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this inference is drawn existed prior to 1850, when the ships of the United States were competing most successfully with those of Europe. The payment of higher wages, it is represented, constituted no barrier to competition then and does not at the present time. Again, the fact is cited that it costs in wages and food more to operate an English ship than it does an Italian or French ship; yet the merchant navies of France and Italy, although aided by subsidies are unable to compete with the English shipping.

Two provisions of the subsidy bill are objected to even by some of the friends of the bounties. These are the provisions for half payments to certain foreign built ships and for special premiums to speedy

vessels. The former provision is obnoxious to American ship builders, who declare that it contradicts the avowed purpose of the bill, to protect American ship-building. They demand that American bounties shall be limited to American vessels. The provision for special speed premiums is criticised on the ground that it would encourage the building of ocean greyhounds for passenger service rather than the building of freight transports; the act would not tend to cheapen freight rates and extend American exports. Many advocates of the subsidy policy believe that bounties should be based on cargo, rather than on speed.

6. CoxCLUSION.-It does not lie within the province of this article to strike a balance between the opposing arguments and pronounce judgment in favor of either side. A few considerations, however, may be presented, which are to be borne in mind in forming an opinion upon this question. Every problem in economic legislation involves two distinct issues, namely: Is the end sought desirable? And is the means proposed to attain it expedient? In the case of the subsidy bill the end sought-the restoration of the American merchant marine—is certainly a desirable one. No one would question the advantages to the nation of possessing a large fleet of sea going vessels. A flourishing merchant marine is an important element of commercial and political power. But the expediency of construction and navigation bounties as means of attaining this end is very questionable. It is clear that the subsidy policy is expensive and hazardous under any circumstances. Subsidies impose a tax burden on the people and are likely to have a demoralizing influence upon the subsidized industries. It would seem, therefore, that subsidies should be employed only as a last resort, when the end aimed at can be attained only in this way. In the case of the American shipping industry at the present time there appears to be no imperative need of resorting to this dubious policy. Recent developments indicate that the restoration of the American merchant marine may be expected to come, without assistance from the government, by process of natural growth. Ship-building has expanded rapidly during the last three years and conditions are most favorable for its continued growth. The demand for ships is very active; the materials used in their construction are abundant and cheap; there is plenty of capital seeking investment and no longer finding attractive oppor

Per cent, of Tonnage of Year Gross tonnage increase or Vessels in for

decrease eign trade 1890.

4,424,497 + 2.71 928,062 1891. 4,684,759 + 5.88

988,719 1892. 4,764,921 +1.71

977,624 1893. 4,825,071

+ 1.26 883,199 1894.

4,684,029 2.90 899,678 1895

4,635,960 - 1.03 822,317 1896. 4,703,880 + 1.47

828,833 1897.

4,769,020 + 1.38 792,870 1898. 4,749,738 - 0.40 726,213 1899.

4,864,238 + 2.41 837,229 1900. 5,164,839 + 6.18

816,795 1901. 5,524,218

+ 7.00 879,595 F. SPENCER BALDWIN, Ph. D., R. P. D., Prof. of Political Economy and Social Science, Boston Unirersity.

SKY, THE APPARENT FIGURE OF THE. It is a matter of common knowledge that the vault of the heavens has an apparently flat. tened form, the horizon seeming to be considerably more distant than the zenith. The reasons for, and the amount of, this deviation from a truly spherical surface have been the subjects of a considerable amount of discussion and experimentation, with the result that, at present, the flattening of the sky is quite generally attributed to an optical illusion which

interrupted distance to appear longer than an equal plain one.

In sighting toward the horizon, the eye rests successively on many intervening objects, a fact which tends to accentuate impressions of distance, while the instant view of the zenith which, on looking upward, meets our eyes, prevents any definite judgment of its remoteness. Moreover, terrestrial objects, far out near the limits of vision, furnish a long scale in terms of which we instinctively measure distance to the horizon, which we know at once must be



beyond the most remote object visible, but, on to fill the same angle 0. Then if OB is twice turning toward the zenith we are utterly at OA, B must be twice as long as A. loss for a standard of measurement, and un Should we then estimate the diameter of the consciously use a mental scale derived froin moon when it is near the horizon, and again our experience. The result is that we under when it is near the zenith, and find the reestimate this distance, since we are accus sults to differ, the discrepancy, which cannot, tomed to dealing continually with relatively of course, be assigned to an actual change short distances, and only infrequently with in the size of the moon, must be ascribed to a long ones. That considerable, but unknown variation in its apparent distance. In place distances are quite generally under-estimated

of the moon's diameter, we may use a pair when no standard of measurement is at hand, of stars, or a number of such pairs at various is well illustrated by the relation between the altitudes, referring them all to a standard pair, values we assign to the width of a broad river, chosen preferably near the zenith. or the distance of a ship at sea, and those made known through measurement.

The question may now be raised, as to how much farther than the zenith the horizon ap- 0


B pears to the average observer. To some, the disparity in distance is such that they compare the vault of the heavens in form to an inverted saucer, while others judge it much

FIG. 2. more nearly spherical. There will be here presented a solution of this question, based on ob In the estimates which follow, the standard servational data taken in accordance with the of distance was the line joining the stars Casthird of the following, briefly outlined, meth tor and Pollux, situated at the time of observaods for attacking the problem.

tion very near the zenith. More than 500 estiLet the arc HZH' (Figure 1) represent the mates, by twenty different individuals, were approximate figure of a vertical section of the made, of distances between star pairs selected sky, ( being the positio of the observer, Z so as to afford a wide range in azimuth as well his zenith, H and H' diametrically opposite as in altitude. A summary of the results is points on his horizon.

given in the table, where the headings of the

columns have the following significance:

d = the true distance between the star pairs.
d'= the estimated distance between the star pairs.
h = the altitude above the horizon of the star pairs.
n = the number of individual estimates, of which d' is

the mean.
r= the ratio of d' to d.
The average probable error of an estimated distance
“d'" is 0:15.

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5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15 15 17 19 19 22 22 23 25

As a first method for finding the relative apparent lengths of OZ and OH, a point S on the sky is located which just bisects the arc HZ. Then on the basis of a truly spherical surface, IIS would be an arc of 45°, and the angle of elevation X would be 45° also. On trial, it is found that angle x is considerably less than 45°, when the object S is estimated to be half-way between horizon and zenith, and the amount of the discrepancy fixes the relative lengths of OZ and OII.

This relation may also be obtained by measuring both the angle x and the distance to a point S', which is the estimated place where the body S, if conceived to fall, would strike the ground. Then two parts, angle x and side OS', in the right triangle OSS' are known, and the apparent distance OS is easily obtained. Experiment shows that the distance to the body seems to increase as the elevation above the horizon diminishes.

A third method, on which rests the determination of the figure of the sky as explained in the sequel, is based upon the fact that, of two objects which fill the same angle, the more remote is larger in proportion to its greater distance from the vertex of the angle. In Figure (2), suppose the two objects A and B


9.7 8.2 8.6 8.5 10.2 6.7 3.5 5.1 4.6 4.4 4.0 7.0 5.6 5.3 5.4 10.2 3.5 4.4 7.9 5.2 4.0 5.1 3.5 6.6 2.8 4.9 4.7 3.5 6.6 3.0

13.4 10.2 11.7 11.0 13.4 7.9 4.3 6.3 6.0 5.4 5.0 8.0 6.5 6.4 6.4 12.0 3.9 5.1 9.1 6.1 4.8 6.0 4.1 7.6 2.7 5.3 4.7 3.9 7.2 2.8

1.28 1.24 1.36 1.31 1.31 1.18 1.23 1.30 1.23 1.23 1.25 1.21 1.16 1.21 1.18 1.18 1.11 1.16 1.18 1.17 1.20 1.18 1.14 1.17 0.97 1.08 1.00 1.10 1.09 0.93

19 21 22 20 20 20 22 20 22 20 20 14 14 14 20 20 14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

28 29 30 31 32 33 38 42 42 44 46 50 51 65 68 72 75 76

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30


14 14 14 14 14

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It is at oncé évident that, for low altitudes, the distance has in every case been judged considerably too large, and that the discrepancy diminishes as the altitude increases, so that higher up than 60° the true and estimated values are in fairly good agreement.

Now on the principle illustrated in Figure (2), the distance unconsciously assigned to the stars is greater in proportion to the amount by which the line joining them has been overestimated. Therefore the value of r, or the ratio of d' to d, will in each case represent the distance to the stars in terms of that of a star in the zenith, or, in terms of the line OZ (Fig. ure 1). From an inspection of the column headed “r," it appears that a celestial object is considered about thirty per cent more distant on the horizon than when at an altitude of 60° or more.

By laying off each altitude "h," with the corresponding value of “r," the points plotted in Figure (3) are obtained, and by passing through these points the arc which will accord best with all of them, there results the arc HZH', which is, accordingly, the average figure assigned to the sky by the set of observers who made the estimates given in the table. The distances OZ and OH are very nearly in the ratio of 3 to 4.

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FIG. 3. How closely this conforms to the reader's idea of the form of the celestial vault, he may judge by comparing the following diagram with his experience.

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FIG. 4. Here are represented the relative dimensions of the full moon, (a) when near the zenith, (b) when near the horizon, the diameter of the two circles being in the ratio of 3 to 4, as required by the observational data tabulated above.

In charge University of Illinois Observatory.

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STEAMSHIPS, IRON AND STEEL.—The latter part of the nineteenth century was preeminently the age of steel, and this form of iron promises to hold its own for many genera


CONSTRUCTION; 1812-1901.
(From Engineering News, New York.)


vention. He was also a delegate at large from his state to the convention of 1888 and supported his old friend General Harrison.

He was a member of the pan-American commission of 1889, and also a commissioner to the Paris exposition in 1878. He was a Christian man, giving largely of his means in the directions where it seemed to him that it was most needed. Was a trustee and benefactor of Depauw University at Greencastle, Indiana.

Mr. Studebaker was twice married. Losing his first wife and their two children during his young manhood he married Miss Anna Milburn of Mishawaka, Ind., in 1864. Mrs. Stude. baker survives him with three of their children-Colonel George M. Studebaker, secretary of the company, Mrs. Charles Arthur Carlisle and Clem, Jr.

The career of this man marks an important era in the history of one of the world's great manufacturers, and illustrates the wonderful benefits which are attained by teaching the me. chanical arts. Many a third rate politician or inefficient professional man might have been of great benefit to himself and the world if he had been trained in practical manual labor.

SYLVA, CARMEN, is the nom de plume chosen by Elizabeth, the poet-queen of Roumania. She was born at Neu-Wied, December 29, 1843. Her mother, who was only eighteen years of age when the daughter was born, was princess of Nassau, sister of the Grand-Duke of Luxemburg, and wife of the late Prince Herman zu Wied.

The princess was carefully educated by private tutors, but found her greatest pleasure in music and belles-lettres. Her winter home was on the banks of the Rhine and her summer residence in the forests of the Tarenus Mountains, where she enjoyed the wildest of the scenery, and in walking or climbing she was ever in the lead of her companions, like some beautiful Diana leading her train among the hills.

The princess was introduced to the court society of Berlin under the chaperonage of the late Empress Augusta, and afterward made a tour of Europe with the Grand Duchess Héléne of Russia, spenuing considerable time at the Russian court. It was here that she met Prince Charles of Roumania, whom she afterward married. At first she objected to marriage, having decided to devote her life to philanthropic work, but the gallant prince, by patience and perseverance, at last won his way and a veritable love match was made, even in royal circles. The wedding was celebrated November 3, 1869, at Neu-Wied, Elizabeth telling her lover that she would rather reign with him over the little country of Roumania than to share any other throne in Europe.

Charles I, the son of the Prince of Hohenzollern, was given the title of king in 1881, hay-. ing been the reigning prince for fifteen years, and the beautiful queen with her gracious ways, lives very near to the hearts of the people. She has never interfered with politics, but uses her influence for the furtherance of higher education and culture especially among women. She has founded educational institutions for both women and children. She has revived the old Romanian industries and en

reign of thirty-one years it began to give place to Siemens open-hearth steel which is now succeeding it. The manufacture of open-hearth already greatly exceeds that of Bessemer, in Great Br an and promises to do so in America.

The accompanying chart gives a striking illustration of the wonderful progress which has been made in the construction of iron and steel steamships during the past century. The process of rolling iron plates came into use in 1781, and in 1786 the first rolled iron plates were used in boiler construction. The first iron vessels ever built were some canal boats which were constructed in England in 1787. The first iron sailing ship was built in Liverpool in 1838 and called the Ironsides. In 1813 the Great Britain left her docks, but she went ashore in Dundrum Bay on her first voyage. The famous Great Eastern was built at Millwall in 1857, and although she was a failure from a commercial point of view her construction was in some respects a sample of modern design.

Iron ship building in Germany developed at a much later period than in England, but it developed rapidly, and at the present time Germany has thirty yards for the construction of iron or steel sea-going vessels. In the United States Navy we have both armored and unarmored steel vessels—we have steel torpedo boats, and steel torpedo-boat destroyers, submarine torpedo boats, steel and iron steam tugs, and protected cruisers as well as first class battle-ships.

During the period, 1891-1900, 742,830 tons of steel shipping were built in the United States.

STUDEBAKER, CLEM, died in South Bend, Indiana, November 27, 1901.

Mr. Studebaker was born in Adams Co., Penn., March 12, 1831. When four years old the family moved to Wayne (now Ashland) Co., Ohio, making the trip in wagons. His father, John Studebaker, was a blacksmith and wagon maker; when the child was only eight years old he was put to work in his father's shop, spending his vacations (?) there and attending the district school during the winter. At the age of twenty the youth had absorbed whatever of knowledge the country school could give and had also become a proficient blacksmith. He located in St. Joseph Co., Indiana, teaching school for fifty cents per day, but shortly afterward gave up teaching and went to work in a threshing machine factory. He was ambitious, however, to be his own master and sent for his older brother Henry; the two, with a combined cash capital of $2.65 and $68 worth of tools set up the business of blacksmithing and wagon making in South Bend. This was the beginning of the firm which has since become one of the greatest of the kind in the world. The first year they succeeded in making only two wagons, while last year their output was nearly 75,000.

One by one the other three brothers were taken into the company and in 1868 it was incorporated.

Clem Studebaker was a delegate to the Chicago convention that nominated Garfield in 1880. He was a Grant man, and one of the famous “306" who stood by Grant at that con

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couraged patriotism, interesting herself also in the early traditions and customs of the people. During the war of 1877-8, when Roumania fought with Russia against Turkey, when her troops especially distinguished themselves at the battle of Plevna, Elizabeth was especially active in ministering to the sick and wounded soldiers. She spent nearly all of her time in the hospital where the men learned to speak of her as "Juma Ranitilor," or "the mother of the wounded." When the great struggle was over the wives of the officers erected a monument in honor of their queen who is represented in the act of giving a drink of water to a wounded soldier.

Living happily with her royal husband, the great sorrow of Elizabeth's life has been the death of her only child, a beautiful daughter, who died at the age of four. · Her Majesty has never been her former joyous self since this terrible loss, but she is especially considerate and tender to other sufferers.

In 1876 Carmen Sylva wrote a Roumanian poem entitled "Torrful cu Deo" which was set to music and given at the national theatre at Bucharest. Before this time she had written poems and romances in different languages, and since then has produced a large amount of work.

Besides poems which were printed privately, Carmen Sylva was the author of Stürme (1881), Leidens Erden gang (1882), translated into English as “Pilgrim of Sarron" by Helen Zimmern (1881). Pensées d'une Reine (1882), Meister Manole (1892).

TEMPERANCE UNION, NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN.-The twenty-eighth annual convention of this great organization of 300,000 women was held at Fort Worth, Tex., November 12-19, 1901.

On the first day twenty-six state presidents answered to the roll call and delegates were welcomed not only from the States but also

from the widely extended American dominions-Hawaii, Alaska and Manila. Interested co-workers and fraternal delegates from Pueblo, Mexico, and Mexico City-from San Luis Potosi, from Switzerland, England, Japan, Tasmania and other foreign lands, were made members of the convention.

On Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday preliminary meetings and conferences were held. meetings of superintendents and organizers, also sessions of suborganizations—the Young Women, the Loyal Temperance Legion, and also the first annual meeting of the W. C. T. V. Editorial Association, the organization of which was effected last year at the Washington convention.

A large amount of important business had been transacted when, on Friday morning, Mrs. Lillian M. Stevens, the National President, called the convention proper to order. According to the precedent established by Frances W’illard, this annual meeting, as well as its predecessors, was opened by devotional exercises, the responsive reading of the Crusade Psalm and the singing of the Crusade Hymn.

Messages of love and sympathy were sent to distant friends, the most notable being the one to Mrs. McKinley, who, with the President, received at the White House the delegates to the lasť convention and presented a bouquet of American Beauties to Mrs. Ste


The feature of the morning 'meeting at Fort Worth was the president's address, in which she made a brief summary of the work of the organization during the past year, and enforced the fact that it is in the saloon that anarchy finds its home and fulminates its teachings-that the murderer of our President learned his first lessons of lawlessness in his father's saloon.

She also gave an outline of the history of the anti-canteen law, showed the good effect of England's policy in discouraging the tise of

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