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Center of attraction in New York was at St. Paul's Church, CHAP. to which! Washington after his inauguration, accompanied by the members of Congress, had gone to return 1889. thanks to God and implore His blessing upon the Government just instituted. Bishop Provost, Chaplain of the Senate, had officiated. In the same church President Harrison and the members of his Cabinet who could attend, were present; the services were conducted in the usual form, Bishop Henry C. Potter making an address. President Harrison occupied the pew in which Washington was accustomed to sit—which has always been preserved in its original form. Ex-Presidents Hayes and Cleveland were present, besides numerous other prominent men.

The assembly adjourned at the close of the services to meet at the historic place in Wall street, where stands a bronze statue of Washington on the spot where the original inauguration took place. After prayer, addresses were made, the chief orator being Chauncey M. Depew.

At the close of these services President Harrison proceeded to Madison Square, where he was to review the military procession reaching from Wall street to Fiftysixth street-about four miles. For the accommodation of spectators of which, all told, there were perhaps a million, as every available point for seeing was occupied

-temporary platforms or seats were prepared in many places on the streets along the route, in front of public buildings and parks. The private residences on the line of march were elaborately decorated. This parade of citizen-soldiers was the greatest thus far in our history. They came from twenty-three States, extending from Maine to Louisiana, and all along the Atlantic slope; there were present also twenty-nine Governors of States, who were mostly accompanied by their staffs. The whole number of troops exceeded fifty thousand. The exer

1 Hist., p. 573.

May 1.

CHAP. cises of the second day closed with an Inauguration CenLXXII. tennial Banquet. 1889. The enthusiasm of the people continued unabated

and they entered into the processions of the third day with a zest equal to that of the two previous. The last day in truth, represented causes that came home to them individually, more than the displays of the other two, as it was an exhibition in favor of the educational and industrial interests of the Nation; showing the great advancement made during the first century of the Nation's life, in the paths of useful labor, of domestic peace and material progress in a Christianized civilization. The detail is too extensive for us to enter upon in this connection. The participants in the parade were drawn from the city and its immediate vicinity, including students of Columbia College, of the New York City College and of the University of New York; followed by boys, pupils in the public schools, 4,000 strong; and they, by the various trade and industrial representations. Applications had been received by the Committee, from civic, commercial and industrial societies—foreign-born and native alike, all of which designated the number belonging to each who wished to participate in the processions, the whole number amounting to 110,000; but the Committee was compelled to limit the rumber pro rata, so that only 75,000 could be in line.

This celebration closed the first hundred years of the Nation's life and history, and, under wonderfully changed circumstances, it has entered upon its second century.




The Territory of the Union in 1789 and in 1889.-Its Comparison

with Europe.—The Diversified Climate.-The Essential Productions.-Crude Manufactures and Trade.--The Two National Debts.—The Means of Paying.-Condition of the Churches in 1789 and in 1889.-Zeal and Benevolent Institutions.-Theological Discussions.—The Effects Produced.—The Anti-Slavery Agitation.-Commerce, Agriculture, Invention.-Immigration.-Edu. cation.-Suffrage.-Literature.—Language.

In closing the history of the first hundred years of CHAP.

LXXIIL the Nation's life, it will interest the intelligent reader to compare the salient points of difference in the conditions under which it began its first century, and those under which it enters upon its second.

The territory of the United States consisted in 1789 of a comparatively narrow strip lying along the Atlantic slope, extending from the eastern boundary of Maine to the northern line of Florida. Sometime before and

1749 during the French and Indian war, large numbers of ad- to venturous spirits threaded their way westward over the 1763. Alleghany Mountains into the regions beyond. At the termination of that war a second migration, consisting of many thousands, began crossing over by the famous Braddock' road into Western Pennsylvania, and there founded settlements in the fertile valley of the Monongabela. At the same time similar migrations were on

· Hist., pp. 280, 585.

CHAP. their way from the same State, along the more northern LAAM. road cut by General Forbes, to the vicinity of the site 1773. of the present City of Pittsburg. Afterward, equally

adventurous and bold-hearted emigrants passed over from Virginia and North Carolina, through the south middle portion of the same mountains, and under great difficulties established homes for their families within the “ dark and bloody ground” now known as Kentucky.” These were the only settlements of that day outlying the Atlantic slope.

The opening of the second century in this respect is in marked contrast. It finds the Nation occupying a vast territory, extending east and west from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific; and north and south from the Florida Keys, the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, the line of the Rio Grande, and thence to and along the Pacific Ocean, to the 49th parallel of latitude on the northwest, and a line drawn through the middle of the Great Lakes, and on the northeast to the 47th parallel. A further comparison may aid the American people to appreciate more fully their goodly heritage. The domain of the United States, excluding Alaska, is estimated to lack only a few hundred thousand square miles of being as large as all Europe. The territory of Europe extends from the Straits of Gibraltar to four degrees beyond the Arctic Circle ; along this circle, on both sides, is a vast barren waste, because of the rigidly cold climate. On the other hand, the territory of the United States lies wholly within the choicest portion of the North Temperate Zone, as it extends from the 49th parallel down to within half a degree of the Tropic of Cancer; nor is there an acre of soil within its boundaries, except on the high mountains, that is unavailable because of the climate for pasturage or cultivation. The contrast with Europe is, perhaps, still more re

1 Hist., p. 507.




markable in regard to climate and rainfall, as the United CHAP. States appear to derive more benefit from the Atlantic and X Pacific equatorial currents than both Asia and Europe combined. The Atlantic current furnishes the Gulf Stream, which brings the blessings of moisture and warmth to Western Europe; but it also furnishes what is equally important—a copious rainfall to our great Mississippi Valley.' The Pacific equatorial cırrent is the origin of the Japan current—three times the size of the Gulf Stream, and four degrees warmer—which causes the mild climate and moisture of our Pacific and Northwestern States, away up to Alaska. The influence of this warm current, which expands all over the surface of the North Pacific, extends along the entire southern portion of Alaska, and to the south down the coast beyond San Francisco. The winds from off it are loaded with warmth and moisture, and penetrate inland about one thousand miles, passing over Oregon and Washington and through the gaps of the Cascade and the Rocky Mountain ranges, until they meet and mingle with the western flank of the vaporloaded winds from the Atlantic equatorial current. The latter are deflected by the Sierra Madre Mountains of Mexico, and flow north toward the pole to restore the equilibrium of the atmosphere.

The extent of territory occupied by the United States, and the consequent diversity of climate, render the American people virtually independent of the rest of the world for the necessaries of life, such as clothing and substantial food of all kinds, the only exceptions being tea and coffee, chocolate, and a few spices from the tropics, that have in time become essential to the comfort of the people, and as delicacies for the table. We are also dependent, for the most part, on foreign lands for raw silk and india-rubber. Thus, the North and North-middle

Natural Resources of the U. S.; J. H. Patton; pp. 351-360; 364. · Nat. Resources, pp. 369-377.

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