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Industries, Commerce, etc.-Agriculture is the most important industry, and wheat the chief product. Other important products are wine, silk, tobacco, and attar of roses. Manufactures include various textiles, tobacco goods, and alcoholic liquors. In 1900 the amount of attar of roses distilled was about 4,360,000 grammes, an increase of 50 per cent. over the production of 1899. The principal export is wheat, and the leading imports textiles and metal goods. The imports and exports in 1898 amounted to 72,730,250 leva and 66,537,007 leva respectively; in 1899, imports 60,178,079 leva, and exports 53,467,099 leva. According to a British report AustriaHungary stood first in 1900 in the import trade with £505,655, Great Britain second, and Germany third with £224,599. British trade is declining; imports from Great Britain fell from £498,000 in 1899 to £301,150 in 1900, and the former figure was smaller than that for 1898. About 40 per cent. of the exports go to Turkey; the countries next in order in the export trade are Great Britain, France, and AustriaHungary. In 1900 there were 909 miles of railway in operation and 130 under construction. The state telegraph lines had a total length of 3,270 miles in 1899, and the state telephone lines 1,228 miles.

Events of 1901.—The resignation of M. Ivanschoff's cabinet was accepted in January, 1901, and a provisional cabinet for the transaction of public business until after the elections to the Sobranje was formed by M. Petroff, a former minister of the interior. On February 20 the elections took place, with the following results: Stambuloffists, 38; Zankoffists (Russophil), 32; Kama vrloffists, 26; Stoiloffists, 24; Agrarians, 14; Independents (the Petroff party), 14; 1 urks, 9; followers of Radoslavoff (whose ministry resigned December 5, 1900), 6; Socialists, 4. On February 26 the Petroff cabinet resigned, and on March 4 Prince Ferdinand, upon the coalition o.. the followers of M. Zankoff and M. Karaveloff, sanctioned a new ministry of the following composition: M. Karaveloff, premier and minister of finance; M. Daneff, foreigr. affairs; M. Sarafoff, the interior; General Paprikoff, war; M. Radeff, justice; M. Ludskanoff, commerce; M. Slaveikoff, education; M. Belinoff, public works. M. Petko Karaveloff, who returned to power after an interval of fifteen years, was premier at the time of Prince Alexander's abduction. Subsequently he became a member of the Regency of Three, over which Stambulofi presided, but, quitting the Regency, he was soon imprisoned; and he was again imprisoned after the assassination of M. Beltcheff, but was liberated after the fall of Stambuloff. The extreme democratic and socialistic opinions of M. Kariveloff, who for a number of years has endeavored to regain political prestige, have been widely accepted in the rural 'istricts of Bulgaria. The Sobranje convened on March 7. In September the premier - stated that his chief ambition was to place Bulgarian finances on a sound basis, and this he expected to accomplish within two years. There appeared to be, however, greater difficulties than the premier had anticipated. In Decembcr it was announced that he had signed a contract with the Bank of Paris and the Netherlands for a new loan of 125,000,000 francs. Later in the month, by a majority of three votes, this contract was rejected by the Sobranje, whereupon the premier announced the suspension of the session and a dissolution of the Sobranje seemed imr inent. Near the end of the year the Karaveloff ministry resigned, although the payment of the obligations, amounting to 10,000,000 francs and due on January 15, 1902, whici it had been striving to meet, seemed assured. On September 7, the Sobranje decided to lay before the supreme court the charges against the members of the Ivanschoff ministry for violation of the constitution and misconduct in connection with the purchase of materials for the state railways. On July II, 1901, the Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich, cousin and brother-in-law to the Czar, made an official visit to Prince Ferdinandthe first royal visit ever received by the Prince. The occasion had no apparent political significance beyond emphasizing the recognized fact of the preponderance of Russian influence in Bulgaria. This influence has been gradually increasing since the death of Stambuloff (1895). In September, 1901, the premier, M. Karaveloff, stated that Bulgaria, while desiring to be on good terms with all other countries, preferred the friendship of Russia.

During 1901 the propaganda of the Macedonian Committee (headquarters at Sofia) was continued, though apparently with small success. The aim of the committee, it will be remembered, is to effect reforms in the Ottoman vilayet of Adrianople and the Macedonian districts of Turkey, and ultimately to annex Macedonia to Bulgaria. These districts are inhabited largely by Wallachs, who oppose annexation, preferring to remain under Turkish authority, which, they hope, may be supervised by the powers. The plans of the committee also meet the disapproval of Roumania and Servia, who fear Bulgarian aggrandizement. The committee works almost entirely sub rosa, fearing on the one hand the suzerain power of Turkey, which of course opposes its plans, and on the other hand the Bulgarian government itself, which, notwithstanding its alleged sympathy with the purpose, if not the practice, of the I committee, does not dare openly to support the annexation scheme.

On March 27, 1901, a small band of Bulgarians attempting to enter Macedonian

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territory, were defeated and driven back by Turkish troops. About the first of April the trial of 19 Bulgarians charged with revolutionary proceedings was concluded; 5 were acquitted, II sentenced to life servitude, and 3 condemned to death. In April the Bulgarian government forbade the meeting of the Macedonian committee, and on the fifth of the month all the prominent members of the committee in Sofia, including M. Sarafoff, the president, were arrested. As a result, on April 15, a massmeeting of some 10,000 persons took place at Sofia to protest against the arrests and to express disapproval of the attitude of the Russian government on the Macedonian question. The meeting also proposed to appeal to the powers for intervention against the persecution of Bulgarians in Turkey. Similar meetings were held in provincial towns. Subsequently the moderate party in the committee, as against the extremists, represented by M. Sarafoff, elected M. Michailovski president of the managing committee. On August 14 M. Sarafoff and the other members of the committee charged with the murder of Professor Michaileana and M. Fitofski were acquitted. Meanwhile Turkish severities were taking place in Macedonia, and there were numerous arrests and convictions of persons accused of complicity in the designs of the Macedonian committee. The agents of the committee were said for the most part to be ordinary criminals. On October 5 a mass-meeting, comprising, it was said, some 20,000 persons, protested against the persecution of Bulgarians in Kastoria and called upon the Bulgarian government to appeal to the Porte. On the other hand it was reported late in December that through the agency of the Macedonian committee the persecution of Greeks for the purpose of compelling them to submit to the authority of the Bulgarian Church, had reached such a point that the Greek Patriarch had formally protested to both the Porte and the Russian ambassador at Constantinople. Moreover, at the close of the year, the Turkish commissioner at Sofia entered protest with the Bulgarian government regarding the committee. On the ground that the actions complained of had taken place in Turkish territory, the Bulgarian government repudiated responsibility. In November M. Daneff, minister for foreign affairs, said that no improvement in the relations of Bulgaria and Turkey were possible so long as the existing conditions in Macedonia continued, and he added that when the terms of the Treaty of Berlin should be carried out, the Macedonian committee would disappear. For the abduction of Miss Stone, the American missionary, by alleged agents of the committee, see TURKEY.

BUNCE, FRANCIS Marvin, rear-admiral U. S. N. (retired), died at Hartford, Conn., October 19, 1901. He was born at Hartford, December 25, 1836, and graduated at the United States Naval Academy in 1857. Throughout the Civil War his services were varied and distinguished. As executive officer of the Penobscot he took part in the engagement with the Confederate batteries at Yorktown in 1862, and in the same year was in command of a successful expedition up Little River, between the Carolinas. In 1863 he was made a lieutenant-commander, conducting the naval attack on Morris Island, for which he was honorably mentioned by Admiral Dahlgren. A few months later he was placed in command of the monitor Patapsco in the siege of Charleston, where he was wounded, and after service on the monitors Katskill, Lehigh, and Dictator he was ordered to the Monadnock. He took the Monadnock from Philadelphia to San Francisco in 1865, demonstrating the ability of monitors to make long sea voyages. For this service, as remarkable as Captain Clark's voyage with the Oregon from San Francisco to Key West in the SpanishAmerican War of 1898, he was thanked by the secretary of the navy and recommended to the President for reward. The command of the Atlanta, the first of the new cruisers, was given to him in 1886, and in 1895 he was placed in command of the North Atlantic Squadron. In 1897 he became commandant of the Brooklyn Navy Yard, retaining the post after his retirement (1898), and performing valuable service in converting steamers and yachts to auxiliary cruisers for use in the war with Spain. His promotions occurred, to commander, in 1871; to captain, in 1883; to commodore, 1895; and to rear-admiral, in 1898.

BURGESS, Rt. Rev. ALEXANDER, Protestant Epsicopal bishop of Quincy,I11., died at St. Albans, Vt., October 8, 1901. He was born at Providence, R. I., October 31, 1819, and was educated at Brown University, graduating in 1838, and at the General Theological Seminary, where he graduated in 1841. Ordained a priest in 1843, he filled pastorates at Augusta and Portland, Me., was rector of St. John's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., and of Christ Church, Springfield, Ill., which charge he held in 1878 when he was consecrated first bishop of Quincy, Ill. Bishop Burgess published a Memoir of the First Bishop of Maine (1869), a biography of his brother, Rev. George Burgess (1809-66), besides a number of serions, addresses, and hymns.

BURMA, a province of British India lyimg between China and the Bay of Bengal, consists of Upper Burma, Lower Burma, and the Shan States. The estimated area of Upper Burma is 83,473 square miles, and the population, according to the census of 1901, 3,849,833, as against 2,946,933 in 1891; Lower Burma, 87,957 square miles with 5,371,328 inhabitants, as against 4,658,627 in 1891; the Shan States, about

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40,000 square miles, with 1,228,460 inhabitants; total, upwards of 211,000 square miles, and 10,449,621 inhabitants in 1901. The people are mostly Buddhists. The chief town of Upper Burma is Mandalay (population, 182,498), and of Lower Burma Rangoon (population, 232,326). The province is administered under the Indian government, by a lieutenant-governor, Sir Frederic W. R. Fryer since 1897. The money of account is the silver rupee, which is valued at one-fifteenth of a British sovereign, or about 31 cents. The revenue for the fiscal year 1899 was reported at Rx. 6,989,040, and the expenditures Rx. 4,462,922 (Rx. signifying 10 rupees). The foreign trade (that is, trade with all countries except India) by sea has increased remarkably in recent years. The foreign imports in the fiscal year 1901 amounted to Rx. 6,870,000, as against R x. 4,870,000 in 1900. The foreign exports showed a slight decline, from Rx. 10,780,000 in the fiscal year 1900 to R X. 10,030,000 in 1901; this falling off was due to the large quantities of rice diverted from foreign markets to India on account of the famine in that country. The trade with India (imports and exports) by sea in the fiscal year 1901 was valued at Rx. 17,740,000, as against Rx. 14,070,000 in the preceding year; of this increase R x. 2,330,000 represented increased shipments of rice to India. From the foregoing figures it appears that the total trade of Burma by sea amounted to Rx. 34,640,000 (about $112,233,000). It is worthy of note, in comparison, that the total trade in the fiscal year 1871 was reported at Rx. 6,930,000; in 1881, Rx. 14,000,000; in 1891, Rx. 23,000,000. Of the imports in the fiscal year 1901 Grcat Britain sent about 60 per cent., and of the exports received about 20 per cent. Following, in order of importance, excepting India, were Egypt, the Straits Settlements, Germany, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, the United States, and China. In addition to the trade by sea may be mentioned the overland trade with China, the imports in the fiscal year 1901 amounting to R x. 286,500, and the exports Rx. 321,000. The principal export is rice; the quantity sent to foreign countries in 1901 being valued at Rx. 7,920,000 and to India R x. 7,360,000 the total amounting to about $49,407,000. The export next in importance is teak. The three principal places in the world from which this wood is exported are Rangoon, Moulmein, and Bangkok (Siam). The shipments from Rangoon are by far the largest, while those from the other two ports are about equal. In 1899 there were 936 miles of railway open to traffic, and since that time a considerable mileage has been completed. On June 1, 1901, the lieutenant-governor formally opened the Gokteik viaduct and railway to Thibaw. In his visit to Burma in the fall of 1901, Lord Curzon, the Indian viceroy, emphasized the desirability of developing internal communications. In 1901 there appeared to be a growing dissatisfaction among the Kachins on the China frontier, who suffered from the incursions of the transfrontier Kachins, while neither the Chinese nor the British authorities seemed able to give them relief.

BUSIEL, CHARLES ALBERT, former governor of New Hampshire, died at Laconia, N. H., August 29, 1901. He was born at Meredith, N. H., in 1842, and was educated at the Gilford Academy. He became a manufacturer, was interested in banking, and was for a time president of the Lake Shore Railroad. He was a member of the State legislature (1878-79), delegate to the National Democratic Convention in 1880, mayor of Laconia (1893-94), and governor of New Hampshire (1895-96). He was an unsuccessful candidate for United States Senator in 1896. At first a Democrat in politics, he changed his views later and was elected governor on a Republican ticket.

BUTLER, NICHOLAS MURRAY, professor of philosophy and education in Columbia University, New York City, was chosen acting president of that university in October, 1901. Upon the resignation of President Seth Low (q.v.) to accept the Fusion nomination for mayor of New York City, the trustees of Columbia selected Mr. Butler to act as the university's head, and after the former's political victory, Mr. Butler succeeded him as president. He was born at Elizabeth, N. J., April 2, 1862, and graduated at Columbia in 1882. In 1885 he became an assistant in philosophy, and rose to be dean of that department in 1890. In 1895 he became president of the National Educational Association and editor of the Educational Review. He is widely known for his educational work, and has published The Meaning of Education, and Monographs on Education in the United States, besides editing the Great Educators Series, and the Columbia University Contributions to Philosophy and; Education.

BUTTERFIELD, DANIEL, major-general U. S. A. (resigned), died at Cold Spring, N. Y., July 17, 1901. He was born at Utica, N. Y., October 31, 1831, and graduated at Union College in 1849. Joining his father, who founded the American Express Company, he devoted himself to business until he entered the New York State militia, serving from 1851 to 1861, when, as colonel of the Twelfth New York Regiment, he joined the Union Army. General Butterfield took part in twenty-eight engagements during the Civil War, winning a medal of honor from Congress for

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gallantry in action at Gaines' Mill in the peninsular campaign. He rose in rank until at the end of the war he had attained the rank of major-general of volunteers, and at the time of his resignation had received the brevet ranks of brigadier-general and major-general in the regular service. At the close of the war he was appointed superintendent of the general recruiting service of the army, and was put in command of the forces in New York Harbor, serving there from 1865 to 1869. In this latter year he resigned to become assistant treasurer of the United States in charge of the sub-treasury at New York.

CABLE, GEORGE WASHINGTON, the author of many familiar stories of Creole life in New Orleans, published in 1901 The Cavalier, a novel dealing with the South during the Civil War. The book is a sympathetic study of the spirit of the men who fought through the war on the Confederate side, and of the fortitude of the women who encouraged them in the long struggle. Mr. Cable was born at New Orleans, October 12, 1844, and was educated in the public schools of that city. From 1863 to 1865 he served in the Confederate army, in the Fourth Mississippi cavalry, and from the close of the war till 1879 he was on the staff of the New Orleans Picayune. Among his published books are Old Creole Days, The Grandissimes, The Silent South, Dr. Sevier, The Negro Question, and Strong Hearts.

CAINE, Thomas Henry Hall, the author of a number of successful novels, published in 1901, The Eternal City, a novel dealing with modern Italy and the conflict of church and state at Rome. The book attained a wide circulation, and while its value as a study of modern Italian life has been questioned, as melodrama it ranks with the author's other successes. Mr. Caine was born on the Isle of Man, May 14, 1853, and was educated there and at Liverpool. Trained as an architect, he soon abandoned that profession and became a writer for the Liverpool Mercury. He began his literary career by publishing, in 1882, Sonnets of Three Centuries. His most popular novels are The Deemster (1887), The Bondman (1890), The Manxman (1894), and The Christian (1898).

CALIFORNIA, a Pacific coast State of the United States, has a land area of 155,980 square miles. The capital is Sacramento. California was admitted to the Union September 9, 1850. The population in 1900 was 1,485,053, while in June, 1901, as estimated by the government actuary, it was 1,514,000. The populations of the four largest cities in 1900, were: San Francisco, 342,782; Los Angeles, 102,479; Oakland, 66,960; and Sacramento, 29,282.

Finance.-On January 1, 1901, there was a balance in the treasury of $7,412,229.94. The receipts for the year ending December 31, 1901, were $9,863,617.14, making a total of $17,275,847.08. The expenditures for the year were $10,044,918.08, leaving a balance in the treasury December 31, 1901, of $7,230,929. The State debt at the end of the year was $2,281,500, al: bonded. This was neither increased nor diminished during 1901. All the funded debt bonds are owned by the State and held in trust for the schools and the State university, and the interest paid at the rate of 6 per cent. per annum, is applied to the support of the schools and the university. Practically, the State has no debt. The State tax rate for the year 1901-02 is $.0048 per $1.00, while the total value of State property, as returned for taxation, is $1,241,705,803. For the banking interests of California, see article BANKS-BANKING.

Mining.-The value of the mining proc'ucts of California, which for many years after the rapid exploitation of gold between 1852 and 1860, showed a marked decrease, has again increased of late years, though the former totals have not again been equaled. In 1852, the output of gold alone was valued at $81,294,700, but from then on the value of the gold production declined and Colorado came to take the place of California as the first gold-producing State. The total value of all minerals produced in California in 1900 was valued at $32,622,945, an increase of nearly 50 per cent. for 1893, when the output was valued at $18,811,261. Gold, however, still remains the most valuable mining interest of the State, the yearly output being between $16,000,000 and $17,000,000. Second in value to the output of gold is that of copper, the principal minerals in the order of their commercial importance being gold, copper, petroleum, silver, quicksilver, and borax. Marked advances were made in 1901 in the mining of copper, petroleum, and quicksilver. The value of petroleum to Californian industries is much greater than its actual commercial value for the reason that the high prices for coal have heretofore acted to check the development and expansion of industrial and manufacturing concerns. The oil-producing wells in Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Barbara counties have proved extremely profitable, since the oil may be shipped either by rail or by water, and low transportation rates have thereby been insured. In Fresno and Kern counties in the interior, however, there has been much discontent over the railroad rates, and to avert these, pipe lines have been projected to the coast. Many new mines have been opened for the production of copper. In 1900 the copper output was valued at $4,748,242, and it is believed that this value will be considerably increased in 1901. This industry has had


CALIFORNIA OIL FIELDS.—Wells in City of Los Angeles (l'pper). Wells at Sum

merfield (Lower). Courtesy National Oil Reporter.

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