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In November and December the Boers showed a disposition to keep up the struggle, though sadly lacking in arms and supplies. Lord Roberts, looking for a speedy end of hostilities, left the work of pacification in the hands of his successor, Lord Kitchener. At the close of the year the Cape Town correspondent of the London
'Times” said: “The aspect of affairs is scarcely iess gloomy than at the beginning of 1900.” The Boers under General De la Rey captured 346 British (Dec. 13). On Dec. 31 the Boers under Botha took Helvetia in the north of the Transvaal, killing and wounding 37 of the garrison.
Lord Kitchener’s dispatches in January, 1901, gave but few details of the numerous engagements taking place in South Africa. The Boer invasion of Cape Colony caused alarm, and in many places of the Transvaal the British garrisons were placed
told of the capture of 200 Boers, also of a mishap to a party of 80 scouts, of whom 20 were killed and the rest captured by the Boers.
In a dispath (dated Feb. 6) Sir Alfred Milner wrote: "It is no use denying that the last half year has been one of retrogression. Seven months ago this colony was perfectly quiet, at least as far as the Orange River. The southern half of the Orange River colony was rapidly settling down, and even a considerable portion of the Transvaal, notably the southwestern districts, seemed to have definitely accepted British authority and to rejoice at the opportunity to return to orderly government and the pursuits of peace. To-day the scene is completely altered. The fact that the enemy are now broken up into a great number of small forces, raiding in every direction, and that our troops are similarly broken up in their pursuit, makes the area of actual fighting, and consequently of destruction, much wider than would be the case in a conflict between equal numbers operating in large masses.
In February it was rumored that Botha would surrender and an armistice was granted to enable him to confer with the other Boer leaders. Botha and Kitchener met (Feb. 28) and talked over terms, which were such as Botha could not recommend to the Boers.
After the failure of peace negotiations fighting was renewed, with successes and losses on both sides. On April 8 the British captured Pietersberg, the capital of the South African Republic after the fall of Pretoria. About 60 Boers were taken prisoners. Kitchener also reported the capture of 75 out of a force of 100, whom the Boers had overcome after several hours' fighting, north of Aberdeen, Cape Colony.
The enormous cost of the war was set forth in the annual budget statement, March 31, 1901. Of the total, $714.035,000, it was stated that $226,357,000 would be provided for out of taxation and $540,230,000 by loans. An export duty of a shilling a ton was laid on coal, the first known in English history since 1856. The income tax was increased from twelve to fourteen pence in the pound, and sugar was taxed.
The strength of forces in South Africa, May 1, 1901, was 249,416. The strength of the garrison August 1, 1899, was 9,940 (total officers and nien). Reënforcements from August 1 to Oct. 11 (the outbreak of the war), were 12,546. Further reënforcements from Oct. 11, 1899 to July 31, 1900, were 157,426. The total August 1, 1900 (including garrison on August 1, 1899) was 265, 132. Further reënforcements from August 1, 1900, to April 30, 1901, brought the total up to 347,661. The number of killed to April 30, 1901, was 4,022; wounded, 17,209; deaths from disease, wounds or accidents, 10,956. The number in hospital in South Africa March 15, 1901, was 13,797. The number of those who left for England-sick, wounded, and died on passage—was 47,739. The total of deaths in South Africa up to April 30, 1901, was 14,978.
The number of the Boers in the field in the latter part of April, 1901, was estimated at 12,000. No exact figures as to their losses and casualties are obtainable. It has been estimated that from Dec. 1, 1900, to April 15, 1901, they lost 500 killed and had from 1,200 to 1,300 wounded.
On June 2 Jamestown, Cape Colony, surrendered to Kruitzinger's command after four hours' fighting. British casualties were three killed
on the defensive. General Kitchener's conciliatory speech to a peace committee of the Boers showed that he had changed the policy of unconditional surrender and was willing to make concessions to the burghers. Reënforcements were called for. British movements in eastern Transvaal covered a wide field, but General Botha with 7,000 men escaped. In the Orange Free State seven British columns tried to trap De Wet, who won a brilliant victory over Major Crewe and captured a train of cars. On Feb. 10 De Wet, accompanied by President Steyn and a force of 3,000, was reported to be making for Philipstown in Cape Colony. There was no uprising of the Cape Dutch, and with heavy losses the Boers crossed back into the Orange Free State. The six flying columns of the British were in hot pursuit, but vainly tried to capture him. An otticial dispatch from Kitchener, dated March 1,
and two wounded. The Boers had 27 killed and wounded.
Lord Kitchener's dispatch from Pretoria (June 4) gives details of the desperate battle at Vlakfontein, May 29. Colonel Dixon's force of 1,450, while establishing forts in the district, was suddenly attacked by 1,200 Boers, who captured the British artillery, Later the British recovered the seven guns, after a fierce encounter, in which 62 were killed, 109 wounded, and 8 missing. On the field 41 Boers were left dead.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.— "The Times History of the War in South Africa" (1899-1900); A. G. Hales, *Campaign Pictures of the War in South Africa” (1899-1900); A. C. Doyle, “The Great Boer War" (1900); H. C. Hillegas, “The Boers in War” (1900); W. L. A. Bartlett-Burdett-Coutts, “The Sick and Wounded in South Africa” (1901). For recent discussions of Transvaal matters see articles by Benjamin Harrison in the "North American Review," March, 1901; by H. W. Horwill in the "Forum," March, 1901; and by W. F. Brand, “Westminster Review," March, 1901.
BOUTELLE, CHARLES_A. -On May 21, 1901, Charles A. Boutelle of Bangor, Maine, died of brain trouble after an active life of sixty-two years. He was born at Damariscotta, Maine, and his father being a ship master he went to sea on his father's vessel as soon as he had completed his academic education.
At the outbreak of the civil war he volunteered for service in the navy and was appointed master of the steamship Paul Jones of the South Atlantic squadron and served during the blockade of Charleston, participating in the attacks on Fort Sumter and the occupation of Port Royal. He took a prominent part in the land fight at St. John's Bluff, Fla., and at the capture of Jacksonville, commanded a battery of marine howitzers. At the blockade of Wilmington he was largely instrumental in the capture of the “Nutfield" and "Wild Dayrell," two confederate blockade runners.
As sailing master of the gunboat Sassacus he was in the historical engagement at close quarters between that vessel and the confederate ram Albemarle on May 5, 1864.
For coolness and bravery displayed in this fight Mr. Boutelle was promoted to Lieutenant, the highest grade to which a volunteer in the navy could at that time be appointed.
At his own request Lieutenant Boutelle was transferred to the fleet of Admiral Farragut, who was preparing to attack Mobile. He volunteered to lead the movement against the defenses and his vessel was the first to force its way through the obstructions below the city.
In January, 1866, he was discharged from the navy at his own request. For a time he commanded a steamer running between New York and Wilmington, and later was connected with a prominent shipping commission house in New York.
His political career began in 1876, when he was elected President of the Maine Blaine club at the national convention. The same year he was elected Congressman from the Fourth Maine District.
At the convention of 1884, which nominated Blaine for President, Mr. Boutelle represented Maine on the National Committee. In 1888 he was chairman of the Maine delegation at the
national convention. He was a member of the Republican State committee from 1875 to 1882.
In 1883 Mr. Boutelle was again elected to Congress, and from that time until last year-when his mind gave way–he was continuously in Con. gress as the representative of the Fourth Maine District.
It was due mainly to his efforts that congress provided for the construction of the first three modern battleships of the United States navy.
Mr. Boutelle was married in 1866 to Miss Elizabeth Hodsdon, a daughter of Adjutant-General J. L. Hodsdon of Maine. Three daughters—Grace, Elizabeth, and Annie-survive. Mrs. Boutelle died suddenly in 1892.
BOWEN, HERBERT Wolcott, who was appointed minister to Venezuela June 17, 1901, is a son of Henry C. and Lucy M. (Tapran) Bowen, and was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., February 29, 1856. At fifteen years of age he went abroad with a tutor to prepare for _Yale College and at the same time to study French and German. He spent a year in Paris and a year in Berlin; returned to America and entered Yale College in the class of 1878. After completing his college course he spent a year in Florence, Italy, studying Italian and Music. He then returned to New York and entered the Columbia College Law School, and was graduated Cum laude.
In 1900 President Harrison appointed him United States consul to Spain and he took up his residence at Barcelona. In 1894 President Cleveland raised his rank by appointing him ConsulGeneral at Barcelona.
During the exciting days which preceded the
Spanish-American war, Mr. Bowen remained at his post as long as any American could find safety on Spanish soil. At the conclusion of the war instead of returning him to his old post, President McKinley appointed him consul-general at Teheran and, May 25th, 1901, made him envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Persia. He therefore brings to his new and important position much experience in diplomatic service. He has written a book on International Law which is regarded as an authority.
BRIDGE, THE NEW EAST RIVER.–The New York and Brooklyn Bridge, Roebling's great work, was opened for traffic in May, 1883. It has remained the only street connection between the two cities so nearly allied not only by their actual proximity but in their business and social relations, and now forming parts of one great municipality. Easily accessible by elevated' and surface railways it has become the customary route of travel from all parts of New York and Harlem to points on the Brooklyn lines. The congestion at the New York terminal has in consequence become so alarming that Commissions have been appointed by the Chamber of Commerce and by the city, to formulate some method of relief. But no relief is possible except in the opening of other similar lines of communication between the cities. This has been recognized by the authorities and in 1895, before the act consolidating the cities, powers were obtained for constructing a new bridge across the East River. This the New East River Bridge, is situated about a mile and a half above the Brooklyn Bridge and connects Delancy Street in New York with South Fifth Street adjacent to Broadway in Brooklyn. It is coinposed of a central suspended span across the river, 1,600 feet in length between the centers of the towers, which stand on the pier-head lines. At each end of the central span, a land span of 596 feet long supported in the middle, by a steel framed pier, connects with the masonry anchorages. Thence the roadway descends by a maximum grade of 3 per cent, to
the street levels on the approaches formed of steel columns and girders, 2,500 feet long on the New York side, and 1,750 feet in Brooklyn. The clear height in the center under the suspended span is 135 feet above mean high water. The towers are in pairs; they are of masonry to 20 feet above high water; and thence of steel, framed of plates and angles, consisting for each tower of four strong corner posts with the necessary bracing. Their entire height is 335 feet. The roadway is 110 feet wide, and provides on an upper level a foot walk and cycle path together 22 feet wide on each side of an elevated railway, also 22 feet wide. On the lower level, a driving roadway 20 feet wide and a double track electric railway, on each side of the elevated railway structure.
The roadway is carried by two cables on each side, which extend from one anchorage to the other, passing over the saddles on the top of the towers. The portions, however, from the tops of the towers to the anchorages, carry no load, they are simply "back-stays, the roadway under them being taken by the rigid end spans. Each cable is 17 inches in diameter, and will becomposed of 10,397 No. 8 steel wires laid straight, and when all are in place clamped into a cylindrical cable by bands of cast steel, which also carry the floor suspenders. The two cables on either side of the bridge are cradled each 9 feet. That is, they are brought closer together by 18 feet at the middle of the span, (which is the lowest point) than at the towers. This gives to the cables lateral stability. The wire of which they are made is required to have a tensile strength of at least 200,000 pounds to the square inch. The suspenders are of 134 inch steel wire rope which pass over the grooved bands on the cable and the two suspenders, one from each cable, being continuous, pass around a grooved casting or sheave at their lowest point. From this casting depend four steel hangers, 238 inches in diameter, which pass between the channels forming the bottom chord of the stiffening truss at its connection with a floor beam, and are secured to a built
Originat begund Surface Line
THE NEW EAST RIVER RRIDGE. Cross section of Brooklyn anchorage, showing the chains
and chain well of one cable.
washer below. For some 300 feet ai the center the suspenders from each cable being very short, are double and pass around double grooves in the sheave.
The suspended structure is rendered more rigid by a stiffening, truss, 40 feet in height, which extends the entire distance between the towers. Its object is chiefly to distribute the loads along the cable, and to prevent the undulations from moving loads, which otherwise would be rezisted only by the inertia of the cables and their load.
The cables pass over saddles on top of the towers. There are heavy ribbed castings about 19 feet long by 672 feet wide at base, having a longitudinal curved groove in which the cable will lie. Under it is a series of expansion rollers, 40 in number, which permit the slight movement of the cable over the tower due to temperature or variable loads.
From the saddle the cables descend at an angle of about 24 degrees to the anchorage. These are great masses of masonry, one at each end, each about 12/2 feet by 150 feet on top, considerably larger at the base, and nearly 100 feet
All the face stone of the anchorage are of granite, rock faced above the ground, with fine cut moulded base and cornice. The backing, masonry is of stone roughly squared, conforming in height to the corresponding face courses.
THE TOWER. - Each main tower is in two parts having separate foundations and joined together only near the roadway. Each smaller tower is founded upon a timber caisson, upon which is built a masonry pier rising to 20 feet above the water. Upon the masonry four large steel posts are erected which are continuous to the saddles in which the cables rest.
It was essential that these towers should be founded upon the solid rock, which was 100 feet below high tide on the New York side, and 86 feet on the Brooklyn shore. They are built with caissons or cribs of timber and concrete to a uniform height for all the towers, 47 feet below high water. The caisson, 63 by 78 feet is formed of 12 by 12 timbers crossing it in both directions at intervals of about 6 feet. The outer walls are formed of the same timbers superimposed and lines on the outside with two courses of 3-inch
in height. They are almost solid, having, besides plank, the inner course being tongued and the four tunnels for the cables each 9 feet wide, grooved and placed diagonally to the timbers. a couple of wells about 25 by 100 feet in length. Each vertical row of timbers is also braced with
As the cables approach the masonry the 37 3-inch plank, all being thoroughly drift bolted. strands of which each is formed are separated The working chamber is formed in the bottom of and passed around grooved sheaves which are the caisson, its roof forming the floor of the latbored for 7 inch pins. The shoes are arranged in ter. The walls are formed of two courses of 12xtwelve groops, placed three side by side and four 12 timber, the outer course horizontal, the inner deep. By means of the pins the shoes are connected placed vertically, and sheathed outside like the to an equal number of eye bars, which are ex caisson. The lower edge is made narrower and tended by other links to form the chain leading reinforced with a steel angle. The sides are also down to the anchor platform. As they enter the supported by diagonal braces. The roof is of masonry, one-half the number curve downwards three courses of timber, with an inner lining of resting on the curved masonry bottom of the one thickness, and a double course of planks tunnel. The other links pass down over an outer between the timbers of the roof, all being curve in the same tunnel resting on steel beams tongued and grooved, to make it as nearly air built into the tunnel wall. Becoming vertical tight as possible. The whole of the caisson they reach the steel platforms at the level of above the air chamber except the air lock shafts mean high water, pass through them and are is filled with concrete to the uniform plane secured by pins on the under side. The height of adopted for the base of the masonry of all the the masonry above the steel platform is about piers. Upon the caisson a removable cofferdam 90 feet.
is built, to permit the masonry to be carried on The foundations are of piles filled over the after the top of the caisson has descended below heads with concrete, and a grillage of four water surface. It is framed like the caisson, courses of timber upon which the masonry rests. caulked and made water tight.
The masonry piers, which are 54 feet by 70 at CARNEGIE, ANDREW, philanthropist and re47 feet below high water are carried to 20 feet tired manufacturer, was born in Dunfermline, above that plane and
are 60 feet long by 44 feet Scotland, Nov. 25, 1837. He was the eldest son of a under the cornice. The material is generally handloom weaver, who found his occupation gone granite, rock faced on the outside above low when steam-factories sprang up. So the resolve water and is coursed throughout.
was formed to come to America. In 1849 they Upon each masonry pier are the pedestals for reached Allegheny City and the father entered a the four columns,forming one of the parts of a cotton factory. Soon Andrew went to work in main tower, with a bearing on the masonry the same factory as a “bobbin-boy." In his nearly 8 feet square. Above the lowest section autobiographical fragment, “How I served my 20 feet high, which forms the pedestal, the col- apprenticeship," published in 1896, he says: “I reumns are four feet square to the summit. They ceived one dollar and twenty cents a week, and are thoroughly braced both lengthwise and was then just about twelve years old." He was across—and the four of the one pier are con then a contributing member in the family nected by trusses and bracing with those of the partnership and he took more genuine satisfacother pier forming one structure of great solidity. tion from that one dollar and twenty cents than
The secondary towers are 40 feet long and 24 from any subsequent pleasure in money-getting. feet wide to the level of the roadway Thence About a year later he was taken into another the columns are inclined symmetrically in one factory where he attended to a small steamdirection, but transversely they incline towards engine that drove the machinery. He had a the axis of the bridge until they are 13 feet 4 hard tussle of it, but did not complain. At the inches long, and 22 feet wide at the top-and being age of fourteen he became a messenger boy in the joined to the corresponding tower on the oppo telegraph office of Pittsburgh, and he was pleased site side of the axis-they form one structure 13 to find himself amid pleasanter surroundings. feet 4 inches long by 89 feet wide, dimensions He was ambitious to become an operator and being taken between centers of columns. On top soon learned to take messages by the ear-a of each are girders carrying the roller beds and practice uncommon in the early days of telegthe saddles as before described.
raphy. In time he obtained the longed-for The end spans, 596 feet long are latticed trusses, position of operator, receiving what he considered triple intersection, 40 feet high and 56 feet the “enormous recompense of twenty-five dolbetween trusses. They are supported by a steel lars per month." Then an opportunity came to pier near the middle of their length, over which do extra work evenings, for which he received a the truss is continuous.
dollar more each week. The law authorizing the construction of this The growing youth now came under the notice bridge was approved in May, 1895. Three com of Thomas A. Scott, superintendent of the Pennmissioners were appointed from New York and sylvania Railroad, who asked him to be clerk and three from Brooklyn.
operator in his office. He got a “tremendous inThe chief engineer is Mr. L. L. Buck, of crease” in his salary, as he then thought, from Niagara fame, his principal assistant is Mr. O. F. twenty-five to thirty-five dollars a month. He Nichols.
remained in the service of the company thirteen WM. R. HUTTON, A.M., C.E., New York. years and rose to be superintendent of the Pitts
burgh Division of the road. Here a chance came BUCHANAN, ROBERT WILLIAMS, the poet, to buy ten shares in the Adams Express Co. at novelist, and critic, died in London, June 10, fifty dollars a share and it was done, although 1901.
the family mortgaged their house to get the Robert Williams Buchanan was born in War money. Henceforth he was a capitalist. wickshire, August 18, 1841. He was the son of One day he met Mr. Woodruff, the inventor of Robert Buchanan, socialist, journalist and mis the sleeping-car, who offered him an interest in sionary. He was educated at Glasgow Univer the new enterprise. He saw its value at once sity. His first writing was poetry. “Idylls and and accepted the offer, borrowing money for the Legends of Inverburn" appeared in 1863 and first payment. This was the beginning of his “London Poems” in 1866. Several other volumes fortune. The sleeping-car company was later of verse followed, including “Wayside Posies, absorbed by Mr. Pullman. Young Carnegie made and his translation of Danish ballads. He wrote another profitable investment in an oil well, which the plays “The Witchfinder, "A Madcap brought enormous dividends. Prince, "Lady Clare,”! “Paul Clifford," and About 1865 he began building up the enterprises "The Queen of Connaught,”. “A Man's Shadow,"
in the iron and steel business that have made his "Dick Sheridan” and “The Charlatan.'. His first name famous. With others he formed the novel “The Shadow of the Sword" was published Cyclops Company, to establish a rolling-mill at in 1874. Then he wrote “God and Man, Pittsburgh. He began with building iron railChild of Nature," "The Martyrdom of Madeline," way bridges, and gradually launched into steel and other novels. There are two humorous manufacture. It is reported that he lately sold stories in verse, “St. Abe and His Seven Wives" his holdings (54 per cent.) in the Carnegie Steel and “White Rose and Red” attained great popu Company for $129,000,000. larity.
For a score of years Mr. Carnegie has been known He was an author, a dramatist, and a publisher, as the most princely giver among the multibut was also well known on account of his scath millionaires of our time. In 1899 he had founded ing reviews of the French authors whose works more than twenty public libraries, half of them were translated into English. To him was con in Scotland. One of his greatest benefactions ceded by some the head office of chastiser of Brit was the gift of $7,000,000 to the Carnegie Instiish immorals and critic of British morals. In his tute at Pittsburgh. He has founded similar inreviews of the work of Flaubert, Daudet, Mau stitutes at Allegheny Braddock, Homestead, passant, and Zola he lashed all four unmerci and Duquesne, Pennsylvania, most of them at a fully.
cost of $500,000 each. In 1884 he gave $50,000 to