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CHAP: framed in harmony therewith. . . . We assert that no

Nation can long endure half republic and half empire, and we warn the American people that imperialism abroad will lead quickly and inevitably to despotism at home. . . . The burning issue of imperialism growing out of the Spanish war involves the very existence of the Republic and the destruction of our free institutions.” Again: “We endorse the principles of the national Democratic platform adopted at Chicago in 1896, ... and demand the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1, without waiting for the aid or consent of any other nation.” “We favor the immediate construction, ownership, and control of the Nicaraguan Canal by the United States. . . . We condemn the ill-concealed Republican alliance with England, which must mean discrimination against other friendly Nations. ... We recommend that Congress create a Department of Labor, in charge of a Secretary with a seat in the Cabi. net. . . . Believing that our most cherished institutions are in peril, we earnestly ask for the foregoing declaration of principles the hearty support of the liberty. loving American people, regardless of previous party affiliations."

This platform, unfortunately, overlooked the then unprecedented prosperity of all the industries of the land, including that of foreign commerce, which for the two previous years had had an enormous annual average balance of trade in our favor. A resolution endorsing Mr. Cleveland's administration was rejected by a ma. jority of 207. The “Silver Democracy” had no use for a “ Gold Democrat.”.

The “Social Democratic” party, the outcome of the union of that organization with the “Socialist Labor" party, held its Convention at Chicago on September 29, 1900. It nominated Eugene V. Debs of Illinois for



the Presidency and Job Harriman of California for the CHAP.

LXXVIL Vice-presidency. The distinctive object of the party is thus stated: “ The party affirms its steadfast purpose to destroy wage-slavery, to abolish the institution of private property in the means of production, and to establish the co-operative commonwealth. . . . The introduction of a new and higher order of society is the his. toric mission of the working class. All other classes, despite their apparent or actual conflicts, are interested in upholding the system of private ownership in the means of production. The Democratic, Republican, and all other parties which do not stand for the complete overthrow of the capitalist system of production are alike the tools of the capitalist class.” .

The Convention of the Prohibition party was held in Chicago June 27, 1900. It nominated for the Presidency Mr. John G. Woolley of Illinois, and for the Vice-presidency Mr. Henry B. Metcalf of Rhode Island. The platform was quite lengthy and on the usual lines characteristic of that organization.

Thus in the year 1900 an unusual number of parties under different names made nominations for the Presidency and the Vice-presidency. This fact seemed to indicate an underlying distrust, especially in respect to the financial and political principles of the two maic parties of the Nation. In addition, the occasion afforded an opportunity for these dissatisfied citizens to publish to the country their various theories of government and of social problems.

The first administration of President McKinley was noted for two events of special interest—the war with Spain and the remarkable material progress of the entire Nation—both industrial and commercial. The first revealed to the world the self-contained power of the American people; and the innovation in the world of waging a war in order to relieve a people from oppres.

CHAP, sion, and then inaugurating a system to train the people

thus relieved to a higher plane of civilization, self-reli. ance, and self-government.

The general and gradual progress of the whole Union in all its industries and business relations was uniform during that same administration, and when it ended the prospect for the future was still more encour. aging. In all business circles confidence was inspired because there was no doubt but the financial measures of the general Government would remain unchanged. The interstate traffic of the Nation is estimated to be forty times the value of the foreign trade. The balance of foreign trade in our favor during the last three years of that administration averaged annually more than $417,000,000—that is, the value of our exports exceeded just so much that of our imports. This differ. ence was paid in gold or its equivalent. We had also become in these three years a creditor nation, as our capitalists had loaned to European governments immense bums of money. This national success may be traced to the judicious financial measures of the general Govern. ment, which had been supplemented by the industrial energy and general intelligence of all our people—the latter characteristic being largely the outgrowth of our public schools and the freedom of opportunity in this favored land.

It was not strange, then, that the election of November, 1900, resulted in the re-election of William McKinley to succeed himself as President of the United States, standing as the representative of an administration of the Government which had been able to show such notable triumphs both in war and in peace.



Inauguration of McKinley and Roosevelt.— The President's Tour

to the Pacific Coast.–At the Pan-American Exposition. ---His
Farewell Address.-His Death.–Sketch of Theodore Roose-
velt.-Continuation of the Philippine War.–The War in
China.- Independence for Cuba. — The Isthmian Canal.— The
Alaska Boundary.-Great Coal Strike.-Our Island Posses-
sions. — American Inventions. — President Roosevelt's First
Message.- Naval and Military Power.-Gifts of Benevolence.

WILLIAM MCKINLEY, who had been reëlected by larger CHAP majorities than he received in 1896, was inaugurated LXXVIIL President a second time on March 4, 1901. At the same time Theodore Roosevelt took the oath of office as Vice-President.

In his inaugural address President McKinley said: 6. When we assembled here on March 4, 1897, there was great anxiety with regard to our currency and credit. None exists now. Then our treasury receipts were inadequate to meet the current obligations of the government. Now there are sufficient for all public needs, and we have a surplus instead of a deficit. I have the satisfaction to announce that the Congress just closed has reduced taxation to the amount of forty-one million dollars. ... We should not permit our great prosperity to lead us to reckless ventures in business, or profligacy in public expenditures." .

His cabinet remained as it was during his first term,

CHAP. except that Attorney-General Griggs soon resigned and LXXVIII.

was succeeded by Philander C. Knox, of Pennsylvania.

Late in April the President set out on a tour to the Pacific coast, by way of New Orleans. In speaking at Memphis he said: “What a mighty, resistless power for good is a united nation of free men! It makes for peace and prestige, for progress and liberty. It conserves the rights of the people and strengthens the pillars of the government, and is a fulfillment of that more perfect union for which our Revolutionary fathers strove and for which the Constitution was made. No citizen of the Republic rejoices more than I do at this happy state, and none will do more within his sphere to continue and strengthen. it. Our past has gone into history. No brighter onė adorns the annals of mankind. Our task is for the future. We leave the old century behind us, holding on to its achievements and cherishing its memories, and turn with hope to the new, with its opportunities and obligations. These we must meet, men of the South, men of the North, with high pur. pose and resolution. Without internal troubles to distract us, or jealousies to disturb our judgment, we will solve the problems which confront us untrammeled by the past, and wisely and courageously pursue a policy of right and justice in all things, making the future, under God, even more glorious than the past.”

An Exposition to illustrate the progress of civilization in the western hemisphere in the nineteenth century had been projected, to be held on the Niagara frontier in 1898, and in July, 1897, President McKinley drove the memorial stake on Cayuga Island, near the village of La Salle. But the war with Spain postponed the enterprise, and when it was revived the location was changed to the city of Buffalo, and there the Pan-American Exposition was held, - May 1 to November 2, 1901. In its buildings and grounds it resembled the Columbian Ex

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