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that of 1899, 547,682. The yield for 1900 was 2,735,000 tons; that of 1899, 3,077,000 tons.

The crop of beans in 1900 was 7,388,000 bushels; that of 1899, 7,481,000 bushels. The estimated yield per acre in 1900 was 28.11 bushels; in 1899, 30.09 bushels. The decennial yield per acre was 27.15 bushels.

The crop of peas in 1900 was 4,061,000 bushels; that of 1899, 4,421,000 bushels. The estimated yield per acre in 1900 was 25.89 bushels; of 1899, 27.23 bushels. The average yield per acre, 189099 was 26.14 bushels.

The yield of turnips and mangolds was much heavier in 1900 than in previous years of the decade. The hay crop-clover and rotation grasses-was above the average. The estimated total produce for 1900 was 3,188,000 tons, as com


family While they have a governor appointed by the Crown, they have their own parliaments and make their own laws without interference on the part of the home government in all matters of internal policy. This is what is called responsible government. The veto of the Crown on legislation is practically obsolete. In the Crown colonies all of the chief administrative posts are in the hands of Englishmen appointed by the home government. A considerable number of British dependencies are in the intermediate state between the Crown colony and “responsible government.” They have legislative councils or assemblies, and the administration of provincial and municipal affairs is largely in native hands.

The system of government in British protectorates is one which allows a wide latitude of liberty to native tribes, along with such salutary restraints as the regulation of the traffic in spirits, arms, powder, etc. Native customs have been respected, when not seriously in conflict with moral laws. The inferior races have not only been protected, they have been brought under civilizing agencies. The imperial commissioners exercise the right of imposing taxes, but these are light, the expenditures of the home government usually being far greater than the

Great Britain maintains these protectorates and preserves order for the sake of the indirect advantages of trade.

AGRICULTURE. — The agricultural returns of Great Britain for 1900 show a falling-off in the yield of the principal crops, as compared with previous years. The total acreage of wheat in England was 1,744,556; in 1899, it was 1,899,827

The acreage of wheat in Wales was 51,654; in 1899, 53,898. The wheat acreage in Scotland was 48,832; in 1899, 47,256. The total for Great Britain was 1,845,042 acres." The average yield per acre was 28% bushels, more than 14 bushels below the decennial average. The average yield per acre in 1899 was nearly 4% bushels greater, and that of 1898 nearly 64 bushels greater, than that of 1900. The deficiency of this season was marked in the great graingrowing district, the eastern and northeastern counties of England The total produce of wheat in Great Britain for 1900 was 52,639,809 bushels . in 1899, 65,529,325 bushels. The average yield of wheat per acre in Wales, 25: bushels, was slightly above that of 1899

The average yield of barley was more than two bushels short of the decennial average, and nearly three bushels less than the average of 1899. The total yield for Great Britain was 62,715, 698 bushels, as compared with 65,529,325 bushels in 1899 The total acreage of 1900 was 1,845,042, as compared with 2,000,981 in 1899.

The area of land sowed to oats in 1900 was 3,026, 088 acres, as compared with 2,959.755 acres in 1899. The estimated yield is shown in the following table:




pared with 3,044,000 tons in 1899. The total acreage for_hay in 1900 was 4,373,099; in 1899, 4,339,085. The acreage for pasture in 1900 was 12,355,936; in 1899, 12,291,662. The total under crops and grass in Great Britain in 1900 was 32,437,000 acres as compared with 30,408,000 in 1870.

The produce of the principal crops in Ireland in 1900, as compared with 1899, was as follows:

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927,452 901,224 3,040,083 2,779,367 17,895,880 | 17,511,579 2,760,287 1,841,832 4,309,053 4,426,427 16,033,654 22,804,334

nial average.

The crop of potatoes fell far below the decen

The acreage in 1900 was 561,361 ;

The yield of the principal crops in 1899 is as follows: wheat, 1,731,2441 bushels; barley, 6,816,708 bushels, oats 51,393,296 bushels; beans, 84,836 bushels; peas, 10,177 bushels; potatoes, 2,760,287 bushels. In 1898, the crops of wheat, oats, and potatoes were much larger than those of 1899; the crops of barley, beans, and peas were smaller than in 1899.

In 1899 the number of acres under grass was 2,118,907; of hay of all kinds there were 97,515,900 cwts., as compared with 105,552,460 cwts. in 1898.

The returns for the live stock of Great Britain, collected June 4, 1900, are as follows:


1900 No.

1899 No.

Cattle. Sheep Pigs

6,805, 170 26,592,226 2,381,932

6,795,720 27,238, 754 2,623,813

The number of horses in 1900 was as follows: in England, 1, 152,000; in Wales, 153,000; in Scotland, 194,000.

The wool clip of Great Britain in 1900 is estimated at 141,146,676 pounds. Adding imports, as given in the “Trade and Navigation Returns" at 553, 154,712 pounds, the total is 694,301, 108 pounds; from which exports are to be deducted, leaving 474,003,503 pounds for home consumption.

The number of dairy factories in Ireland in 1900 was 506, which used up nearly 121 million gallons of milk for the year ended Sept. 30. The year's output was 401,490 cwt. of butter, 490 cwt. of cheese (made from whole milk), and 46,253 gallons of cream. The number of cattle in Ireland in 1900 was about 4,500,000; of milch cows, 1,458,074. The number of horses was 490,000.

The year 1900 was a fairly good one for British farmers although the area of cereal crops was reduced and the yield smaller than in 1899. They realized higher average prices for their products, so that the condition of agricultural industry was practically stationary.

FISHERIES. - In 1900 the shellfish landed on the coasts of the United Kingdom were valued at £463,000, and the value of other fish was £9,215,000, making the total value of both classes of fish £9,678,000. During the last three years 1898-1900 the average annual value amounted to £9,205,000 and the average quantity (exclusive of shellfish) was 15, 123,000 cwts., as compared with 12,706,000 cwts. in 1891-93.

The figures for April, 1901, are as follows:
English and Welsh coasts.

. £613,772 Scotch coasts...

111,260 Irish coasts


In England and Wales during the year 1900, the quantity of haddock landed was 2,487,000 cwts., valued at £1,696,000; of herrings, 2,425,000 cwts., valued at £934,000; of soles, 75,000 cwts., valued at £567,000; of turbot, 61,000 cwts., valued at £253,000; of plaice, 753,000 cwts., valued at £909,000; and cod, 589,000 cwts., valued at £432,000. In Ireland there

a marked decrease in the quantity and the value of the fish landed in 1900: the figures for 1900 being £295,000 against £460,000 in 1899 and £392,000 in 1898. In Scotland 268,000 tons of fish


landed, which sold for over £2,400,000. Nearly 85,000 persons were engaged in the fishing industry in Scotland during the year 1900, and the number of boats used was 11,275.

COAL, ETC. —The total output of coal in the United Kingdom in 1899 was 220,094,781 long tons, an increase of 18,040,265 tons on the production of 1898. The output in 1900 was 225,181,300 long tons, of which 46,108,011 tons went to foreign lands.

The total output of iron ore was 14,461,330 tons. The total quantity of stone and other minerals obtained from the quarries was 40,043, 218 tons. The entire number of persons employed in and about the mines was 764, 166 in 1899, and 814,517 in 1900.

England's production of copper in 1900 was 6,720 long tons, as compared with 6,490 tons in 1899.

The returns from most of the other mines and quarries from 1900 are given in the following table: Mineral

Long tons Arsenic....

4,081 Arsenical pyrites

9,573 Barytes.

29,456 Chalk.

4,376,207 Gypsum. .

208,038 Limestone.

11,905,036 Sandstone.

5,019,834 Slate and slate slabs..

586,340 Zinc ore..

24,675 Rock salt.

159,860 Oil shale..

2,282,221 COMMERCE.-In 1900 there was a slacking of business activity in Great Britain, as compared with the flourishing trade and industrial prosperity of 1899. The war in South Africa had a depressing influence; and the trouble in China was a disturbing factor, resulting in a falling-off of exports thither, especially of cotton goods. The increased price of coal, due to the Boer war, affected many industries. It especially hurt the iron and steel industries, which also were seriously handicapped by the keen competition of American manufacturers.

The imports of 1900 were £523,075,163, as compared with £485,036,000 in 1899, an increase of nearly 8 per cent. The exports of home products (including new ships) in 1900 were £291,451,000 as compared with £264,492,000 in 1899, an increase of 10 per cent. The re-exports of foreign and colonial produce were £63,099,000, as compared with £65,042,000 in 1899, a decrease of nearly 3 per cent. The total trade for 1900 was £877,448,917, as compared with £814,570,241 in 1899. The increase of the first half-year of 1900 over the amount for this period in 1899 was 9.25 per cent.; that of the second half-year fell to 6.44 per cent. While there was expansion in the volume of trade, this record shows a slacking in the rate of progress.

The home trade as well as the foreign suffered a check, as shown by the passenger and traffic returns of the railway companies. The mineral traffic was considerably larger, because of the extraordinary demand for coal. The output for 1900 was 225,181,300 tons, over five million tons in excess of the output of 1899. The prices of the leading commodities in July, 1900, were 8 per cent. higher than in July, 1899; and 13 per cent. higher than in July, 1898. Prices had fallen somewhat Jan. 1, 1901, against the figures for


1 Sixty pounds to the bushel.

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Total value.

.$307,072,685 Decrease.

9,456,383 The imports of cattle into the United Kingdom the last two years were:



Jan. 1, 1900. Tea, tobacco, and wool were cheaper, while meat, wheat, coffee, and cotton were higher. The prices of coal in 1900 were higher than at any time from 1873 to 1899. The price of pig iron fluctuated, but its average was distinctly higher than in 1899. For imports and exports combined the rise amounted to 10.55 per A marked feature in the commercial history of 1900 was the rapid development of American trade in Great Britain, especially in the large exports of the manufactures of iron and steel in comparison with these exports from the United States in 1899.

The Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Department of State, in its "Review of the World's Commerce

for 1900, gives the following statement, showing the commerce of Great Britain in 1900 in detail, according to board of trade returns for the United Kingdom:

From United From Can- From Ar-

ada. gentina.

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I. Animals, live

$ 4,399,048 II. Articles of food and drink

66,244,569 $ 5,091,449
III. Raw materials .

203,722,732 74,422,226
IV. Articles manufactured or partly manufactured:
A-Yarns and textiles ..

497,506,981 13,567,529
B-Metals, manufactures of (except machinery and ships) 221,050,961 24,896,561
C-Machinery and millwork

95,488, 307 D—Ships, new (not registered as British).

41,891,577 E-Apparel and articles of personal use.

50,613,298 4,090,415 F Chemicals, drugs..

45, 119,803 2,027,856 G-All other articles.

177,945, 568 8, 239,758 H-Parcels post.

14,364,935 2,357,610 Total value

$1,418,197,779 $131, 196,434

153,582 2,863,867

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293,674; and (b) metals and articles manufactured therefrom (except machinery and ships) valued at £2,741, 422. Of ships, new (not registered as British), there was a large increase, £2,337,639. There was a decrease of £80,548 in the exports of foreign and colonial merchandise for this period—the total for 1901 being £22,504,127 and for 1900 £22,584,675.

For the nine months ending March, 1901, the imports of the United Kingdom amounted to $1,947,076,523, against $1,827,357,333 for the same period in the previous year; the exports were $1,060,346, 214, as compared with $1,022,406, 241 for the nine months ending March, 1900. The excess of imports over exports was $886, 730,309 for the nine months ending March, 1901 ; and $804,951,092 for the same period in 1899-1900.

Among the exports from the United States to the United Kingdom during the nine months ending March, 1901, the following are the chief items: cattle, valued at $25,892,679; horses, valued at $2,711,557; corn, 65,517,806 bushels, valued at $30,133,647; wheat, 57,399,809 bushels, valued at $41,074,699; wheat flour, 7,773,383 barrels, valued at $29,779,269; cotton, 1,326,910,945 pounds, valued

at $128,450,758; fruits and nuts, valued at $4,519,ARTHUR J. BALFOUR.

579; leather; valued at $7,046,768; oils, valued at

$10,393,708; canned beef, valued at $3,213,268; First Lord of the Treasury.

fresh beef, 249,003,705 pounds, valued at $22,496,

Cwt. 815; bacon, 288,095,905 pounds, valued at $23,Fresh beef ..

1,382,633 689,873; hams, 132,926,061 poundsvalued at Fresh mutton.

1,281, 246 $14, 139, 184; pork, 70.481,900 pounds, valued at Bacon..

1,953,118 $5,318,742; lard, 147;831,511 pounds, valued at Hams.

535,694 $11,084,666; butter, 11,871,811 pounds, valued at All dead meat.

6,230,722 $2,200,665; cheese, 27,211,041 pounds, valued at Butter

1,260,059 $2,732, 363; tobacco and manufactures of tobacco, Margarine..

320,146 valued at $7,800,717. Cheese..

540,104 During the last five years the merchant marine Ct. Hunds.

of Great Britain has grown from 13,242,639 tons Eggs. ....


to 14,261, 254 tons, an increase of 1,018, 615 tons.

Steam tonnage was 12,149,090; and sailing tonGreat Britain is an extensive exporter of fire nage, 2,112,164 tons. The total tonnage of the arms, military stores, of fish, beer and ale, world in 1900 was 29,043, 738 tons. British shiphaberdashery and millinery, books, carriages, ping in 1900 decreased inward shipping by 2,619,machinery and mill work, implements and tools, 242 tons and outward shipping by 2,903,600 tons, hardware, etc. The export of coal, cinders, etc., while foreign shipping increased inward by for 1899, reached the enormous total of $100,000, 2,482,113 tons and outward by 2,470,576 tons. 000 to foreign countries, and $8,000,000 to British Great Britain has 646 war ships, with a tonnage possessions. The exports of copper in 1899 of 1,795,410. amounted to more than $20,000,000; of pig iron, The tonnage of vessels entered at ports in the nearly $23,000,000 to foreign countries and nearly United Kingdom from foreign lands and British one million to British possessions; of iron and possessions, with cargoes, amounted to 36,195,510 steel rails more than $11,000,000; and iron sheets, tons in 1900; and the tonnage cleared to 43,742,galvanized, worth $15,600,000.

219 tons, as compared with 36,225,876 tons entered The London "Board of Trade Journal,” May 9, and 42,988,320 tons cleared in 1899. The amount 1901, gives the trade returns for the four months, of shipping for the four months, January-April, January-April, 1901. The imports into the 1901, was 10,844,739 tons entered and 13,335, 750 United Kingdom from foreign countries and tons cleared. British possessions were £178,500,328, as com FINANCE. -On March 31, 1900, the aggregate pared with £169,874,767 for the same period of net liabilities of the United Kingdom, after 1900, showing an increase of £8,625,561. The deducting estimated assets and exchequer balincrease of articles of food and drink, duty free, ances, amounted to £610,467.757, as compared is £9,803,510; of raw materials for textile manu with £598,966,822 March 31, 1899. On April 1, factures, £1,531,901. The decrease in raw mate 1901, owing to the enormous expenses of the Boer rials for sundry industries and manufactures is war, the national debt had grown from $3,110,£1,728,617; and of manufactured articles, £434, 497,762 to $3,427,500,000, an increase, in round 898.

numbers, of $317,000,000. The returns for exports of British and Irish The receipts of the last fiscal year were produce and manufacture show a decrease of $651,925,000. The expenditures were $17,960,000, £1,966,187 in the four months ended April 30, leaving a deficit of $266,035,000. The expenditure 1901, the total for 1901 being £92,799, 312 and for the war in South Africa was stated to be that of 1900 (Jan.-April) being £94,765,499. $325,000,000, and $15,000,000 for China. Among the articles of which there was a marked For the present year the Chancellor of the Exdecrease were (a) raw materials valued at £1,- chequer has to provide $917,960,000. The three


The following figures give returns for exports of the various kinds of cotton goods in 1899:




Piece goods, unbleached:
Total to foreign countries. 756, 189,900 6,225,359
Totalto British possessions 1,407,580,100 10,102,287

Piece goods, bleached:
Total to foreign countries. 705,892,400 6.896,095
Totalto British possessions 649,669,800 5,606,743
Piece goods, printed:
Total to foreign countries. 645,133,400 6,479,929
Total to British possessions 414,265,900 4,233,093
Piece goods dyed, or man-

ufactured of dyed yarn: Total to foreign countries. 485,172,700 6,979,040 Totalto British possessions 374,933,300 4,336,519 Thread for sewing:

Lbs. Total to foreign countries. 27,080,600 3,219,581 Totalto British possessions 3,624,900 477,808

largest items are: for the navy, $154,375,000; army, $148, 425,000; and the civil service, $118,150,000. The naval estimate, $154, 377,500, is an increase of $10,000,000 over that of 1960-1901. Nearly all of it goes for the thirty-six new war ships which the British government is building.

MANUFACTURES. -Recent statistics of British factories are wanting. The Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, 1885-1899, gives the following figures for 1890: Number of cotton factories ...

2,538 Number of spindles, spinning. 40,511,934 Number of spindles, doubling. 3,992,885 Nun ber of power looms ...

615,714 The total number of persons employed in British cotton factories in 1890 was 528,795; in 1897, it was 527,223.

Statistics of woolen factories in 1890 are as fol-
Total number

Number of spindles, spinning. 3,107,209
Number of spindles, doubling. 299,793
Number of power looms

61,831 The number of employees in 1890 was 148,729; in 1897, 116,077.

The same authority gives these figures for the worsted factories: Total number (1890).

753 Number of spindles spinning.. 2,402,922 Number of spindles, doubling. 669,328 Number of power looms.

67,391 The number of employees in 1890 was 148,324; in 1897, 135,433.

The following figures relate to the flax factories in 1890: Total number, .

357 Number of spindles, spinning 1,134,813 Number of spindles, doubling.

61,521 Number of power looms

48,714 The number of employees in 1890 was 148,324; in 1897, 135,433.

In 1897 the shoddy factories employed 14,234 persons; the hemp factories, 9,586; the jute factories, 43,655; silk factories, 36,637; hosiery factories, 36,175; lace factories, 17,447; elastic factories 4,222.

The total number of persons employed in the textile factories of the United Kingdom in 1890 was as follows: England and Wales.

858,252 Scotland

154,591 Ireland.


Other cotton manufactures might be enumerated-lace, hosiery, etc., of which the foreign trade reaches into the millions every year. The total value of cotton exports of all kinds in 1899 totaled somewhere near $330,000,000 in round numbers. The cotton exports of 1900 amounted to £69,748,279, or nearly $350,000,000.

There are large exports of linen manufactures, amounting in 1899 to more than $25,000,000. The exports of wool and of woolen manufactures amount to more than $50,000,000 annually.

The pig iron production of Great Britain in 1900 was 8,908,570 long tons, against 9,305,319 tons in 1899. The output of Bessemer steel in 1900 was 1,745,004 tons as compared with 1.825,074 tons in 1899. The chief descriptions of finished Bessemer steel in the last two years were:



Rails ...
Plates and angles.
Blooms and billets..

838, 148

35, 743

759.814 96, 108 27,291 280,220 221,795




1,084,631 The following tables of cotton exports are compiled from the Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British Possessions,” years 1895 to 1899. The figures quoted are for 1899:

The statistics of finished steel are not quite complete.

EDUCATION. -For the year ended Aug. 31, 1900, the cost of elementary education in the United Kingdom was £8,973,871. The annual grants for day schools amounted to £5,095,929, an increase of £360,956 on the amount expended for the previous year. The sum set apart for evening schools was £195,641, an increase of £14,303. The fee grants for day scholars amounted to £2,341,812, or £31,047 more than in 1899; grants for deaf and blind children, £19,840, an increase of £745; grants to school boards, £205,865, an increase of £38,581; annual grants to training colleges, £195,344, an increase of £16,867; and pensions and gratuities to teachers, £47,711, an increase of £8,820. Expenditure for administration was £294, 206, of which sum £210,096 went for inspection and £82,441 for the office in London, the total being an excess of £548 over that of the previous year. The amount allowed for aid grant was £576,760, lower by £21,449 than the sum for 1899. The total expenditure shows an increase of £471,951,



Total to foreign countries. 143,569,900 5,457,016
Totalto British possessions

31,591,000 946,670
Bleached and Dyed:
Totalto foreign countries. 18,277,700 769, 775
Totalto British possessions 19,686,400 885,405
Grand total.

213, 125,000 8,058, 266

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