasant in Europe, earning only 12 sian Church differs from the Roman, in deny. cents a day, his house is a hut, his food rye ing the papal supremacy, in authorizing all to bread and mushroom soup, and his average sav read the vernacular Scriptures. and in requiring ings deposit is only $1.98, while the German is marriage of the clergy. Besides 96 million $36 and the Swiss $62. He is, moreover, dirty, Greek Catholics, there are 12 million Roman idle, dishonest, untruthful, and the worst drunk Catholics mostly in Poland; 7 million Protes
cases, and another displaced the elective justices of peace by appointees of the Minister of Justice, except in the eight largest cities of the empire. Reformed tribunals, but without juries, were introduced into Poland 1875, Astrakhan, etc., 1894, and Siberia, 1897.
CRIME.-In the cities there are about 93 convictions per 100,000 population, and in the country 38 per 100,000. The following are the gov. ernment statistics for 1896:
Men. Women. Under judgment ..
.20,804 1,456 Condemned to imprisonment. .40,916 4,211 Condemned to exile..
9,628 540 Waiting transport to Siberia. 5,144 507 Detained by order
tants, mostly German Lutherans, settled in the Baltic Provinces; five million Jews, mostly in the West and Southwest, and 12 million Mohammedans in the East and South. The Jews and Dissenters from the Russian Church have been and are persecuted by both the State and society. The Dissenters are estimated at 12 millions.
EDUCATION.–The University of Moscow numbers 4,407 students, of St. Petersburg 3,788, of Kiev 2,604, of Kharkov 1,387, of Yuryev 1,208, of Warsaw 1,114, of Kazan 879, of Odessa 709 and of Tomsk 401, making a total January, 1899, of 16,497. Other higher institutions of learning are 6 theological seminaries, 6 medical schools, 5 law schools, 5 technical schools with 3,685 students in 1898, 7 technical institutes, 5 military schools. In
middle schools, namely, gymnasia, real schools, normal schools, etc., there were, in 1899, 262,000 students, with others in 11 technical and 16 commercial schools for which no returns are available. The State contributes 25 per cent of the expenses of these middle schools, the students about 30 per cent, and the local assemblies contribute the remainder. The number of elementary schools in 18996 was 78,724, of teachers 91,105 male, with 22.879 females, and of pupils 2,948,274 boys, with 831,514 girls.
JUSTICE.-Reform in 1864 established assize courts with juries, elective justices of peace, assemblies of such justices for appeals, appeal courts for cases not tried by jury, and a final court of cassation. An early reaction prevented this system from general application. A law of 1885 restricted the irremovability of magistrates, one of 1889 suppressed juries in certain
24 Voluntarily following their par: ents or husbands
....78,047 7,609 In the same year 17,013 exiles reached Tiumen in Siberia, whence they are further distributed. In 1897 the expenditure for prisons reached $6,908.
LIQUOR TRAFFIC.–Drunkenness, while a common disgrace to Europe and America, has assumed such proportion in Russia as to “threaten the impoverishment of the whole agricultural population." As such it became the object of solicitude to the paternal government of Russia, and has been dealt with in a very energetic and wise fashion. Here we cannot do better than quote, with the exclusion of one table, the compact report made by the United States Consul-General, May, 1900.
The Russian government has for many years
been laboring and discussing means to diminish the almost universal use of liquor among the laboring classes, as one Minister of Finance put it, “to save the population from the baneful influence of the innkeepers, who, in order to make large profits, adulterated their spirits with noxious and deleterious substances which were proving ruinous to the lower classes. The average peasant was not content with remaining in a public house until he had spent his last farthing, but often pawned his clothes, furniture and future crops. The public houses were acknowledged to be the most powerful agents of ruin and disorganization in the economic life of the Russian people and threatened the impoverishment of the whole agricultural population."
One of the first steps toward preventing the unrestricted sale of liquor was to confine its sale to places where food was required to be furnished with each order for liquor, in order to prevent taking one drink after another without food; severe penalties were also provided for selling on credit, for receiving articles in pawn for drinks, or for bartering spirits for produce or future labor, etc. The receiving of stolen property entailed the loss of license, and provision was made for closing public houses that evaded or violated the laws.
The government established number of shops in various parts of cities for the sale of vodki, brandy and spirits ,in corked bottles. It is not permitted to be drunk on the premises, but thirsty customers purchase small bottles and step outside of the door, draw the cork, drink the contents, and return the empty bottle, for which they receive a few kopecks. The number of these shops is regulated by the population. The license was increased from 150 rubles to 1,100 rubles ($77 to $566) for public houses, which reduced the number one-half.
It was first proposed in 1885 that the government should assume control of the sale of liquor; but the revenue from the sale of liquor amounted at that time to 275,000,000 rubles ($174,900,000) per year, and it was argued that government monopoly would reduce this so materially as to affect the revenues. Hence it was delayed until the famine of 1891, and the lamentable state of things it revealed hastened the reform, since which time the new system has been organized and introduced in half of the empire, including thirty-five provinces, covering 1,320,000 square miles, with a population of 61,000,000, an area greater than the United Kingdom, France, Germany and the Netherlands.
Under the present system the government dictates the quantity and quality of spirits manufactured, purchases a very large percentage of the output, and permits the sale of the surplus under proper regulations, for manufacturing purposes, with the intention of furnishing the consumer with pure spirits, thus mitigating and preventing such abuses as are directly attributable to the excessive use of bad liquor and improving the morality and prosperity of the masses. The Minister of Finance has repeatedly declared that the purpose of the government in controlling the liquor business was not intended to produce any direct increase of the revenue; whatever increase there might be would come in consequence of the prevention
of abuses which could be avoided only by government control.
The Russian peasant classes drink only vodki, which is distilled from rye and is sold at the average price of $1.10 per gallon, whether in quantities of 1 or 10,000 gallons. The government requires that the proof of vodki and brandy shall be 40 per cent and that of spirits of wine from 90 to 95 per cent.
The official report for 1898 has just been made public and states that the amount of capital employed during that year was $148,200,000. There were 1,381 brandy distilleries, 232 spirit distilleries, and 27,120 places where distilled liquors were sold. Besides this, fermented liquor was sold at 14,699 saloons. The bottling was carried on at 357 storehouses. The sales amounted to 81,003,752 gallons, the gross receipts being $117,326,270, the expenses $36,594,870, and the excise duty $64,117,500. The net income to the government from sales was $16,737,500.
In governments where the sale of liquor is controlled by the government, temperance societies have been organized, with Prince Oldenburg, a distinguished philanthropist of St. Pe tersburg, as president. These have opened reading rooms with libraries and restaurants near public gardens and squares-where large numbers of working people congregate—and sell cheap and good food with such temperance drinks as tea, milk and kvass made from cranberries and black bread. One of these societies has constructed two "floating restaurants," one of which will seat six hundred people and the other three hundred. These boats are towed to points on the Neva where workmen are employed or congregate. An open theater has been established on Petrovsky Island, where a good class of plays is given at a nominal price. Some of the public parks are also supplied with apparatus to encourage open-air sports,
The following will show the growth of the movement:
1896 1897 1898
(13 (4 prov
prov prov prov
inces) inces) inces) Tea rooms and tea restaurants..
120 294 879 1,714 Reading rooms and libraries..
26 159 241 943 Popular readings in hired halls ...
6 41 518 654 Popular theaters .
3 20 112 181 Theatrical represen
tations in hired halls not appertaining to temperance societies.
55 217 455 The government is encouraging these societies, having appropriated the following amounts to aid in the prosecution of their work:
1895. 1896. 1897. 1898, 1899. 1900.
4 13 20 35 30 43
156,681 428,969 960,990
966,552 1 290,719
Millions of roubles, (rouble=51.5 cents)
55.5 Sales of spirits..
118.1 Total royalties..
173.6 5. State domains (including railways 360.7)....
422.7 6. Sale of state domains.
.5 7. Redemption of land: from former serfs of the state.....
39.9 Redemption of land: from former serfs of private owners
37.7 Total redemption.....
77.7 8. Reimbursement from railways and other loans...
66.9 9. Miscellaneous...
5.7 Total of ordinary revenue. . 1,593.7 II. EXTRAORDINARY REVENUE: Perpetual deposits at the Bank of Russia..
3.0 To meet extraordinary
penditure from free balance of treasury..
160.6 Grand total revenue.. 1,757.3
The estimated increase for 1901 is expected from excise on spirits 25.8 millions, sale of spirits 51.0 millions, state domains 42.5 and direct taxes 6.8, etc.
I. ORDINARY EXPENDITURE: 1. Public debtInterest and capital of debt.. 223.0 Interest and capital of railway obligation..
51.6 2. Higher administration of
of the above, $370,800 have been expended in the province of St. Petersburg.
It is expected that, by the end of 1902, every one of the seventy-eight provinces of Russia, including Siberia, will have been included in the sphere of activity of these societies.
The Société Russe d'Hygiéne Publique has been seeking information from members in the various provinces where the government has control of the manufacture and sale of spirits as to the effects of the law and the decreasë in drunkenness. The friends of the measure confess that the testimony thus far is so conflicting as to be unsatisfactory, but they hope for better results after the law has been inaugurated in all the provinces of Russia.
The leading newspaper of Russia has repeatedly stated that the most important impediment in the way of Russia's rapid progress lies in those "twin relics of barbarism”-illiteracy and intemperance among the peasant classes, which comprise 75 per cent of the population.
The following table shows the financial re sults of the working of the government monopoly for 1898: Receipts and expenditures
1898. Gross receipts
.$52,614,337 Working expenses
33,114,654 Sinking fund
3,224,686 Total expenses
3,932,071 Net profit
15,722,267 FINANCE.—The increase of 721,267,566 rubles (the ruble now equals only 51.5 cents) in the revenue during the ten years 1890-1899, was due *to the following sources in order of their importance.
Receipts from railways bought by the state, 270.1 million rubles, but nearly all this item is consumed by exploitation and payments on obligations; from the sale of spirits, made a government monopoly in 1895, 99.9 millions; from import duties, 77.1 millions; from sugar, 45.9; from excise on wine and beer, 41.9; from duties, 35.9; from state domains, 32.1; from state monopolies, 32.1; from direct taxes, 30.4; from indirect taxes, 28.8.
The budget estimates for the years 1900 and 1901 are as follows:
Millions of roubles,
5.2 324.0 93.5
366.0 13. Ministry of Justice.
46.5 14. State control...
7.7 15. Direction of studs..
1.8 Unforeseen in war, etc......
14. Total ordinary expenditure. 1,608.2
I. ORDINARY REVENUE: 1. Direct taxes
Land, real estate and personal
Total direct taxes. 2. Indirect taxes
Excise on liquor.
Total indirect taxes.
383.1 46.2 7.1
3. Stamp duties..